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外文资料-Semi-automatic control system for hydraulic shovel.pdf

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外文资料-Semi-automatic control system for hydraulic shovel.pdf

ŽAUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION102001477–486WWWELSEVIERCOMRLOCATERAUTCONSEMIAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMFORHYDRAULICSHOVELHIROKAZUARAYA,MASAYUKIKAGOSHIMAMECHANICALENGINEERINGRESEARCHLABORATORY,KOBESTEEL,LTD,NISHIKU,KOBEHYOGO6512271,JAPANACCEPTED27JUNE2000ABSTRACTASEMIAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMFORAHYDRAULICSHOVELHASBEENDEVELOPEDUSINGTHISSYSTEM,UNSKILLEDOPERATORSCANOPERATEAHYDRAULICSHOVELEASILYANDACCURATELYAMATHEMATICALCONTROLMODELOFAHYDRAULICSHOVELWITHACONTROLLERWASCONSTRUCTEDANDACONTROLALGORITHMWASDEVELOPEDBYSIMULATIONTHISALGORITHMWASAPPLIEDTOAHYDRAULICSHOVELANDITSEFFECTIVENESSWASEVALUATEDHIGHCONTROLACCURACYANDHIGHSTABILITYPERFORMANCEWEREACHIEVEDBYFEEDBACKPLUSFEEDFORWARDCONTROL,NONLINEARCOMPENSATION,STATEFEEDBACKANDGAINSCHEDULINGACCORDINGTOTHEATTITUDEQ2001ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSCONSTRUCTIONMACHINERY;HYDRAULICSHOVEL;FEEDFORWARD;STATEFEEDBACK;OPERATION1INTRODUCTIONAHYDRAULICSHOVELISACONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYTHATCANBEREGARDEDASALARGEARTICULATEDROBOTDIGGINGANDLOADINGOPERATIONSUSINGTHISMACHINEREQUIREAHIGHLEVELOFSKILL,ANDCAUSECONSIDERABLEFATIGUEEVENINSKILLEDOPERATORSONTHEOTHERHAND,OPERATORSGROWOLDER,ANDTHENUMBEROFSKILLEDOPERATORSHASTHUSDECREASEDTHESITUATIONCALLSFORHYDRAULICSHOVELS,WHICHCANBEOPERATEDEASILYBYWXANYPERSON1–5THEREASONSWHYHYDRAULICSHOVELREQUIRESAHIGHLEVELOFSKILLAREASFOLLOWS1MORETHANTWOLEVERSMUSTBEOPERATEDSIMULTANEOUSLYANDADJUSTEDWELLINSUCHOPERATIONSCORRESPONDINGAUTHORŽEMAILADDRESSARAYAHRKNEDOGOJPHARAYA2THEDIRECTIONOFLEVEROPERATIONSISDIFFERENTFROMTHATOFASHOVEL’SATTACHMENTMOVEMENTFOREXAMPLE,INLEVELCROWDINGBYAHYDRAULICŽSHOVEL,WEMUSTOPERATETHREELEVERSARM,BOOM,BUCKETSIMULTANEOUSLYTOMOVETHETOPOFABUCKETŽALONGALEVELSURFACEFIG1INTHISCASE,THELEVEROPERATIONINDICATESTHEDIRECTIONOFTHEACTUATOR,BUTTHISDIRECTIONDIFFERSFROMTHEWORKINGDIRECTIONIFANOPERATORUSEONLYONELEVERANDOTHERFREEDOMSAREOPERATEDAUTOMATICALLY,THEOPERATIONBECOMESVERYEASILYWECALLTHISSYSTEMASEMIAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMWHENWEDEVELOPTHISSEMIAