新闻传播学论文-ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICAL CONSERVATISMAS REFLECTED IN CHINA’S MEDIA DEVELOPMENT(1978 - PRESENT).doc新闻传播学论文-ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICAL CONSERVATISMAS REFLECTED IN CHINA’S MEDIA DEVELOPMENT(1978 - PRESENT).doc

收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

新闻传播学论文ECONOMICLIBERALIZATIONANDPOLITICALCONSERVATISMASREFLECTEDINCHINA’SMEDIADEVELOPMENT1978PRESENTINTRDOCTIONDURINGTHEPAST20YEARS,CHINAHASBEENUNDERGOINGTHEGREATESTCHANGESINITSHISTORY,EARMARKEDBYRAPIDECONOMICGROWTHIN1997,THEANNUALINCOMEOFCHINESERESIDENTSREACHEDANAVERAGEEQUIVALENCEOF660USDOLLARS,ANANNUALINCREASEOFABOUTEIGHTTIMESTHANTHATIN1990XIE,1998THEINCREASE,THOUGHLOWASCOMPAREDWITHTHEWESTERNSTANDARD,ISREMARKABLECONSIDERINGTHEFACTTHATCHINAHASALARGEPOPULATIONBASEOFMORETHAN12BILLIONTHERAPIDECONOMICGROWTHHASNOTONLYBOOSTEDTHEWHOLENATIONBUTPROMOTEDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFITSMEDIASYSTEMASWELLIN1978,CHINAHADONLY32TELEVISIONSTATIONSAND93RADIOSTATIONSCHAN,1994;THENUMBERHASJUMPEDTO2,000AND1,416RESPECTIVELYIN1997WHILETHEREGULARAUDIENCESIZEHASINCREASEDFROM361IN1980TO842IN1996FORRADIOAND30IN1980TO863IN1996FORTELEVISIONXIE,1998THENUMBEROFNEWSPAPERSINCHINAHASALSORISENFROM186IN1978TO2,163IN1996,ANINCREASEOFALMOST12TIMES,WHILEJOURNALSHAVEALSOFLOURISHEDINCHINA,WITHITSNUMBEREXPECTEDTOBE930IN1978UPTO8,135IN1997ADVERTISING,ONCECONSIDEREDTHECAPITALISTTABOO,HASALSOSEENFASTDEVELOPMENTDURINGTHISPERIODSINCEITSDEBUTIN1979,THETOTALADINCOMEOFTHEABOVEFOURMEDIAHASBEENINCREASINGATARATEOFTENTIMESEVERYFIVEYEARS,REACHING1828BILLIONRMBYUANIN1996XIE,1998THISCHAPTERAIMSTODISCUSSTHEMEDIADEVELOPMENTINCHINASINCE1978TOPRESENT,WHICHCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOPERIODS,CHARACTERIZEDBYACOMBINATIONOFECONOMICLIBERALIZATIONANDPOLITICALCONSERVATISMINTHEFIRSTPERIOD19781990,DESPITETHEBACKANDFORWARDSWINGS,MEDIADEVELOPMENTINCHINAHASBEENCONSISTENTINTHESECONDPERIOD1991PRESENTWHENTHEMARKETECONOMYCONCEPTGAINEDRECOGNITION,THECOMPETITIVECONSCIOUSNESSHASBECOMEDOMINANTAMONGTHECHINA’SMEDIASYSTEM,WHICHHASBROUGHTABOUTCHANGESUNPRECEDENTEDINTHE5,000YEARSOFCHINATHEMEDIADEVELOPMENTINSHANGHAI,THEDRAGONHEADOFCHINA,HASBEENTAKENASASHOWCASE,TODISCUSSTHETRENDSINTHEMEDIADEVELOPMENTANDTHEIMPACTOFECONOMICMOMENTUMANDPOLITICALORIENTATIONINTHEWHOLEPROCESSBACKBROUNDPOLITICALLY,THEMEDIAINCHINASTILLREMAININACOMMUNISTCONCEPTMERRILL,1983ASDEFINEDINTHETRADITIONALFOURTHEORIESOFPRESSTHECHINESEMEDIA,OWNEDANDOPERATEDBYTHESTATE,AREREGARDEDASTHEORGANSOFTHECOMMUNISTPARTYOFCHINAANDTHEGOVERNMENT,NOTTHEWATCHDOGOFTHEGOVERNMENTASISTHECASEINTHEUSSTREITMATTER,1994THEFREEDOMOFPRESSINTHEWESTERNSENSE,THOUGHTDISCUSSEDALOTRECENTLY,ISSTILLPARTICLESINTHEAIR,SOMETHINGTHATISYETTOCOMELEE,1990HOWEVER,INTERMSOFITSECONOMY,THEMEDIADONOTFITINTOTHECOMMUNISTCONCEPTONLYANYMORETHEYMAYFALLMORECOHERENTLYINTOTHEDEVELOPMENTCONCEPT,ACOMBINATIONOFTHEAUTHORITARIANANDCOMMUNISTTHEORIESSTEVENSON,1994THISTENDENCYHASBECOMEMOREOBVIOUSINTHESECONDPERIOD1991PRESENTWHENTHEMEDIAINCHINAAREENDOWEDWITHAKINDOFDUALFUNCTIONSCONTINUETOBETHEVOICEOFTHEGOVERNMENTTHEPOLITICALCONSERVATISMWHILEBECOMINGTHEVOICEOFTHEMARKETPLACEASWELLECONOMICLIBERALIZATIONWHILEITISTRUETHATTHEGOVERNMENTSTILLEXERCISESCONTROLOVERTHEMEDIASYSTEM,ANOTIONTOWHICHMOSTWESTERNERSWOULDOBJECT,THECONTROLITSELFDOESNOTNECESSARYMEANTHESTAGNATIONOFTHEMEDIASYSTEMITSELFINFACT,REASONABLECONTROLCANENCOURAGETHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEMEDIASYSTEMXIE1998,ASHASBEENDEMONSTRATEDBYTHEPRACTICEOFCHINAINTHEPAST20YEARSFIRSTPERIODWITHTHREEPHASES19781990MEDIADEVELOPMENTINCHINAINTHEFIRSTPERIODFROM1978TO1990CANFURTHERBEDISCUSSEDINTHREEPHASESFEATUREDBYPOLITICALCAMPAIGNSWHICHAIMEDTOREININMEDIADEVELOPMENT,THUSSIGNALINGTHEENDOFEACHPHASE,BUTLAIDTHEFOUNDATIONFORTHEMEDIADEVELOPMENTINTHEFOLLOWINGPHASETHEFIRSTPHASEBEGANIN1978ANDENDEDIN1984WHENTHECAMPAIGNAGAINSTSPIRITUALPOLLUTIONSTARTEDTHESECONDPHASELASTEDFROM1985TO1986WHENTHEBRAKEWASAPPLIEDDURINGTHECAMPAIGNAGAINSTBOURGEOISLIBERALIZATIONTHETHIRDPHASEREACHEDITSCLIMAXIN1989WHENTHEGOVERNMENTCRACKEDDOWNONTHESTUDENTSMOVEMENTANDFOUGHTAGAINSTPEACEFULEVOLUTIONBYWESTERNCOUNTRIESCHU,1994THOUGHINTENDEDTOREININTHEMEDIA,EACHOFTHESEPOLITICALCAMPAIGNSHASSTIMULATEDRATHERTHANSUPPRESSEDTHEMEDIADEVELOPMENTINEACHPHASEINFACT,MEDIADEVELOPMENTWASACCELERATEDONANESCALATINGSCALEINEACHPHASEANDUSUALLYWASCOUPLEDWITHRENEWEDEMPHASISINTHELIBERALIZATIONPROCESSFIRSTPHASE197884THEYEAROF1978ISAWATERSHEDFORCHINESEPOLITICSANDMEDIADEVELOPMENTLEE,1994ASTRATEGICSHIFTWASPROCLAIMEDASTHENATIONBEGANTOADOPTANOPENANDREFORMPOLICYTHATAIMEDTOMODERNIZETHECOUNTRYONEIMMEDIATEANDDRAMATICMEDIACHANGEWASTHEELIMINATIONOFTHEPOMPOUSREPORTINGSTYLEOFTHECULTURALREVOLUTION19661976,SUMMEDUPINTHEPHRASEFALSEHOOD,EXAGGERATION,ANDEMPTYTALKPOLUMBAUM,1990CHINESEMEDIASUCHASTHEPEOPLESDAILY,THEPARTYSMOUTHPIECE,CALLEDFORSHORTERNEWSREPORTSANDAMORELIVELYSTYLEWITHTIMELINESSTOCOVERGROWINGECONOMICACTIVITIESTHEINCREASEDVOLUMEOFINFORMATIONINMEDIAISANOTHERSIGNOFPROGRESSINTHISPHASETHEPEOPLESDAILYTOOKTHELEADTOINCREASEITSPAGESFROMFOURTOSIXIN1978ANDTHENTOEIGHTIN1980,WHILETHENUMBEROFMAGAZINESANDNEWSPAPERSROSEGREATLYFROM1978TO1984,ASSHOWNINTABLE1TABLE1YEARMAGAZINESTOTALPRINTEDSHEETS100MILLIONNEWSPAPERSTOTALPRINTEDSHEETS100MILLION19782271135197930112301980367141719814541336198246012911983525142719846