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毕业设计(论文)-基于DSP的视频监控设计.doc毕业设计(论文)-基于DSP的视频监控设计.doc -- 8 元

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I摘要随着人们对安全意识的日益重视与提高,视频监控系统在安防监控、工业控制、交通监控等领域中已经有了广泛的应用。基于DSP的视频监控能够提高视频传输的可靠性和传输速度,减小体积和重量,并能降低功耗和成本,具有较强的环境适应性。因此从经济和实用的角度来讲,基于DSP的视频监控系统具有很好的发展前景。本文提出了一种视频监控系统硬件平台的设计方案,硬件平台主要包括DSP主控系统硬件平台、监控云台、摄像机和显示器。首先对视频监控系统研究的目的和难点进行分析,并对视频信号做了简要的介绍。在此基础上根据系统设计的要求,给出系统总体结构设计方案。随后,根据视频监控系统在设计中对实时性和智能化的要求,结合设计中的难点,给出了基于TMS320DM642的视频监控系统的硬件设计方案,并给出了各硬件模块硬件电路连接图。根据硬件设计方案,介绍了基于硬件平台的目标跟踪的具体实现步骤,提出了目标捕捉、目标跟踪以及云台控制的软件设计方案。最后,结合在本系统设计过程中的经历,总结开发过程中的经验和不足。关键词DSP,视频监控,运动检测,目标跟踪IIAbstractAlongwithmoreattentionandimprovetothesocialsecurityawareness,thevideomonitoringsystemhasbeenwidelyusedinmanyfields,suchasthesafetymonitoring,industrycontroltrafficmonitoringandsoon.ThevideomonitoringsystembasedonDSPcanimprovethereliabilityandspeedofthetransmission,reducingthevolumeandweight,andcanreducethepowerconsumptionandcosts,andhasstrongadaptabilitytotheenvironment.Sofromthepointofeconomicandpractical,thevideomonitorinsystembasedonDSPhaveverygooddevelopmentprospect.Thispaperpresentsavideomonitoringsystemhardwareplatform,thedesignofhardwareplatformincludesDSPmastercontrolsystemhardwareplatform,monitoringhaeundae,cameraandmonitor.Firstly,Iwillanalyzethepurposeoftheresearchandthedifficultyofresearchforthisvideomonitoringsystem,andwillintroducethevideosignal.Basedontherequirementsofdesignaccordingtothesystem,turnouttheplanofsystemstructuredesign.Then,accordingtotherequirementsofrealtimeandintelligentized,combinedwiththedifficultyinthedesign,therewillturnoutthehardwaredesignprojectofthevideomonitoringsystembasedonTMS320DM642,andthecircuitconnectiondiagramofhardwaremodulehardware.Accordingtothehardwaredesign,thispaperintroducesthemethodstorealizethetargettrackingindetailofthehardwareplatform,andPutforwardsoftwaredesignprojectoftargetcapture,targettrackingandconsolecontrol.Finally,Combinedwiththeexperienceinthissystemdesign,summarizestheexperienceandinsufficiencyintheprocessofdeveloping.KeywordsDSP,videosurveillance,motiondetection,targettrackingIII目录第1章绪论...............................................................................................................................11.1课题研究背景.............................................................................................................11.2课题研究的目的及意义..........................................................................................21.3国内外研究现状........................................................................................................31.4主要内容及论文结构安排......................................................................................4第2章视频监控相关理论分析..........................................................................................52.1视频信号......................................................................................................................52.1.1模拟视频标准.................................................................................................62.1.2数字视频标准.................................................................................................72.2数字图像编码.............................................................................................................72.2.1预测编码..........................................................................................................82.2.2熵编码...............................................................................................................92.2.3模型编码..........................................................................................................92.2.4分形编码........................................................................................................102.3运动目标检测算法..................................................................................................102.3.1帧间差分法....................................................................................................112.3.2背景差分算法...............................................................................................122.4运动目标跟踪算法..................................................................................................132.5本章小结....................................................................................................................14第3章系统的硬件设计......................................................................................................153.1视频监控系统整体设计........................................................................................153.2系统时钟接口电路设计........................................................................................173.3电源接口电路设计..................................................................................................193.4存储器模块电路设计.............................................................................................203.4.1SDRAM模块电路设计...............................................................................213.4.2FLASH模块电路设计.................................................................................233.5JTAG电路设计.........................................................................................................273.6串口通信模块设计..................................................................................................283.7视频采集模块设计..................................................................................................313.8视频输出接口电路设计........................................................................................34IV3.9本章小结....................................................................................................................35第4章系统软件设计及实现.............................................................................................364.1系统主程序的设计..................................................................................................364.2目标捕捉程序设计..................................................................................................384.3目标跟踪程序设计..................................................................................................