北京地区2009年成人本科学士学位英语统一考试.doc北京地区2009年成人本科学士学位英语统一考试.doc

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北京地区成人本科学士学位英语统一考试A20091121PARTIREADINGCOMPREHENSION30DIRECTIONSTHEREARETHREEPASSAGESINTHISPARTEACHPASSAGEISFOLLOWEDBYSOMEQUESTIONSORUNFINISHEDSTATEMENTSFOREACHOFTHEMTHEREAREFOURCHOICESMARKEDA,B,CANDDYOUSHOULDDECIDEONTHEBESTCHOICEANDBLACKENTHECORRESPONDINGLETTERONTHEANSWERSHEETPASSAGE1QUESTIONS1TO5AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGEACCORDINGTOARECENTSURV,EY,EMPLOYEESINMANYCOMPANIESTODAYWORKLONGERHOURSTHANEMPLOYEESDIDIN1979THEYALSOTAKESHORTERVACATIONSTHANEMPLOYEESIN1979ITSEEMSTHATAMERICANSAREWORKINGHARDERTODAYTHANEVERBEFOREORARETHEYAMANAGEMENTCONSULTANT,BILLMEYER,DECIDEDTOFINDOUTFORTHREEDAYS,HEOBSERVEDANINVESTMENTBANKERHARDATWORKMEYERWROTEDOWNEVERYTHINGTHEBANKERDIDDURINGHISLONGWORKDAYATTHEENDOFTHETHREEDAYPERIOD,MEYERREVIEWEDTHEBANKERSACTIVITIESWITHHIMWHATDIDTHEYFINDOUTTHEYDISCOVEREDTHATTHEMANSPENT80PERCENTOFHISTIMEDOINGUNNECESSARYWORKFOREXAMPLE,HEATTENDEDUNNECESSARYMEETINGS,MADEREDUNDANT多余的TELEPHONECALLS,ANDSPENTTIMEPACKINGANDUNPACKINGHISTWOBIGBRIEFCASES76APPARENTLYMANYPEOPLEBELIEVETHATTHEMORETIMEAPERSONSPENDSATWORK,THEMOREHEORSHEACCOMPLISHESWHENEMPLOYERSEVALUATEEMPLOYEES,THEYOFTENCONSIDERTHEAMOUNTOFTIMEONTHEJOBINADDITIONTOJOBPERFORMANCEEMPLOYEESKNOWTHISALTHOUGHMANYWORKINGPEOPLECANDOTHEIRJOBEFFECTIVELYDURINGAREGULAR40HOURWORKWEEK,THEYFEELTHEYHAVETOSPENDMORETIMEONTHEJOBAFTERNORMALWORKINGHOURSSOTHATTHEPEOPLEWHOCANPROMOTETHEMSEETHEMAGROUPOFHEADHUNTERS猎头WEREASKEDTHEIROPINIONABOUTASITUATIONTHEYHADACHOICEOFTWOCANDIDATESFORANEXECUTIVEPOSITIONWITHANIMPORTANTCOMPANYTHECANDIDATESHADSIMILARQUALIFICATIONSFORTHEJOBFOREXAMPLE,THEYWEREBOTHRELIABLEONECOULDDOTHEJOBWELLINA40HOURWORKWEEKTHEOTHERWOULDDOTHESAMEJOBINAN80HOURWORKWEEKJUSTASWELLACCORDINGTOAHEADHUNTINGEXPERT,THE80HOURAWEEKCANDIDATEWOULDGETTHEJOBTHETIMETHISCANDIDATESPENDSONTHEJOBMAYENCOURAGEOTHEREMPLOYEESTOSPENDMORETIMEATWORK,TOOEMPLOYERSBELIEVETHATIFTHEEMPLOYEESSTAYATWORKLATER,THEYMAYACTUALLYDOMOREWORKHOWEVER,THECONNECTIONBETWEENTIMEANDPRODUCTIVITY生产率ISNOTALWAYSPOSITIVE77INFACTMANYSTUDIESINDICATETHATAFTERACERTAINPOINT,ANYONESPRODUCTIVITYANDCREATIVITYBEGINTODECREASESOMEEMPLOYEESARENOTWILLINGTOSPENDSOMUCHEXTRA,UNPRODUCTIVETIMEATTHEOFFICEONCETHEYFINISHTHEIRWORKSATISFACTORILY,THEYWANTTORELAXANDENJOYTHEMSELVESFORTHESEPEOPLE,THESOLUTIONISTOFINDACOMPANYTHATENCOURAGESPEOPLETODOBOTH1WHATISTHEMAINIDEAOFTHISPASSAGEAMANYPEOPLEWORKLONGHOURSBUTDONOTALWAYSDOALOTOFWORKBMOSTPEOPLECANGETMOREWORKDONEBYWORKINGLONGERHOURSCMOSTAMERICANSWORK80HOURSAWEEK,ANDSOMEWORKEVENLONGERDPEOPLECANMAKEMOREMONEYBYWORKINGLONGERHOURS2THEMANAGEMENTCONSULTANTWANTEDTOFMDOUTAHOWHARDTHEINVESTMENTBANKERWORKEDDURINGHISWORKHOURSBWHENPEOPLESPENTTIMEDOINGUNNECESSARYWORKINTHEIROFFICECIFPEOPLENEEDEDVACATIONAFTERWORKINGHARDFORACERTAINPERIODOFTIMEDWHETHERAMERICANSWEREREALLYWORKINGHARDERTHANTHEYHADDONEBEFORE3WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSISTRUEATHEMORETIMEAPERSONSPENDSATWORK,THEMOREHEORSHEACCOMPLISHESBEMPLOYERSDONOTJUDGETHEIREMPLOYEESJOBPERFORMANCEACCORDINGTOTHEAMOUNTOFWORKINGTIMECSOMEPEOPLEWORKMORETHAN40HOURSAWEEKINTHEHOPEOFGETTINGPROMOTIONDALLEMPLOYEESAREWILLINGTOSPENDEXTRATIMEATWORK4THE80HOURAWEEKCANDIDATEWOULDGETTHEJOBBECAUSEEMPLOYERSBELIEVE_____ATHATHEISMORERELIABLEBHISEXAMPLEWOULDLEADOTHEREMPLOYEESTOWORKLONGERHOURSCHEHASBETTERQUALIFICATIONSDHECOULDENCOURAGEOTHEREMPLOYEESTODOABETTERJOB5THEEXPRESSION“TODOBOTH”INTHELASTPARAGRAPHIS_____ATOFINISHTHEIRWORKSATISFACTORILYANDRELAXANDENJOYTHEMSELVESBTOPAYATTENTIONTOBOTHPERFORMANCEANDPRODUCTIVITYCTOWORKLONGHOURSANDHAVESHORTVACATIONSDTORELAXANDENJOYTHEMSELVESQUITEFREQUENTLYNEXTPAGEPASSAGE2QUESTIONS6TO10AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGEMANYPRIVATEINSTITUTIONSOFHIGHEREDUCATIONAROUNDTHECOUNTRYAREINDANGERNOTAILWILLBESAVED,ANDPERHAPSNOTALLDESERVETOBESAVEDTHEREARELOWQUAIITYSCHOOLSJUSTASTHEREARELOWQUALITYBUSINESSESWEHAVENOOBLIGATIONTOSAVETHEMSIMPLYBECAUSETHEYEXISTBUTMANYTHRIVINGINSTITUTIONSTHATDESERVETOCONTINUEARETHREATENEDTHEYAREDOINGAFINEJOBEDUCATIONALLY,BUTTHEYARECAUGHTINAFINANCIALDIFFICULTY,WITHNOWAYTOREDUCERISINGCOSTSORINCREASEREVENUES收入SIGNIFICANTLYRAISINGFEESDOESNTBRINGINMOREREVENUE,FOREACHTIMEFEESGOUP,THE,ENROLLMENT注册人数GOESDOWN,ORTHEMOUNTTHATMUSTBEGIVENAWAYINSTUDENTAIDGOESUP78SCHOOLSAREBADBUSINESSES,WHETHERRMBLICORORIVATE,NOTUSUALLYBECAUSEOFBADMANAGEMENTBUTBECAUSEOFTHENATUREOFTHEBUSINESSTHEYLOSEMONEYONEVERYCUSTOMER,ANDTHEYCANGOBANKRUPTEITHERFROMTOOFEWSTUDENTSORTOOMANYSTUDENTSEVENAVERYGOODCOLLEGEISAVERYBADBUSINESSITISSUCHCOLLEGES,THRIVINGBUTTHREATENED,THATIWORRYABOUTLOWENROLLMENTISNOTTHEIRCHIEFPROBLEMEVENWITHFULLENROLLMENTS,THEYMAYGOUNDEREFFORTSTOSAVETHEM,ANDPREFERABLYTOKEEPTHEMPRIVATE,AREANATIONALNECESSITY79THEREISNOBASISFORARGUINGTHATPRIVATESCHOOLSAREBOUNDTOBEBETTERTHANPUBLICSCHOOLSTHEREAREPLENTIFULEXAMPLESTOTHECONTRARYANYONECANNAMESTATEUNIVERSITIESANDCOLLEGESTHATRANKASTHEFINESTINTHENATIONANDTHEWORLDITISNOWINEVITABLETHATPUBLICINSTITUTIONSWILLBEDOMINANT,ANDTHEREFOREDIVERSITY多样性ISANATIONALNECESSITYDIVERSITYINTHEWAYWESUPPORTSCHOOLSTENDSTOGIVEUSAHEALTHYDIVERSITYINTHEFORMSOFEDUCATIONINAHIMPERFECTSOCIETYSUCHASOURS,UNIFORMITYOFEDUCATIONTHROUGHOUTTHENATIONCOULDBEDANGEROUS,HAANIMPERFECTSOCIETY,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