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEM,THESETWOTECHNICALPROBLEMSMUSTBESOLVED1WEMUSTUSEORDINARYCONTROLVALVESFORAUTOMATICCONTROL2WEMUSTCOMPENSATEDYNAMICCHARACTERISTICSOFAHYDRAULICSHOVELTOIMPROVETHEPRECISIONOFCONTROL09265805R01RSEEFRONTMATTERQ2001ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDŽPIIS0926580500000832HARAYA,MKAGOSHIMARAUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION102001477–486478FIG1LEVELCROWDINGOFANEXCAVATORANDFRAMEMODELOFANEXCAVATORWEHAVEDEVELOPEDACONTROLALGORITHMTOSOLVETHESETECHNICALPROBLEMSANDCONFIRMTHEEFFECTOFTHISCONTROLALGORITHMBYEXPERIMENTSWITHACTUALHYDRAULICSHOVELSUSINGTHISCONTROLALGORITHM,WEHAVECOMPLETEDASEMIAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMFORHYDRAULICSHOVELSWETHENREPORTTHESEITEMS2HYDRAULICSHOVELMODELTOSTUDYCONTROLALGORITHMS,WEHAVETOANALYZENUMERICALMODELSOFAHYDRAULICSHOVELTHEHYDRAULICSHOVEL,WHOSEBOOM,ARM,ANDBUCKETJOINTSAREHYDRAULICALLYDRIVEN,ISMODELEDASSHOWNINFIG2THEDETAILSOFTHEMODELAREDESCRIBEDINTHEFOLLOWING21DYNAMICMODEL6SUPPOSINGTHATEACHATTACHMENTISASOLIDBODY,FROMLAGRANGE’SEQUATIONSOFMOTION,THEFOLLOWINGEXPRESSIONSAREOBTAINED˙2˙2JUQJCOSUYUUQJCOSUYUUQJSINUYUUQJSINUYUUYKSINUSTŽŽŽŽ11L1212213133121221313311122˙˙JCOSUYUUQJUQJCOSUYUUYJSINUYUUQJSINUYUUYKSINUSTŽŽŽŽ1212122232331212123233222JCOSUYUUQJCOSUYUUQJUYJSINUYUUQJSINUYUUYKSINUSTŽŽŽŽ131312323233313131232333331Ž2Ž2WHERE,JSM1QMQM1QI;JS111G123112M11QM11;JSM11;JSM12Q21G231G31331G3222G2M12QI;JSM11;JSM12QI;KS3222332G3333G331ŽŽM1QM1QM1G;KSM1QM1G;1G121322G233KSM1G;ANDGSGRAVITATIONALACCELERATION33G3UISTHEJOINTANGLE,TISTHESUPPLYTORQUE,1ISIITHEATTACHMENTLENGTH,1ISTHEDISTANCEBETWEENGITHEFULCRUMANDTHECENTEROFGRAVITY,MISTHEMASSIOFTHEATTACHMENT,IISTHEMOMENTOFINERTIAAROUNDIŽTHECENTEROFGRAVITYSUBSCRIPTSIS1–3,MEANBOOM,ARM,ANDBUCKET,RESPECTIVELY22HYDRAULICMODELEACHJOINTISDRIVENBYAHYDRAULICCYLINDERWHOSEFLOWISCONTROLLEDBYASPOOLVALVE,ASSHOWNINFIG3WECANASSUMETHEFOLLOWING1THEOPENAREAOFAVALVEISPROPORTIONALTOTHESPOOLDISPLACEMENT2THEREISNOOILLEAK3NOPRESSUREDROPOCCURSWHENOILFLOWSTHROUGHPIPINGHARAYA,MKAGOSHIMARAUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION102001477–486479FIG2MODELOFHYDRAULICSHOVEL4THEEFFECTIVESECTIONALAREAOFTHECYLINDERISTHESAMEONBOTHTHEHEADANDTHERODSIDESINTHISPROBLEM,FOREACHJOINT,WEHAVETHEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONFROMTHEPRESSUREFLOWCHARACTERISTICSOFTHECYLINDERVI˙˙AHSKXPYSGNXPYP2ŽŽII0IISII1I1IKWHEN,KSCB2RGPSPYP0II1I1I2IWHERE,ASEFFECTIVECROSSSECTIONALAREAOFCYLINIDER;HSCYLINDERLENGTH;XSSPOOLDISPLACEMENT;PSSUPPLYPRESSURE;PSCYLINDERHEADSIDEPRESSI1ISURE;PSCYLINDERRODSIDEPRESSURE;VSOILVOL2IIUMEINTHECYLINDERANDPIPING;BSSPOOLWIDTH;IGSOILDENSITY;KSBULKMODULUSOFOIL;ANDCSFLOWCOEFFICIENT23LINKRELATIONSINTHEMODELSHOWNINFIG1,THERELATIONBETWEENTHECYLINDERLENGTHCHANGERATEANDTHEATTACHMENTROTATIONALANGULARVELOCITYISGIVENASŽFOLLOWS1BOOMFUŽ11˙H1S˙U1OAOCSINUQBŽ1111SY,22OAQOCQ2OAOCCOSUQBŽ111111Ž2ARMŽFU,U212˙H2S˙˙UYU21ŽOAOCSINUYUQBQA22222122SY,22ŽOAQOCQ2OAOCCOSUYUQBQA222222222122Ž3BUCKETWHENODSOBSBCSCD33333333Y˙HABCSINUYUQGYAQUŽ3333232FU,USSY3ŽŽ32322Y˙˙UYUABQBCQ2ABBCCOSUYUQGYAQUŽ323333333332332HARAYA,MKAGOSHIMARAUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION102001477–486480FIG3MODELOFHYDRAULICCYLINDERANDVALVE24TORQUERELATIONSFROMTHELINKRELATIONSOFSECTION23,THESUPPLYTORQUETISGIVENASFOLLOWS,TAKINGCYLINDERFRICTIONIINTOCONSIDERATIONTSYFUP1AQFU,UP1AŽŽ111121222˙QFU,UP1AYCFUUŽŽŽ32333C1111˙QSGNUFFU4ŽŽŽ/1111˙˙TSYFU,UP1AYCFU,UUYUŽŽŽ/221222C221221˙˙QSGNUYUFFU,UŽ5Ž/212212˙˙TSYFU,UP1AYCFU,UUYUŽŽŽ/332333C332332˙˙QSGNUYUFFU,UŽ5Ž/323323WHERE,CISTHEVISCOUSFRICTIONCOEFFICIENTANDCIFISKINETICFRICTIONALFORCEOFACYLINDERI25RESPONSECHARACTERISTICSOFTHESPOOLSPOOLACTIONHASAGREATEFFECTONCONTROLCHARACTERISTICSTHUS,WEAREASSUMINGTHATTHESPOOLHASTHEFOLLOWINGFIRSTORDERLAGAGAINSTTHEREFERENCEINPUT1XXSX5ŽIITSQ1SPIWHERE,XXISTHEREFERENCEINPUTOFSPOOLDISIPLACEMENTANDTISATIMECONSTANTSPI3ANGLECONTROLSYSTEMASSHOWNINFIG4,THEANGLEUISBASICALLYCONTROLLEDTOFOLLOWTHEREFERENCEANGLEUBYPOSIGTIONFEEDBACKINORDERTOOBTAINMOREACCURATECONTROL,NONLINEARCOMPENSATIONANDSTATEFEEDBACKAREADDEDTOTHEPOSITIONFEEDBACKWEWILLDISCUSSDETAILSOFTHESEALGORITHMSASFOLLOWS31NONLINEARCOMPENSATIONINTHEORDINARYAUTOMATICCONTROLSYSTEMS,NEWCONTROLDEVICESSUCHASSERVOVALVESAREUSEDINOURSEMIAUTOMATICSYSTEM,INORDERTOREALIZETHECOEXISTENCEOFMANUALANDAUTOMATICOPERATIONS,WEMUSTUSETHEMAINCONTROLVALVES,WHICHAREUSEDINMANUALOPERATIONINTHESEVALVES,THERELATIONBETWEENSPOOLDISPLACEMENTANDOPENAREAISNONLINEARTHEN,INAUTOMATICOPERATION,USINGTHISRELATION,THESPOOLDISPLACEMENTISINVERSELYCALCULATEDFROMTHEREQUIREDOPENAREA,ANDTHENONLINEARITYISCOMPENŽSATEDFIG5ŽFIG4BLOCKDIAGRAMOFCONTROLSYSTEMU

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