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外文翻译--洗碗机和洗衣机加热热水循环回路【优秀-带出处】.doc

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外文翻译--洗碗机和洗衣机加热热水循环回路【优秀-带出处】.doc

毕业设计(论文)相关资料题目灌装生产线上灌装阀的设计信机系机械工程及自动化专业学号学生姓名指导教师(职称副教授)(职称)2012年5月25日英文原文DishwasherandwashingmachineheatedbyahotwatercirculationloopTomasPerssonSolarEnergyResearchCenterSERC,Ho¨gskolanDalarna,78188Borla¨nge,SwedenReceived14November2005accepted6May2006Availableonline30June2006AbstractElectricenergy70–90usedbyelectricallyheateddishwashersandwashingmachinesisusedforheatingthewater,thecrockery,thelaundryandthemachineandcouldaswellbereplacedbyheatfromothersourcesthanelectricity.Thisarticleevaluatesprototypesofadishwasherandawashingmachine,wherethemachinesareheatedbyahotwatercirculationloopandtheheatistransferredtothemachinesviaaheatexchanger.Themachinethereforeuseswaterfromthecoldwaterpipe.Measurementsandsimulationshavebeenperformedshowingthatallenergyforheatingcanbereplacedifthesupplywatertemperatureis65–70_C.Analternativeandcommonwaytosaveelectricityistoconnectthemachinestothedomestichotwaterpipe,buttheelectricalsavingswiththismeasurearemuchsmaller,especiallyforthedishwasher.Computermodellinghasbeenperformedandthemodelhasprovedtohaveahighagreementwithmeasureddata.Howevercomparisonwithmanufacturersdataindicatesthatthecomputermodelsoverestimatetheenergydemandbyabout10.2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsDishwasherClotheswasherWashingmachineDomesticappliancesHeatexchanger1.IntroductionInordertosaveelectricityfordishwashersandwashingmachinesitiscommontoconnectthemtothehotwaterpipehotwaterfedmachines.Asmodernmachinesuseverylittlewatertheheatingofthecrockery/clothesandthemachineitselfrequirealargepartoftheelectricityforheating.Thusnotallelectricityforheatingcanbereplacedbyhotwaterfedmachines.Inadditionthewashingperformancewillbeworsebecausealbuminoidalsubstancesarebetterremovedincoldwater8.Inthisarticleprototypesaremeasuredandsimulationmodelsaredevelopedandverifiedforadishwasherandawashingmachineconnectedtothecoldwaterpipethatisheatedbyacirculatinghotwatercircuitviaaheatexchangerbuiltintothemachineheatfedmachines.Prototypesofawashingmachineandatumbledryerwheretheheatistransferredtothemachinebyacirculatinghotwatercircuitandaheatexchangerbuiltinthemachinehavebeendevelopedandevaluatedby18.Thewashingmachinehasatubeheatexchangerbuiltinthebottomofthewashdrum.Accordingtofieldtestsby18theelectricitydemandforthewashingmachinecouldbebroughtdownfrom3.78MJconventionalto0.83MJforonecycle,howeverthetubepacketincreasedthewaterconsumptionandtherebytheenergydemandforheating.Themachinesusedinthisstudyareequippedwithapipeinpipeheatexchangeranddoesnotneedanyextrawater.Accordingto8amoderndishwasheruse3.78MJ1.05kWhpercycle,where3.33MJ0.924kWhiselectricityforheating.Awashingmachineon60_Cuse3.42MJ0.95kWh,where2.74MJ0.76kWhiselectricityforheating.Accordingtotheenergydeclarationby12,adishwasherisassumedtobeused220times/yrandawashingmachine200times/yr11,thustheannualelectricitydemandforthedishwasherandthewashingmachineis1516MJwhere1280MJisusedforheating.InSweden,forexample,with9millioninhabitantsthereare1.3milliondishwashersand2.1millionwashingmachinesinhouseholds9.Withthefiguresabovethetotaluseofelectricityforheatingwouldbe2.5PJ0.7TWhcorrespondingto0.5ofthetotalelectricityusedinSweden16.InAustriawith8millioninhabitantsthedishwashersandthewashingmachinesareestimatedtousein1.1TWhin19997.2.Theprototypes2.1.ThedishwasherAdishwasherforhouseholdsCylindaDW20.1wasrebuiltaccordingtoFig.1.TheheatexchangerFig.2isapipeinpipeheatexchangermadefromaninternalcopperpipeof22mmandanexternalcopperpipewithdiameter28mm.Thepipegoingtotheuppersprayarmisreplacedbytheheatexchangerandthewashingwaterispumpedthroughtheinnerpipeoftheheatexchanger.Theflowrateintheinternalpipeishighroughly0.6kg/s.Thehotwaterfromtheheatingcircuitwithaflowrateofroughly0.03kg/sflowsinthegapbetweentheinnerandtheouterpipesintheheatexchanger.Tomaximisetheheattransferandtokeeptheinnerpipecentred,whentheheatexchangerisbent,a1.5mmcopperwirewaswoundroundtheinnerpipeFig.2.Thelengthoftheheatexchangerwas1.47m.ThecontrolstrategywasmodifiedsowhenthemachinecalledforheatthehotthesolenoidvalveSV1,Fig.1openedandwaterfromabufferstoragetankstartedtocirculatethroughtheheatexchanger.Whenthetemperatureinthebufferstoragetankwas5_Cwarmerthanthewaterinthedishwasher,thecirculationstoppedandtheelectricFig.1.Outlinediagramofthedishwasherandwashingmachineprototypes.Inthedishwasherthepipegoingtotheuppersprayarmisreplacedbytheheatexchanger.InthewashingmachineanewpumpP2pumpsthewashwaterthroughtheheatexchanger.Twoexistingconnectionswereusedtoconnecttheheatexchangertothewashdrum.ThehotwaterflowrateduringtheheatingphasesiscontrolledbythesolenoidvalvesSV1andSV2.NomenclatureeWrelativeerrorintransferredenergythroughthemotorortheheatexchangerePrelativeerrorintransferredheatratethroughtheheatexchangerPpower,heatrateWPmmeasuredheatratethroughtheheatexchangerWPccalculatedheatratethroughtheheatexchangerWttime,timeforthewashingsequencesTtemperatureK,_CTDHWdomestichotwatertemperatureK,_CTflowflowtemperaturesupplywatertemperatureK,_CWenergyJWccalculatedtransferredenergythroughtheheatexchangerJWmmeasuredtransferredenergythroughtheheatexchangerJHotwaterfromtheheatsourceHotwaterreturnWashwaterfromthepumpP1/P225mmFig.2.Theconstructionoftheheatexchanger.Theouterpipeisremovedandthespiralbetweenthepipesisvisible.T.Persson/AppliedThermalEngineering272007120–128121auxiliaryheaterinthemachinecontinuedtheheatingprocessuntiltherequiredtemperaturehadbeenreached.2.2.ThewashingmachineAwashingmachineforhouseholds,aCylindaWM33A,wasequippedwitha1.3mlongsimilarheatexchangeraswasusedinthedishwasher.TheheatexchangerwasplacedoutsidethemachineFig.1andawaterpumpP2wasusedtopumpthewashingwaterthroughtheheatexchanger.Intheprototypetwoexistingconnectionsinthebottomofthemachinewereused,butabetteroption,ensuringproperdrainingoftheheatexchanger,wouldbetoconnecttheoutletoftheheatexchangertothetopofthewashdrum.ThecontrolstrategywassimilartotheoneusedforthedishwasherSection2.1,butinthewashingmachinethewaterpumpP2,alsostartduringtheheatingperiods.3.MethodTheworkinthisstudyhasbeencarriedoutinanumberofstages,assummarisedbelow.1.

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