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外文翻译--ERP系统——进展.doc

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外文翻译--ERP系统——进展.doc

中华人民共和国教育部东北林业大学外文文献论文题目银行学生助学贷款管理系统学生指导教师讲师学院信息与计算机工程学院专业信息管理与信息系统2001级3班2005年6月1Inthepastdecadethebusinessenvironmenthaschangeddramatically.Theworldhasbecomeasmallandverydynamicmarketplace.Organizationstodayconfrontnewmarkets,newcompetitionandincreasingcustomerexpectations.Thishasputatremendousdemandonmanufacturersto1Lowertotalcostsinthecompletesupplychain2Shortenthroughputtimes3Reducestocktoaminimum4Enlargeproductassortment5Improveproductquality6Providemorereliabledeliverydatesandhigherservicetothecustomer7Efficientlycoordinateglobaldemand,supplyandproduction.Thustodaysorganizationhavetoconstantlyreengineertheirbusinesspracticesandprocedurestobemoreandmoreresponsivetocustomersandcompetition.Inthe1990sinformationtechnologyandbusinessprocessreengineering,usedinconjunctionwitheachother,haveemergedasimportanttoolswhichgiveorganizationstheleadingedge.ERPSystemsEvolutionThefocusofmanufacturingsystemsinthe1960swasoninventorycontrol.Mostofthesoftwarepackagesthenusuallycustomizedweredesignedtohandleinventorybasedontraditionalinventoryconcepts.Inthe1970sthefocusshiftedtoMRPMaterialRequirementPlanningsystemswhichtranslatedtheMasterSchedulebuiltfortheenditemsintotimephasednetrequirementsforthesubassemblies,componentsandrawmaterialsplanningandprocurement,Inthe1980stheconceptofMRPIIManufacturingResourcesPlanningevolvedwhichwasanextensionofMRPtoshopflooranddistributionmanagementactivities.Intheearly1990s,MRPIIwasfurtherextendedtocoverareaslikeEngineering,Finance,HumanResources,ProjectsManagementetci.e.thecompletegamutofactivitieswithinanybusinessenterprise.Hence,thetermERPEnterpriseResourcePlanningwascoined.Inadditiontosystemrequirements,ERPaddressestechnologyaspectslikeclient/serverdistributedarchitecture,RDBMS,objectorientedprogrammingetc.ERPSystemsBandwidthERPsolutionsaddressbroadareaswithinanybusinesslikeManufacturing,Distribution,Finance,ProjectManagement,ServiceandMaintenance,Transportationetc.Aseamlessintegrationisessentialtoprovidevisibilityandconsistencyacrosstheenterprise.AnERPsystemshouldbesufficientlyversatiletosupportdifferentmanufacturingenvironmentslikemaketostock,assembletoorderandengineertoorder.ThecustomerorderdecouplingpointCODPshouldbeflexibleenoughtoallowthecoexistenceofthesemanufacturingenvironmentswithinthesamesystem.Itisalsoverylikelythatthesameproductmaymigratefromonemanufacturingenvironmenttoanotherduringitsproducelifecycle.ThesystemshouldbecompleteenoughtosupportbothDiscreteaswellasProcessmanufacturingscenarios.Theefficiencyofanenterprisedependsonthequickflowofinformationacrossthecompletesupplychaini.e.fromthecustomertomanufacturerstosupplier.ThisplacesdemandsontheERPsystemtohaverichfunctionalityacrossallareaslikesales,accountsreceivable,engineering,planning,inventorymanagement,production,purchase,accountspayable,qualitymanagement,distributionplanningandexternaltransportation.EDIElectronicDataInterchangeisanimportanttoolinspeedingupcommunicationswithtradingpartners.Moreandmorecompaniesarebecomingglobalandfocusingondownsizinganddecentralizingtheirbusiness.ABBandNorthernTelecomareexamplesofcompanieswhichhavebusinessspreadaroundtheglobe.Forthesecompaniestomanagetheirbusinessefficiently,ERPsystemsneedtohaveextensivemultisitemanagementcapabilities.Thecompletefinancialaccountingandmanagementaccountingrequirementsoftheorganizationshouldbeaddressed.Itisnecessarytohavecentralizedordecentralizedaccountingfunctionswithcompleteflexibilitytoconsolidatecorporateinformation.Aftersalesserviceshouldbestreamlinedandmanagedefficiently.AstrongEISEnterpriseInformationSystemwithextensivedrilldowncapabilitiesshouldbeavailableforthetopmanagementtogetabirdseyeviewofthehealthoftheirorganizationandhelpthemtoanalyzeperformanceinkeyareas.EvaluationCriteriaSomeimportantpointstobekeptinmindwhileevaluatinganERPsoftwareinclude1FunctionalfitwiththeCompanysbusinessprocesses2DegreeofintegrationbetweenthevariouscomponentsoftheERPsystem3Flexibilityandscalability4Complexityuserfriendliness5QuickimplementationshortenedROIperiod6Abilitytosupportmultisiteplanningandcontrol7Technologyclient/servercapabilities,databaseindependence,security8Availabilityofregularupgrades9Amountofcustomizationrequired10LocalsupportinfrastructureIIAvailabilityofreferencesites12Totalcosts,includingcostoflicense,training,implementation,maintenance,customizationandhardwarerequirements.ERPSystemsImplementationThesuccessofanERPsolutiondependsonhowquickthebenefitscanbereapedfromit.ThisnecessitatesrapidimplementationswhichleadtoshortenedROIperiods.TraditionalapproachtoimplementationhasbeentocarryoutaBusinessProcessReengineeringexerciseanddefineaTOBEmodelbeforetheERPsystemimplementation.ThisledtomismatchesbetweentheproposedmodelandtheERPfunctionality,theconsequenceofwhichwascustomizations,extendedimplementationtimeframes,highercostsandlossofuserconfidence.ERPSystemsTheFutureTheInternetrepresentsthenextmajortechnologyenablerwhichallowsrapidsupplychainmanagementbetweenmultipleoperationsandtradingpartners.MostERPsystemsareenhancingtheirproductstobecomeInternetEnabledsothatcustomersworldwidecanhavedirecttothesuppliersERPsystem.ERPsystemsarebuildingintheWorkflowManagementfunctionallywhichprovidesamechanismtomanageandcontroltheflowofworkbymonitoringlogisticaspectslikeworkload,capacity,throughouttimes,workqueuelengthsandprocessingtimes.

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