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外文翻译--微模具制造中聚焦离子束技术的调查 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--微模具制造中聚焦离子束技术的调查 英文版.pdf

MicroelectronicEngineering562001333–338InvestigationofmicrolensmoldfabricatedbyfocusedionbeamtechnologyY.FuPrecisionEngineeringandNanotechnologyCenter,SchoolofMechanicalandProductionEngineering,NanyangTechnologicalUniversity,NanyangAvenue,Singapore639798,SingaporeAccepted25April2001AbstractAnovelfabricationmethodofmicrolensmold,focusedionbeamFIBmilling,ispresentedinthispaper.Substrateswithdifferentmaterials,copper,nickel,andbulksilicon,wereusedinordertocomparetheirmillingquality.Twodimensionalprofilesandsurfaceroughnessofthefabricatedmoldsweremeasuredusingalaserinterferometer.Finally,themoldwasusedforhotembossingreplication.ThesurfaceroughnessRvalueofthereplicaisabout8nm,andtheprofileisneatandasymmetric.Measuredsizesofthereplicacoincidewellwiththatofthedesign.KeywordsMicrolensmoldFIBmillingHotembossingReplication1.IntroductionConventionalfabricationmethodsofmoldingformicrolensandopticalcomponentsarelithographypatterningandelectroplating1–6.Fabricationerrorislargeduetoaccumulatederrorduringmanyprocedures.Anovelmicromachiningmethodformicrolensmolding,focusedionbeammilling,ispresentedinthispaper.Comparedwithconventionalmethods,ithasthefollowingadvantagesitisaonestepmachining,andnootherproceduresareneeded,thereforemanufacturingerrorislessthanthatoftheconventionalmethodsthematerialofthemoldcanbeglass,silicon,metalorothernonmetalmachiningaccuracycanbecontrolledeasierusingcomputerprogrammingduringthemillingprocess.Substrateswithdifferentmaterials,copper,nickelandbulksilicon,wereusedtocomparetheirmillingTel.1657906875fax1657911859.Emailaddressmfuyqntu.edu.sgY.Fu.334Y.Fu/MicroelectronicEngineering562001333–338quality.Experimentalresultsofthereplicationbyhotembossingforthemicrolensarepresentedinthispaper.2.MoldmicrofabricationusingFIBmillingThemillingexperimentswerecarriedoutusingourfocusedionbeamFIBmachineMicrion9500EXwiththeliquidgalliumionsourceintegratedwithscanningelectronmicroscopySEM,energydispersionXrayspectrometryEDXfacilitiesandgasassistedetchingGAEfunctions.This1equipmentusesafocusedGaionbeamwithenergybetween5and50keV,aprobecurrentbetween4pAand19.7nAandabeamlimitingaperturesizebetween25and350mm.Forthesmallestbeamcurrents,thebeamcanbefocuseddownto7nmindiameteratfullwidthandhalfmagnitudeFWHM.Themicrolensmoldisdesignedwithdiameterof70mm,adepthof3.45mm,aradiuscurvatureof180mmandsphericalform.Themoldmillingprocessiscontrolledbyacomputerprogram,inwhichtheparametersofmachiningandthemoldwereset.FabricationprocesswasintroducedindetailinRefs.7–10.Inordertostudythemoldmillingperformancefordifferentmaterials,substratesofnickel,copperandbulksiliconwereusedfortrials.Afterfinishingthemold,hotembossingwascarriedoutusingapressuremachinewithaheatingandthermalcontrolsystem,withPolycarbonate2800Bayer.Themoldingwascompletedunderthefollowingconditionstemperature,3408Fpressure,2000lb|8.8kN.3.ExperimentalresultsanddiscussionDesignedmicrolensparametersareasfollowsdiameter,70mmsagheight,3.45mmNAvalue,0.1workingunderwavelengthof633mm.Fig.1showsthemicrolensmoldmanufacturedbyFIBmillingonthesubstratewithcopper.Fig.2showsthetwodimensionalprofileofthemoldmeasuredusingtheWYKONT2000laserinterferometer.Itcanbeseenthatthesurfaceofthemoldisnotsmooth,withsomedefectsononesideofthemold.Thetwodimensionalprofileshowsthatthesurfaceofthemoldisveryrough,andFig.1.Microlensmoldwithcoppermaterial,milledbyFIB.Y.Fu/MicroelectronicEngineering562001333–338335Fig.2.CoppermoldprofilemeasuredbytheWYKONT2000laserinterferometer.theformisirregular.Figs.3and4showmillingandmeasuringresultsforthemoldwithnickelmaterial.Ascanbeseen,theresultsarenotideal,andsimilartothepreviouscase.Figs.5and6showmillingandmeasuringresultsforthemoldwithbulksilicon.Itcanbeseenthatthemillingresultisidealwithasmoothsurface,andaneatandsymmetricprofile.ThemeasuredsurfaceroughnessRvalueis2.5nm.Fig.7showsascanningelectronmicroscopeSEMamicrographofa636microlensmoldarraymilledbyFIBonbulksilicon.Itstwodimensionalprofiledatameasuredbytheinterferometeristransferredinordertocomparewiththedesignedprofile,asshowninFig.8.Ascanbeseen,thesetwoprofilescoincidewell.Itcanbeseenthatthemoldqualityforbulksiliconisbetterthanthemetalmaterials.ThepossiblereasonisthatthemillingprocessisapurephysicalcollisionprocessbetweenpositiveionsandmetalFig.3.MicrolensmoldwithnickelmaterialmilledbyFIB.Fig.4.NickelmicrolensmoldprofilemeasuredbytheWYKONT2000laserinterferometer.336Y.Fu/MicroelectronicEngineering562001333–338Fig.5.MicrolensmoldmilledbyFIBonbulksiliconmaterial.Fig.6.ProfileofthemicrolensmoldmilledbyFIBonbulksiliconmaterialmeasuredbytheWYKONT2000laserinterferometer.Fig.7.MicrolensmoldarraymilledbyFIBonbulksiliconmaterial.Fig.8.ComparisonofprofilesfordesignedmoldandmachinedmoldusingFIB.

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