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高考英语知识串讲[1].doc

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高考英语知识串讲[1].doc

2008高考英语知识串讲第1讲一、LANGUAGEPOINTS1SHAREV分享、合用SHARESTHWITHSBN一份,股份SPAREA业余的,备用的SPARETIME,ASPARETIREV抽出,匀给SPAREMEFIVEMINUTES/SPAREONEOFSANDWICHESFORTHEBOYSPARENOEFFORTS不遗余力SPARENOEXPENSE不惜工本SAVEV节省,救出2HEFELTLUCKYTOHAVESURVIVEDTHEWAR3WITHSBABOUT/OVERSTH和某人就某事争论ARGUEFOR/AGAINSTSTH赞成/反对SBINTO/OUTOFDOINGSTH说服某人做/不做某事4HAVE/MAKE/LET/SEE/WATCH/LISTENTO宾宾补DO/DOING/DONEGETSBTODOSTHHAVE宾宾补TODO/TOBEDONE5SO同一主语助动词SO/NEITHER/NOR助动词另一主语SOITIS/WASWITH另一主语6SHOULD/OUGHTTO/NEED/COULD/MIGHT/WOULDDO/HAVEDONE7EXCEPT/BUT/EXCEPTFOR/EXCEPTTHAT/EXCEPTWHCLAUSEBESIDES/INADDITIONAPARTFROMBUTFORWITHOUT8THEFIRSTTIME从句FORTHEFIRSTTIME作时间状语IT’STHEFIRSTTIMETHATCLAUSE完成时THEFIRST名词TODO9MOSTMOSTOFTHENPL/PRONTHEMAJORITYOFTHEMOSTLY主要地(状)10BEEQUALTOSTH与相等BEEQUALTODOINGSTH胜任做某事EQUALSTH与相等EQUALSBINSTH在方面与某人匹敌11COMPARETO/WITHCOMPAREDTO/WITH12AGREATMANYSEVERAL/TWODOZEN/HUNDREDNPLMANYDOZENSOFAGREATMANYOFTHE/THESE/THOSENPLSEVEAL/TWODOZENOFPRON13MUCHTOOADJ/ADV原级TOOMUCHNUTOOMANYNPL14没有被动态COMEABOUT主要用于疑问句、否定句HAPPEN表示偶然、碰巧之意STHTAKEPLACE多表示有组织、有计划BREAKOUT指战争、灾害、疾病等的爆发OCCUR与HAPPEN通用ITOCCURSTOSBTHAT/TODO某人突然想起15N/PRON/ADJ/ADV/PREPPHRASETODO表将来WITH宾宾补DOING表正在进行DONE表过去16强调句型的判断方法如果将句子中的“ITBE”和“THAT”去掉,原句通顺则是强调句,否则就不是强调句。例ITWASINTHESTREETTHATIMETANOLDFRIENDYESTERDAY二、语法专题──名词的考点1考查可数名词和不可数名词,尤其是许多不可数名词在一定情况下变为可数名词。2考查名词的格,即’S所有格,OF所有格或双重所有格。3名词作定语。4名词及名词短语的辨析。5名词与介词,冠词,动词的搭配。三、题型归纳──辨析型单项填空1名词的辨析名词的辨析首先要注意名词单复数的意义区别,如PARENT指父亲或母亲,而PARENTS指父母双亲;PEOPLE指人们,而APEOPLE指民族。其次注意可数与不可数时的意义区别,如EXERCISE指锻炼;而EXERCISES指练习题或练习操;再次,注意同义名词或近义名词的区别,如EVENT指发生的重大事件、体育项目;INCIDENT指偶发事件;而ACCIDENT指意外事件。最后还要注意近形词的区别,如CLOTH指布;CLOTHS指各种不同用途的布;CLOTHES指衣服复数,CLOTHING衣服总称。2动词的辨析对于动词的辨析,首先要了解动词的及物与不及物,如REPLY意为“回答,答复”后面接名词时需接介词TO,此时为不及物动词;后接从句时,则为及物动词。其次是要弄清动词的词义区别,如ADVISE与PERSUADE,前者指劝说、劝告,强调过程;而后者指说服,强调结果。最后还要区别各种非谓语动词间的意义和用法动词的VING形式表示正在进行或伴随的动作;VED形式表示完成或被动;TODO形式表示即将进行的动作等。3形容词、副词的辨析对于形容词、副词,一是要注意近义词间的区别,如CLEVER指对问题处理的圆滑;BRIGHT指对问题的反应快;WISE指选择的正确等。