414.4云台控制....................................................................................................................424.5本章小结....................................................................................................................45结论........................................................................................................................................46参考文献....................................................................................................................................47致谢........................................................................................................................................49附录系统整体硬件连接电路图....................................................................................50VDirectoryChapter1Introduction............................................................................................................11.1ResearchBackground.................................................................................................11.2ThePurposeandSignificanceoftheResearch.....................................................21.3CurrentResearchatHomeandAbroad...................................................................31.4MainContentandtheStructureArrangementofthePaper................................4Chapter2VideoMonitorRelatedTheoryAnalysis......................................................52.1VideoSignal..................................................................................................................52.1.1AnalogVideoStandard...................................................................................62.1.2DigitalVideoStandard....................................................................................72.2DigitalImageCoding.................................................................................................72.2.1ForecastCoding................................................................................................82.2.2EntropyCoding.................................................................................................92.2.3ModelCoding...................................................................................................92.2.4FractalCoding.................................................................................................102.3MovingTargetsDetectionAlgorithm....................................................................102.3.1FrameDifferenceAlgorithm........................................................................112.3.2BackgroundDifferenceAlgorithm.............................................................122.4SportsTargetTrackingTlgorithm..........................................................................132.5SummaryofThisChapter........................................................................................14Chapter3TheSystemsHardwareDesign....................................................................153.1VideoMonitoringSystemDesign..........................................................................153.2TheSystemClockInterfaceCircuitDesign.........................................................173.3PowerInterfaceCircuitDesign..............................................................................193.4MemoryModuleCircuitDesign............................................................................203.4.1SDRAMModuleCircuitDesign................................................................213.4.2FLASHModuleCircuitDesign..................................................................233.5JTAGCircuitDesign.................................................................................................273.6SerialInterfaceCommunicationModuleDesign...............................................283.7VideoAcquisitionModuleDesign.........................................................................313.8VideoOutputInterfaceCircuitDesign.................................................................34VI3.9SummaryofThisChapter........................................................................................35Chapter4Systemsoftwaredesignandrealization......................................................364.1TheDesignoftheMainProgramSystem............................................................364.2TargetCaptureProgramDesign.............................................................................384.3TheTargetTrackingProgramDesign...................................................................414.4ConsoleControl.........................................................................................................424.5SummaryofThisChapter........................................................................................45Conclusion................................................................................................................................46Reference..................................................................................................................................47Acknowledgements................................................................................................................49AppendixHardwareConnectionCircuitdiagramofWholeSystem...................501第1章绪论1.1课题研究背景视频监控系统就是对指定的场景区域进行监视,并把场景内的信息传递给监控者,使其能根据相应的情况采取适当措施的系统。目前,视频监控系统已经广泛应用在安防和监控上。随着数字图像处理和网络等各种技术的发展,视频监控系统的发展及更新换代越来越快,从功能简单到功能繁多,结构复杂到结构简单,图像稳定度从低到高,视频监控系统经历了三个过程首先是第一代视频监控系统,即模拟视频监控系统,是以模拟设备为主的闭路电视监控系统,通过模拟的方式用视频电缆传输图像信息1。只能在控制中心查看监控图像,传输距离比较短,因此主要应用于小范围内的监控。模拟视频监控系统布线工程量大,对于已经建好的系统,如要增加新的监控点难度很大,系统的扩展能力差。有线模拟视频信号的传输距离有限,从而决定了模拟视频监控只能在小范围场所使用。需要耗费大量的存储介质如录像带,进行模拟视频信号的存储,查询取证时十分繁琐,而且采用模拟信号方式记录和读取时,会产生严重的失真。因此视频监控系统远远不能满足实际的监控要求,已经很少被使用。随着视频压缩编码技术的发展和计算机处理能力的提高,出现了第二代视频监控系统,即数字视频监控系统,第二代视频监控系统视频通过计算机采集和处理图像,是视频监控的质量有了很大的提高,功能也得到了扩展。其核心设备是数字设备,因此可以称为数字视频监控系统。第二代视频监控系统在远端有若干个摄像机、各种监测和报警探头以及数据设备,用于获取图像信息,然后通过各自的传输线路汇接到多媒体监控终端上,再通过通信网络将这些信息传到一个或多个监控中心。数字视频监控系统的优点是功能较强、便于现场操作、可以进行大容量的本地存储。缺点是结构复杂,可靠性不高,功耗高,费用高,软件的开放性不太好,
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