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外文翻译--链式自动换刀臂的多阶段优化设计 英文版【优秀】.pdf

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外文翻译--链式自动换刀臂的多阶段优化设计 英文版【优秀】.pdf

J.Cent.SouthUniv.201219174−178DOI10.1007/s11771−012−0988−3MultistageoptimumdesignofmagazinetypeautomatictoolchangerarmKIMJaeHyun,LEEChoonManSchoolofMechatronics,ChangwonNationalUniversity,Changwon641773,Korea©CentralSouthUniversityPressandSpringerVerlagBerlinHeidelberg2012AbstractToenhancemachiningefficiency,toolchangetimehastobereduced.Thus,foranautomatictoolchangerattachedtoamachiningcenter,thetoolchangetimeistobereduced.Alsotheautomatictoolchangerisamainpartofthemachiningcenterasadrivingsource.Thestaticattributesoftheautomatictoolchangerusingthecommercialcode,ANSYSWorkbenchV12,weretriedtointerpret.Andtheoptimumdesignofautomatictoolchangerarmwasproposedbyperformingthemultistageoptimumdesign.Theshapeoptimizationoftheautomatictoolchangerwasproposedandtheresultwasverifiedtoobtainacceptableimprovements.Itispossibletoobtainanoptimizedmodelinwhichthemaximumdeformation,maximumstress,andmassarereducedby10.46,12.89and9.26,respectively,comparedwiththoseoftheinitialmodel.Also,theresultsbetweenconventionalmethodbythedesignofexperimentsandproposedmethodbythemultistageoptimumdesignmethodwerecompared.Keywordsautomatictoolchangeroptimumdesignstructuralanalysisexchangearm1IntroductionRecently,inmachinemanufacturingindustries,moldsandmachinepartshavebeenchangedtosmallquantitybatchproductionsystem.Also,improvementsinproductivityandcuttingratearerequired.Whereas,itistruethathighqualityandlowcostaretobetargetedfromapracticalstandpoint.Therefore,themachinetoolsforsuchaimspursuetoachievehighspeedprocessing,implementautomation,andreducedleadtime.Asaresult,itispossibletocheckthestatesoftoolsandworkpiecesusingpropersensorsinthemachinetools.Inaddition,amachiningcenterbasedonanautomatictoolchangerATCandanautomaticpalletchangerAPCaimstooperateanunattendedoperationfactoryfor24h.Theautomatictoolchangerstoresthetoolsusedinamachiningcentertoitsmagazineandchangesthetoolsautomaticallyasrequired.ThetoolchangedbysuchATCispreciselyequippedtoaspindle1.Also,itrepresentsanadvantagethatanoperatorofthemachiningcenterisabletoengageinotherworksduetothelessinterferenceforthemachinetools.Thatistosay,theoperatorcancontrolothermachinetoolsorpreparethenextworkpieces,whichleadstoreducedproductiontime.ThemagazinetypeATCusedinthisstudyrepresentsafeaturethatmanytoolsarestoredinthemagazine.Inthechangeoftools,twoarmsmovetochangetheequippedtooltothenexttoolbyrotatingthemby180°inadirectlychangedmanner2.Thus,itisnecessarytoensurethetechnologiesforboththestructuralcharacteristicsofarmsandthedesignoflightweightsimultaneously.Inactualindustrialfields,designoptimizationisveryimportant.Therefore,variousoptimizationmethodsarepresentedfortheoptimizationofvariousmechanicalparts3.SONGetal4presentedoptimizationdesignoftheshortjournalbearingbyusingenhancedartificiallifeoptimizationalgorithm.ALLAIREetal5combinedthetopologicalandshapederivationsonthestructuraloptimization.BAGCIandAYKUT6presentedTaguchioptimizationtoverifytheoptimumsurfaceroughnessoftheCNCmilling.LAMBERTI7presentedadesignoptimizationalgorithmbasedonsimulatedannealingfortrussstructures.SEKULSKI8presentedthatthegeneticalgorithmcanbeanefficientmultiobjectiveoptimizationtoolforsimultaneousdesignofthetopologyandsizingofshipstructures.SEOetal9presentedshapeoptimizationanditsextensiontotopologicaldesignbasedonisogeometricanalysis.InoptimizingtheATCarm,thefactorsofthestructuralcharacteristicsandthelightweightarecontrarytoeachother10.Itshowsatradeoffthatifitpursuestoimprovethelightweightinstructures,thestructuralcharacteristicswillrepresentaweakness,andiftheFoundationitemWorkRTI040103supportedbyGrantfromRegionalTechnologyInnovationProgramoftheMinistryofKnowledgeEconomyMKE,KoreaReceiveddate2011−04−26Accepteddate2011−10−10CorrespondingauthorLEEChoonMan,Professor,PhDTel82−55−213−3622Emailcmleechangwon.ac.krJ.Cent.SouthUniv.201219174−178