此外,如WIDE与BROAD;STRONG与POWERFUL;INTERESTING与INTERESTED;EXCITING与EXCITED等。二是注意同形的形容词和副词,如CLOSE作形容词时意为“亲密的”;作副词时意为“接近,靠拢”。三是注意同根副词的区别,如HARD与HARDLY,前者指猛烈地、努力地;而后者意为几乎不。四是注意副词形式的形容词,如FRIENDLY,LOVELY,LIVELY实际上是形容词,切不可当作副词使用。五是注意形容词的位置区别,如PRESENTN与NPRESENT,前者指当前的;而后者指在场的。4介词的辨析对介词的辨析要从两方面入手,一是介词的词义,如ACROSS,THROUGH,PAST,OVER为动作介词,ACROSS强调从表面横过,越过;THROUGH强调从空间穿过;PAST强调从侧面、旁边经过;OVER强调从空中越过而不接触,也可以表示越过一段距离、空间等。此外,如ABOVE,OVER,ON;WITH,BY;OF,TO;TO,FOR的区别。5连词的辨析连词的区别主要在于一是连词的意义,如WHEN,WHILE与AS;BECAUSE,SINCE与FOR;WHETHER与IF;THOUGH,AS与ALTHOUGH等。二是注意时间名词短语转化而成的连词,如EVERY/EACHTIME;THEFIRST/SECONDTIME;THEMOMENT;THEMINUTE等,它们都可作连词,连接从句。三是注意副词转化而成的连词,如DIRECTLY,IMMEDIATELY,INSTANTLY等。四是注意连词的词序,如ONLYIF与IFONLY,前者意为“只要”,后者意为“要是就好了”。6代词的辨析代词的辨析包括不定代词,如OTHER,OTHERS,THEOTHER,THEOTHERS,ANOTHER等;人称代词,如ONE,IT,THAT等和关系代词,如WHICH与THAT;WHICH与AS;WHOSE与PREPWHICH/WHOM等。1DOESTHETEACHER____YOUTOGOHOMETHISWEEKENDAALLOWBCONSENTCAGREEDAPPROVE2AFTERTHEBIGFIRE,THEHOUSEWASCOMPLETELY____ARUINEDBDESTROYEDCDAMAGEDDSPOILED3THEHUNTERSAIDHEWASLUCKYTOGETOUTOFTHEFOREST____ALIVINGBALIVECLIVELYDLIVE4____TALKINGWITHHISGRANDMA,HEWENTAWAYWITHOUTSAYINGAWORDATIRINGWITHBTIRINGOFCTIREDWITHDTIREDOF5IT’SNECESSARYTOHAVESOME____KNOWLEDGEFORTHISJOBAELECTRICBELECTRICALCELCTRONDELECTRICITY6THEPHOTO____ONTHEWALLWASTAKENINBEIJINGLASTYEARAHANGBHANGINGCHUNGDHANGED7ONNEWYEAR’SDAY,PEOPLE,ESPECIALLYGIRLS,ALWAYSWEARNEW____NEWHATS,NEWCOATS,NEWTROUSERSANDNEWSHOESACLOTHESBCLOTHINGCCLOTHDCLOTHS8HESTAYSUP____INTHEEVENINGSTOGOONLINETOGETTHE____INFORMATIONALATE,LATESTBLATELY,LASTCLATE,LASTDLATEST,LATEST9____ISITTOASKHERABOUTHERABOUTTHATSHEDOESN’TKNOWITEITHERAWHATGOODBHOWGOODCWHATAGOODDHOWMUCHGOOD10____IHADDONEITIKNEWIHADMADEAMISTAKEAHARDLYBDIRECTLYCMOSTLYDNEARLY11ITISSAIDYOUWENTTOSEEJENNYYESTERDAYWHATHASBECOME___HERAFROMBOFCINTOD/12WHODOYOUTHINKWILLBEALLOWED____THERETOMORROWAVISITBTOVISITCVISITINGDVISITED13TODAYWECANEITHERFLYTOHAINANISLANDORTAKEASHIP___THESEAAINBACROSSCFROMINDACROSSFROM14YOUWILFINDWHATGREATBENEFITTHECOMPUTERYOUOWNCANBE____EACHTIMEYOUUSEITTOHELPYOUWORKAFORBOFCATDON15ITHOUGHTHEWASNOT____OFAPROFESSORTHEFIRSTTIMEIHEARDHIMSPEAKINGTOTHECHILDRENATTHEPLATFORMINTHEHALLOFOURSCHOOLASOMETHINGBANYTHINGCSOMEBODYDANYBODY16WE’VEMISSEDTHELASTBUSI’MAFRAIDWEHAVENO____BUTTOTAKEATAXIAWAYBCHOICECPOSSIBILITYDSELECTION17____STUDENTSHAVEGRADUATEDFROMTHISSCHOOLINTHELASTTWENTYYEARSATENSOFTHOUSANDSOFBTENSUPONTHOUSANDSOFCTENSINTHOUSANDSDTENTHOUSANDSOF18THEFARMERSPLANTOPRODUCETHREETIMES____INTHEYEARBEFORELASTTOMEETTHEINCREASINGNEEDOFTHEPEOPLEAOFCROPASMUCHTHISYEARASBASMUCHCROPTHISYEARASCASMORECROPTHISYEARASDMUCHCROPTHISYEARTHAN19ITHINKTHEHOUSEIS____LARGEFORAFAMILYOFFOURPEOPLEANDTHEPRICEISVERYREASONABLEATOOBRATHERCFAIRLYDALITTLE20HISMOTHERDISLIKESHIM,FORHE____LIESATELLSBISALWAYSTELLINGCHASTOLDDALWAYSTOLD15ABBDB610BBAAB1115BBDBB1620BABCB第2讲一、LANGUAGEPOINTS1SB/STHADJ/NSB/STHTODOCONSIDER以为,认为+SB/STHASTHATCLAUSENCONSIDER考虑+DOING疑问词TODOSTH“把当作”的译法CONSIDERASTHINKOF/LOOKON/TAKE/REGARD/TREAT/HAVEAS2TODOAWAYOFDOINGTHAT/INWHICH定语从句AMETHODOFDOINGSTHBYTHISMEANSYOUCANSOLVETHEPROBLEMWITHTHISMETHODINTHISWAYBYMEANSOF通过方式,以手段BYTHIS/THATMEANS通过这种/那种方式BYALLMEANS务必,一定;(用于回答)当然行,请BYNOMEANS决不,一点也不(用于句首时用倒装)3PROTECTFROMDOINGSTHPREVENT/STOPFROMDOINGSTHKEEPFROMDOINGKEEPDOINGUNDERTHEPOTECTIONOF4ASWELLASWELLASMIGHT/MAYASWELLHADBETTER5TODOSPECIALLYFORPHRASEESPECIALLY6ALONGTHERIVER沿着河流OVERTHERIVER在河的正上方THROUGHTHEFOREST穿过森林BYTHERIVER在河边ONTHEBANK在河岸上7FOLLOWTHEINSTRUCTIONSFOLLOWONE’SADVICEASFOLLOWS8BERESPONSIBLETOSBFORSTH9NDOING/TODOSTHSBTODOSTHPREFERSTHTOSTHDOINGATODOINGBTODOARATHERTHANDOSTHTHATSBSHOULDDOSTH10NAFTERNONENAFTERANOTHER一个接一个(强调动作的重复)NBYN一个接一个(强调动作的变化)TREEAFTERTREE/DAYBYDAY11SAY“HI”TOSBPLEASEREMEMBERMETOSB向“某人”问好SENDMYREGARDSTOSBSENDTHEBESTWISHESTOSB12主BEADJTODO不定式一般用主动式,与主语存在逻辑上的动宾关系,所以当不定式的动词是不及物动词时,则应在其后加上适当的介词。主BEADJTODOITBEADJFOR/OFSBTODOSTHEGTHISQUESTIONISDIFFICULTTOANSWERIT’SDIFFICULTTOANSWERTHEQUESTIONTHEMANISHARDTOWORKWITHIT’SHARDTOWORKWITHTHEMAN当不定式用作定语时,与其所修饰的词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,且主语为该动作的执行者时,也常常用主动形式。EGHEWANTSWATERTODRINKSHEHASAROOMTOLIVEINIWILLGOTOBEIJINGTOMORROWDOYOUHAVEANYTHINGTOBETAKENTHERE二、语法专题──冠词的考点1考查冠词的一些基本用法,例如复数名词、不可数名词表示泛指不用任何冠词;THE单数名词表类指;A/AN单数名词表泛指。