431623SOURCECHINAJOURNALISMYEARBOOKSVARIOUSYEARSCHU,1994BESIDES,ADVERTISINGBEGANTOAPPEARINCHINESEMEDIAFORTHEFIRSTTIMEAFTERTHELONGSILENCEINTHE“CULTURALREVOLUTION,”ALTHOUGHITDIDNOTGETINTOFULLSWINGUNTILAFTER1990CHINASFIRSTTVAD,MOREOFANANNOUNCEMENTTHANANAD,MADEITSDEBUTINSHANGHAIONJANUARY28,1979GUO,1993THEADFORAHERBALWINELASTEDABOUTONEMINUTEAND35SECONDS,TOOLONGBYTHEWESTERNNORM,BUTITREPRESENTSTHESTARTOFCHINASTVADINDUSTRYMEANWHILE,JOURNALISMEDUCATIONALSOEXPANDEDRAPIDLYPOLUMBAUM,1990INTHEEARLY1980STOMEETTHEINCREASINGDEMANDOFMEDIADEVELOPMENTANDTOACCELERATEINFORMATIONFLOW,BADLYNEEDEDFORTHEECONOMICREFORMSTHENUMBEROFJOURNALISMTEACHERSANDUNDERGRADUATESTUDENTSINCREASEDALMOSTFOURTIMESFROM1980TO1984WHILETHENUMBEROFGRADUATESTUDENTSREMAINEDTHESAMEGUO,1993WHATSMORE,CHINASTARTEDFIVEINTERNATIONALJOURNALISMPROGRAMS1983WHICHINTEGRATEENGLISHLANGUAGETRAININGINTOJOURNALISMEDUCATIONTHESIXYEARPROGRAMSEXPOSEDSTUDENTSTOAWIDEVARIETYOFWESTERNJOURNALISMCONCEPTSUNDERTHEIRENGLISHSPEAKINGJOURNALISMPROFESSORSTHESEOPENMINDEDSTUDENTSHAVENOWCONSTITUTEDAMAJORREFORMFORCETOPUSHFORWARDMEDIADEVELOPMENTINCHINASECONDPHASE198586FOLLOWINGTHECAMPAIGNAGAINSTSPIRITUALPOLLUTIONIN1984,CHINESEMEDIAWERESILENCEDFORAWHILE,ESPECIALLYAFTERTHENPARTYGENERALSECRETARYHUYAOBANG’SSPEECHIN1985,WHICHEMPHASIZEDTHEMEDIAROLEASTHEORGANSOFTHEGOVERNMENTPOLUMBAUM,1990HOWEVER,ITSEEMEDTHATTHEPARTYLEADERSHIPONLYPAIDLIPSERVICEASITSTILLTOLERATEDLIBERALIDEASINMEDIAPRACTICESSUCHASINDEPENDENTEDITORIALSMEANWHILE,MEDIAPRACTITIONERSASKEDFOR“AFREEHAND”INTHEMEDIACONTENT,WHICHWASSUPPORTEDBYTHEPUBLICITYDEPARTMENTPOLUMBUAM,1990,THECHINESECOUNTERPARTOFUSINFORMATIONAGENCYONEMAJORTRENDTOWARDLIBERALIZATIONINTHISPHASEWASAFORMALRECOGNITIONOFTHEENTERTAINMENTFUNCTIONOFMEDIAINTHENATION’SSEVENTHFIVEYEARPLANTHEFOCUSONENTERTAINMENTCOINCIDEDWITHTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFTELEVISION,APOWERFULMEDIUMOFENTERTAINMENTINFACT,TELEVISIONDEVELOPMENTANDTHEFOCUSONENTERTAINMENTREINFORCEDEACHOTHERINTHEIRMUTUALGROWTHDURINGTHISPHASESINCE1985,ENTERTAINMENTHASBECOMEANINSEPARABLEPARTOFMOSTCHINESETVSTATIONSTVENTERTAINMENTPROGRAMSUSUALLYINCLUDEMUSIC,OPERA,LITERATURE,VARIETYSHOWS,BALLADSINGING,ACROBATICSHOWSASWELLASTVDRAMASFORSHANGHAITELEVISIONSTATION,ENTERTAINMENTPROGRAMSCOMPRISEDOVER60OFALLAIRTIMEIN1986GUO,1993OFTHEENTERTAINMENTFARE,TVDRAMAISTHEMOSTPOPULARAFTER1983,TVDRAMAS,PRODUCEDANDAIRED,SAWANEXPONENTIALSPEEDFOREIGNTVDRAMASALSOBEGANTOAPPEARONCHINESESCREENSIN1986,THECHINESEDUBBEDWALTDISNEYCARTOONSERIES“MICKEYMOUSEANDDONALDDUCK”BECAMEANATIONALFAVORITEASSOONASITWASBROADCASTOVERTHECENTRALCHINATELEVISIONSTATIONCCTVINFACT,FOREIGNTVDRAMASWEREGENERALLYPREFERREDASTHEREWEREFEWHIGHQUALITYDOMESTICTVSERIESDURINGTHISPHASEINANATIONALSURVEYBYCCTVIN1987,72PERCENTOFTHERESPONDENTSFAVOREDFOREIGNDRAMASYU,1992IN1983,ASTHENATIONDECIDEDTOBUILDANATIONWIDETELEVISIONSYSTEMBYTHEENDOFTHISCENTURY,STATEEXPENDITURESONTELEVISIONBEGANTOINCREASEIN1985,THEEXPENDITUREJUMPEDTO1,780MILLIONYUANOVER210MILLIONASCOMPAREDWITH670MILLIONYUAN83MILLIONIN1980LEE,1994THEPOURINGFINANCIALRESOURCESLEDTORAPIDTELEVISIONDEVELOPMENTINTHISPHASETHENUMBEROFTVSTATIONSIN1986WASALMOSTSIXTIMESTHATIN1983WHILETVSETOWNERSHIPPER100HOUSEHOLDSROSEFROM88IN1983TO103IN1986ANDTHETVAUDIENCESIZEEXPANDEDFROM400MILLIONIN1983TO580MILLIONIN1986YU,1990THIRDPHASE198790THISPHASE,STUDIEDMETICULOUSLYINTHEWESTERNWORLD,SAWTHEMOSTDRAMATICSOCIALCHANGESINCHINA,WHICHRESULTEDFROMTHEMEDIADEVELOPMENTITSELFWHILEMAINTAININGTHELIBERALIZINGTRENDSINTHEFIRSTTWOPHASES,CHINASMEDIASYSTEMINTHISPHASEGAINEDGREATERMOMENTUM,TRYINGTOOBTAINFREEDOMOFPRESSANDPOLITICALINDEPENDENCERATHERTHANJUSTPETITIONINGFORTHEMINTHEPREVIOUSTWOPHASESACTIONFORINDEPENDENCEANDDEMOCRACYBECAMEAREALITYRATHERTHANJUSTLIPSERVICEWORLDECONOMICHERALD,STARTEDINSHANGHAIANDBANNEDIN1989,WASCONSIDEREDASAPIONEERINTHEWESTINTHISPROCESSOFPEACEFULEVOLUTIONTHEREALSOAPPEAREDWESTERNMINDEDOPINIONLEADERSLIKEFANGLIZHIANDQINBENLIWHOWEREENCOURAGEDBYTHENPREMIERZHAOZIYANG’SWORKREPORTIN1987THATDIDNOTMENTIONTHEMEDIA’SROLEASANOFFICIALMOUTHPIECEPOLUMBAUM,1990THERESULTSREFLECTEDINJOURNALISTICOPERATIONSWEREAMOREDIVERSIFIEDSTYLEOFNEWSREPORTINGANDAGREATEROPENNESSABOUTINFORMATIONBADNEWSANDCRITICALREPORTSNEGATIVEREPORTS,SELDOMSEENSINCE1957,BEGANTOREAPPEARINTHEMEDIAPOLUMBUAM,1990INTHISPERIOD,THENEGATIVEREPORTSHASALWAYSCOMPRISEDMORETHAN10OFTHETOTALNUMBEROFNEWSSTORIESFORSOMEMAJORNEWSPAPERSSUCHASPEOPLE’SDAILY,JIEFANGDAILY,WENHUIDAILYANDCHINADAILY,CHINA’SONLYNATIONALENGLISHLANGUAGENEWSPAPERGUO,1993THEINCREASEOFTHENEGATIVEREPORTSWASTAKENASASIGNONTHEMEDIASIDETOPUSHFORMOREREFORMSINTHEGOVERNMENTWORKANDTOASKFORMOREFREEDOMANDINDEPENDENCEINTHEIRMEDIAPRACTICE,WHICH,TOSOMEDEGREE,LEDTOTHEMASSIVESTUDENT’SDEMONSTRATIONIN1989
编号:201312141234569948    类型:共享资源    大小:32.54KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-12-14
  
2
关 键 词:
行业资料 农林牧渔 精品文档 新闻传播
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
关于本文
本文标题:新闻传播学论文-ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND POLITICAL CONSERVATISMAS REFLECTED IN CHINA’S MEDIA DEVELOPMENT(1978 - PRESENT).doc
链接地址:http://www.renrendoc.com/p-209948.html

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:14次
wenku上传于2013-12-14

官方联系方式

客服手机:17625900360   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

精品推荐

相关阅读

人人文库
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5