175structuralcharacteristicsareimproved,theachievementofthelightweightisdifficult.Therefore,forsatisfyingthesecontraryfactorsandoptimizingthem,theoptimizationofsucharmshapesindifferentwayispresentedbyusingthedesignofexperiments11.Inthisstudy,forachievingamoreimprovedoptimizationmodelthanthepreviousstudy11,amultistageoptimumdesignwasperformed.Theoptimumdesignwaspresentedusingthecommercialanalysisprograms,CATIAV5andANSYSWorkbench,andtheanalyticvaliditywasinvestigatedthroughcomparingtheinitialandconventionaloptimizedmodelswiththeoptimizedmodelimplementedinthisstudy.2StructureofATCATCconsistsofthreeelements,suchasmagazinepart,changerpart,andarmpart.Themagazinepartisadevicethatstoresmanytoolsandchangestoolsusingservomotors.Thechangerpartisequippedwithservomotors,whichrotatearms.Thearmpartshowsanarmshapeandchangestoolsbygearingthetoolsinthespindleandmagazineinamachiningcenterbyrotatingthemby180°.Figure1illustratestheentirestructureoftheATCmodelledbyusingtheCATIAV5R17.Fig.1StructureofmagazinetypeATCThestructuralanalysisoftheinitialmodelofthearmwasperformed.Regardingthereferenceoftheperformedfiniteelementanalysis,thefiniteelementanalysisoftheinitialmodelwascarriedoutusingthecommercialanalysisprogram,AnsysWorkbenchV12.Theanalysiswasperformedbyminimizingtheadditionalpartemployedinthearm.Intheanalysismethod,ahexdominantmethodwasappliedinwhichafiniteelementanalysishadtotally51794nodesand13496elements.Figure2showstheinitialfiniteelementmodelofthearm.Fig.2InitialfiniteelementmodelofarmFortheboundaryconditionsintheanalysis,theholeatthecenteroftheATCarmwassupported,andthegravitationalaccelerationwasappliedtotheentirebody.Intheloadconditions,aloadof147Nwasappliedtotheclampsatbothendsforconsideringthemaximumweightofthetools.TheresultsofthestructuralanalysisarepresentedinFig.3.Themaximumdeformationoftheinitialmodelattheclampsis5.7487μmandoccursatbothends.Also,themaximumstressisgeneratedattheedgeofthesection,whichpushestherearfingeroftheATCarm,andispresentedby4.1762MPa.Fig.3StructuralanalysisofarmaDeformationdistributionbStressdistribution3MultistageoptimizationofarmThestaticcompliance,fxD/F,canbepresentedbyaninversenumberofthestaticstiffness.Inparticular,insomemachinestructureslikemachinetoolsandindustrialrobotsthatrequirehighaccuracyandmachiningefficiency,itbecomesthemostimportantstaticcharacteristicaswellasthestructureweightwherethesefactorsaretobecomprehensivelyandsimultaneouslyevaluated.Asmentionedabove,theoptimizationofthestaticissueisdeterminedasthestaticcharacteristicofthesetwoobjectivefunctionsandtheminimizationissueoftheweight12.J.Cent.SouthUniv.201219174−178176Thus,inthisstudy,theoptimizationisperformedasamultistagemannerforsatisfyingeachobjectivefunction.Thefirststageisconfiguredasastagethatimprovesthestaticcharacteristics.Bydefiningdesignfactorsthatminimizethedeformation,anoptimummodelcanbeinduced.Thesecondstageisdeterminedasastageforimplementingitslightweight.Basedontheoptimummodelpresentedinthefirststage,theshapeoptimizationisperformedbyaimingareductioninitsweightby10.3.1FirststageofoptimumdesignofarmInthefirststageoftheoptimumdesign,theoptimumdesignaimstominimizethedeformationofthearm.Figure4illustratesthedesignvariablesofthearm.Fig.4FactorsofATCarmThegeneralformalizationforthedimensionandtheoptimumshapedesigncanbepresentedbydefiningobjectivefunctionsandlimitationconditionfunctions13−15.ForimplementingtheoptimumdesignfortheATCarm,theformalizationisdeterminedasfollowsFindXMinimizedeformationXSubjecttoσ≤σaδ≤δaΦL≤A,B,C≤ΦUΦA,B,CXA,B,CwhereXrepresentsoneofthedesignvariables,andσandδshowthestressanddeformation,respectively.Also,σaandδashowtheallowancevaluesforthestressanddeformation,respectively.ThetermsofA,B,andCarethedesignvariables.Thedesignvariablesareconfiguredby±30mminordernottopresenttheinfluencesofthecollisionandinterferenceinstructuresonthedesign.Intheoptimumdesign,theoptimumsolutioncanminimizethedeformationofthearmusingtheCATIAV5Productengineeringoptimizer.Table1givestheresultsoftheoptimization