2考查冠词的习惯用法。如INCASEOFFIRE,BEWOUNDEDINTHELEG,ONTHETELEPHONE,LEAVECOLLEGE等。3考查冠词的活用。如抽象名词的具体化,ASUCCESS;A/AN专有名词表泛指,ANEDISON。4考查零冠词的用法。三、题型归纳──结构型单项填空结构型试题常表现在句子中某些成分的省略、标点符号的出现、倒装或插入其他成分使前后分离等,从而引起句子结构的变化,扰乱对句子的判断。1有省略的复合句。由于宾语从句或定语从句中谓语部分行为动词的省略,导致对不定式作状语产生误解。2标点符号的影响。由于受汉语习惯的影响,往往会因为句子中的标点符号,弄错句子的结构。3插入语的影响。有些句子由于中间插入了某些成分,而使句子显得支离破碎,造成对句子结构的误解。4倒装句型的基本结构1完全倒装;2部分倒装1)在特殊疑问句和一般疑问句中;2)SO/NEITHER/NORDO/BE/HAVE/情态动词+主语;3)当虚拟语气的条件从句中省略IF时,WERE,HAD,和SHOULD应置于句首,采用倒装结构;4)表示祝愿的句子MAY主语动词原形;5)AS,THOUGH引导让步状语从句时提前部分AS主语谓语动词;6)表示否定意义的副词、介词短语和连词词组置于句首;7)当NOTUNTIL时间状语从句置于句首时,主句应采用倒装结构,而从句仍用正常语序;8)NOTONLYBUTALSO连接两个句子时,第一个句子采用倒装结构,第二个句子不采用倒装结构;9)NOSOONERTHAM,HARDLYWHEN,SCARCELYWHEN都表示“一就”,强调过去的两个动作接连发生,当NOSOONER,HARDLY和SCARCELY置于句首时,主句常把HAD置于主语之前,采用倒装结构,但从句不倒装。10)ONLY副词/介词短语/宾语/时间状语从句置于句首时,常采用倒装,但ONLY主语则不应采用倒装;11)在SO/SUCHTHAT引导的结果状语从句中,将SOADJ/ADV或SUCH置于句首时,其主句常采用倒装结构。5强调句型,感叹句,并列句的应用。6独立主格结构。1NTODO;2NDOING;3NDONE;4NPREPN;5NADJ/ADV;6NN;7WITHNTODO/DOING/DONE/ADJ/ADV/PREPN1HESAIDHEWOULDDOWHATHECOULD____USAHELPBTOHELPCHELPINGDHELPED2HESPENTALLTHEMONEYHEHAD____THATDICTIONARYABUYBTOBUYCBUYINGDBOUGHT3THEREAREMORETHANTHREETHOUSANDSTUDENTSINMYSCHOOL,MOSTOF____FROMTHECOUNTRYATHATBWHICHCWHOMDTHEM4ITISHISCLEVERNESS,NOTHISSTRENTH,____DEFEATEDHISRIVALATHATBWHICHCWHATDWHO5THEWAYYOUTHINKOF_____OURLIVINGCONDITIONSSOUNDSREASONABLEAIMPROVEBTOIMPROVECIMPROVINGDIMPROVEMENT6IFEELSTRONGLYTHATWHATEVERYOU____MATTERTOMEADON’TBDODOESN’TCDON’TDODDOESN’TDO7ISTHISSCHOOL____YOUSTUDIEDINTWOYEARSAGOATHATBWHENCITDTHEONE8PLEASETELLMETHEWAYTHOUGHTOF____THEGARDENATAKECAREOFBTOTAKECAREOFCTAKINGCAREOFDHOWTOTAKECAREOF9MRWANGWASMUCHDISAPPOINTEDTOSEETHEWASHINGMACHINEHEHADHAD____WENTWRONGAGAINAITREPAIREDBTOBEREPAIREDCREPAIREDDREPAIRING10WEWILLDOEVERYTHINGWECAN____OURCITYATOSAVEBSAVECSAVINGDSAVED11THEAIRQUALITYINBEIJINGASWELLASINTHENEIGHBORINGCITIESWEONCESPENTMUCHTIME____BETTERANDBETTERAINGETTINGBHAVINGGOTCINISGETTINGDHASGOT12WHODIDTHETEACHER,ASWELLASTHEMONITOR,____ANARTICLEFORTHEWALLNEWSPAPERAHASWRITEBHASWRITTENCHAVEWRITEDHAVEWRITTEN13WHATDOYOUCONSIDER____TOHERATOHAPPENBHAPPENINGCHAPPENEDDHAPPENS14MRREEDMADEUPHISMINDTODEVOTEALLHEHADTO____SOMESCHOOLSFORPOORCHILDRENASETUPBSETTINGUPCHAVESETUPDHAVINGSETUP15TOHISJOY,THEDAYHELOOKEDFORWARDTO____ATLASTACOMINGBCOMECCAMEDHAVECOME16HOWLONGDOYOUTHINKITIS____SHEARRIVEDHEREAWHENBTHATCBEFOREDSINCE15BCDAB610BDBCA1116CCCBCD第3讲一、LANGUAGEPOINTS1OWESBSTHOWESTHTOSB欠某人某物OWESTHTOSB/STH将归功于OWINGTO由于=THANKSTO/BECAUSEOF/DUETO2THINKHIGHLY/POORLY/LITTLE/ALOTOFSB/STHSPEAKHIGHLY/WELL/BADLYOFSB/STHSINGHIGHPRAISEFORSB/STH3APOLOGIZETOSBFORDOINGSTHMAKEANAPOLOGYTOSBFORDOINGSTHEXCUSESBFORDOINGSTHFORGIVESBFORDOINGSTHPARDONSBFORDOINGSTH4MAKEANIMPRESSIONONSBHAVEANIMPRESSIONOFSTHIMPRESSSTHON/UPONONE’SMIND5SERVEINTHEARMYONTHEOFFICESERVETHEPEOPLE/THEDISHSERVESBWITHSTHSERVESTHTOSBSERVEASTHECHAIRMAN6MAKEJOKESABOUT取笑,拿开玩笑=MAKEAJOKEABOUTLAUGHAT嘲笑HAVEAJOKEWITHSB开某人的玩笑PLAYAJOKEONSBPLAYTRICKSONSB戏弄INJOKE闹着玩,开玩笑7TODOIT’STIMEFORSTHFORSBTODOSTHTHATCLAUSE(一般过去时)8THEONE/ONES替代同类事物中特指一个或一些ONE替代上文提到的同类名词中的一个,表泛指IT指上文提到的同一个事物THAT替代上文出现的带定冠词的名词或不可数名词9NONE用来回答HOWMANY/HOWMUCH引导的问句,常与OF连用NOONE只能指人,用来回答WHO引导的问句NEITHER两者都不,表单数NOTHING用于指物,用来回答WHAT引导的问句10CLOTH布UAPIECEOFCLOTH表示某种特殊用途的布块(桌布)WIPEUPTHEWATERWITHACLOTHCLOTHES衣服,服装。是一个没有单数形式的复数名词ASUITOFCLOTHES注不能直接用数词修饰,但可用MANY,FEW,HIS,MY,THSE之类的词修饰,作主语时谓语动词用复数。CLOTHING服装,衣着。是一个无复数形式的物质名词,除衣服外,还包括幌子,手套,鞋袜之类的东西,作主语时谓语动词用单数。APIECEOFCLOTHING,ANARTCLEOFCLOTHINGDRESS指穿在外面的衣服,尤指在社交场合穿的礼服及妇女的连衣裙。SUIT成套的衣服。11LIVE活着,有生命的作定语,主要用来指鸟或其他动物,实况直播的LIVELY活泼的,有生气的,生动的ALIVE活着的,还有气儿的,是表语形容词,在句中作表语或后置定语LIVING活着,健在的,现行的12RECEIVE收到,接到客观动作;ACCEPT接受,领受主观意愿接受教育、惩罚、支持,遭受不幸,接待客人只用RECEIVE接受某条件、建议只用ACCEPT13TURNADJ常表示从某种状态向其他状态变化的自然现象THEWEATHERHASTURNEDMUCHCOLDERGOADJ常表示由好变坏的情况THEMILKWENTWRONG/BADBECOMEADJ强调施动者的作用或变化的结果PLEASEDON’TGETANGRYCOMEADJ一般表示向好的方面变化。MYDREAMHASCOMETRUE14含有插入语的疑问句WHATDOYOUTHINKHASHAPPENEDTOHIMHOWDOYOUSUPPOSETHEFILMWILLENDWHYDOYOUBELIEVEHEISUNFITFORTHEOFFICE15主从复合句的反意疑问句疑问部分根据主句确定,但是主句的主语是I/WE,谓语是THINK/SUPPOSE/BELIEVE/HOPE/IMAGINE/EXPECT/GUESS/KN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