.Figure5illustratestheresultsofthestructuralanalysisoftheoptimaldesignedarm.Theboundaryconditionsintheanalysisareconfiguredasthesameastheexistinginitialmodel.Table1ResultsofoptimizationforreducingdeformationFactorInitialmodelOptimaldesignedmodelA/mm253.396B/mm7073.686C/mm2732.686Maximumdeformation/μm5.74874.6683Maximumstress/MPa4.17623.6072Fig.5StructuralanalysisofoptimizedarmforreducingdeformationaDeformationdistributionbStressdistribution3.2SecondstageofoptimumdesignofarmAchievingthelightweightofthearmisanimportantfactorforreducingthecostofworkpieces.Also,itispossibletoimprovetheeconomybyintroducingalightweightstructure16.Therefore,theoptimumdesignforimplementingthelightweightofthearmisperformedinthesecondstage.Thetargetinreducingthemassis10ofthearmbasedonthemodelproposedinthefirststageoftheoptimumdesign.Forreducingthemassofthearm,theshapeoptimizationiscarriedoutusingtheANSYSWorkbenchshapeoptimizationfunction.TheformalizationfortheoptimumdesigncanbepresentedasfollowsFindZMinimizemassZSubjecttoσ≤σaδ≤δaΦL≤Φr≤ΦUZΦrwhereZisoneofthedesignvariables,σandδshowthestressanddeformation,respectively,andσaandδaaretheallowancevaluesforthestressanddeformation,respectively.Also,thedesignvariable,Φr,isconfiguredJ.Cent.SouthUniv.201219174−178177tofindallsectionsinwhichthemassreductionispossibleexceptforthesections,whichhavesomelimitationsinthedesign.Figure6illustratestheresultsoftheoptimumsolutionthatminimizesthedeformationofthearm.AsshowninFig.6,thesectionpresentedbyRemoverepresentsamassreduciblesectionbyremovingit.Basedontheresults,thereduciblesectionsareremovedtoamaximumlevel.Figure7showstheproposedoptimumshapeforlightweightofthearmbasedontheresultsoftheshapeoptimization.Fig.6ResultofshapeoptimizationusingANSYSFig.7RedesignofarmThestructuralanalysisisperformedusingtheproposedoptimumdesign.Also,theboundaryconditionsintheanalysisareappliedasthesameastheexistinginitialmodel.Figure8showstheresultsofthestructuralanalysis,whichiscarriedoutthroughapplyingtheoptimumshape.Fig.8StructuralanalysisofoptimizedarmforlightweightaDeformationdistributionbStressdistributionThemaximumdeformationofthemodel,whichappliestheoptimaldesign,isreducedfrom5.7487μmpresentedintheinitialmodelto5.1475μmbyasmuchas10.46andgeneratedattheendoftheclampasthesameastheinitialmodel.Also,themaximumstressisreducedfrom4.1762MPapresentedintheinitialmodelto3.6379MPabyasmuchas12.89.Inaddition,themassisreducedfrom7.8712kgpresentedintheinitialmodelto7.1425kgbyasmuchas9.26.Table2presentstheresultsofthecomparisonoftheoptimumdesign11usingthedesignofexperimentsperformedwiththemultistageoptimumdesignimplementedinthisstudy.Table2ComparisonofresultsPropertyInitialmodelAConventionalmethodBProposedoptimizationmethodCRatioofAtoC/RatioofBtoC/Maximumdeformation/μm5.74875.21975.147510.461.38Maximumstress/MPa4.17624.1633.637912.8912.61Mass/kg7.87127.56837.14259.265.63Inthecomparisonoftheresultsobtainedinthisstudywiththeresultsofthedesignofexperiments,themaximumdeformation,maximumstress,andmassarereducedby1.38,12.61,and5.63,respectively.Thus,itcanbeseenthatthemultistagedesignusingtheCATIAandANSYSperformedinthisstudymakespossibletodrawmoreimprovedoptimumdesignthantheexistingstudy.4Conclusions1Byperformingthemultistageoptimumdesign,itispossibletoobtainanoptimizedmodelinwhichthemaximumdeformation,maximumstress,andmassarereducedby10.46,12.89,and9.26,respectively,comparedwiththoseoftheinitialmodel.2Inthecomparisonoftheoptimumdesignbetweenthemultistageoptimumdesignandthepreviouslyperformeddesignofexperiments,themaximumdeformation,maximumstress,andmassarereducedby1.38,12.61and5.63,respectively.3Bycomparingtheresultsbetweenconventionalmethodbythedesignofexperimentsandproposedmethodbythemultistageoptimumdesign,itisverifiedwhethertheoptimumdesigniscarriedoutproperly.4BasedonverificationofusingcommercialprogramsofCATIAandANSYSformultistageoptimumdesign,itisexpectedthatitcanbeappliedtotheoptimumdesignofmachinetoolstructures.

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