新闻传播学论文-English-Language Media in ChinaDevelopment and Language Style.doc新闻传播学论文-English-Language Media in ChinaDevelopment and Language Style.doc

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新闻传播学论文ENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINADEVELOPMENTANDLANGUAGESTYLEABSTRACTTHISPAPERDISCUSSESTHEDEVELOPMENTANDLANGUAGESTYLEOFTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINASINCE1978ONTHEBASISOFEXTENSIVEINTERVIEWSAMONGTHECHIEFEXECUTIVESOFALMOSTALLTHEMAJORENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINA,THEPAPERFIRSTPROVIDESANOVERALLREVIEWOFTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIARADIO,MAGAZINE,NEWSAGENCY,NEWSPAPER,TVANDINTERNETINMAINLANDCHINA,WHICHALSOINCLUDESACASESTUDYOF21STCENTURY,ANENGLISHLEARNINGWEEKLYPUBLISHEDINBEIJINGTHEPAPERTHENTURNSTOANALYZETHELINGUISTICSTYLEANDTHEUSEOFENGLISHOVERTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAVIAACONTENTANALYSISONTHESAMPLEDNEWSSTORIESOFCHINADAILYFROM1981TO1999,FIRSTNATIONALENGLISHLANGUAGEDAILYINTHECOUNTRYINTHEEND,THEPAPERMAKESANASSESSMENTONTHEENGLISHMEDIAINTHENATIONINTERMSOFTHEIRDEVELOPMENTPATTERNS,OWNERSHIPANDINVESTMENT,ROLESANDFUNCTIONSASWELLASTHEWRITTENSTYLEOFCHINAENGLISH,ASPROPOSEDBYTHETWOWRITERSINTRODUCTIONJUSTLIKETHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINHONGKONGORINANYOTHERCHINESECOMMUNITYINTHEWORLD,THEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINMAINLANDCHINAHAVEALWAYSBEENMINORITYMEDIAINTERMSOFCIRCULATIONANDINFLUENCEINTHECHINESESOCIETYCHAN,2000323THEMARGINALROLEOFTHEENGLISHMEDIAINCHINAISWELLDEMONSTRATEDINTHEFACTTHATCHINAHAS,ASOF1999,ONLYONEENGLISHTVCHANNELCCTV4,ONEENGLISHRADIOSERVICEPARTOFCHINARADIOINTERNATIONAL,CRIANDNINEENGLISHDAILIESANDWEEKLIESANDABOUTTENENGLISHMAGAZINESESTIMATEBASEDONPERSONALCOMMUNICATION,ASCOMPAREDWITH352CHINESETVSTATIONS,299CHINESERADIOSTATIONSZHAO,2000505506AND2038CHINESENEWSPAPERSCHINAJOURNALISMYEARBOOK,2000567HOWEVER,DESPITEITSMARGINALROLE,THEEXISTENCEOFTHEENGLISHMEDIAINCHINACANBETRACEDBACKTO150YEARSAGOWHENFOREIGNERSBEGANTOESTABLISHFOREIGNLANGUAGEMEDIAINSIDECHINAHUANG,200123EVENAFTERTHENORTHCHINADAILYNEWSONEOFTHEMOSTINFLUENTIALFOREIGNOWNEDNEWSPAPERSINSHANGHAILEFTMAINLANDCHINAIN1951,RADIOPEKINGNOWCRICONTINUEDITSSERVICESINFOREIGNLANGUAGESINCLUDINGENGLISHHUANG,2001278WHILEENGLISHMAGAZINESSUCHASBEIJINGREVIEWANDCHINACONSTRUCTNOWCHINATODAYWEREPUBLISHEDENGLISHDAILIESANDWEEKLIESANDTHEENGLISHTVCHANNELDIDNOTEMERGEUNTILAFTER1978WHENCHINABEGANTOOPENUPANDTOOKONAREFORMPOLICYTOMODERNIZETHENATION,DURINGWHICHENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIA,LIKECHINESELANGUAGEMEDIA,SAWTHEFASTESTDEVELOPMENTSINCE1949ANDGREWMOREINFLUENTIALEVENTHOUGHSTILLLIMITEDONTHEBASISOFEXTENSIVEINTERVIEWSAMONGTHECHIEFEXECUTIVESOFALMOSTALLTHEMAJORENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINA,THISPAPERFIRSTAIMSTOPROVIDEANOVERALLREVIEWOFTHEDEVELOPMENT,BASICALLYAFTER1978,OFTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIARADIO,MAGAZINE,NEWSAGENCY,NEWSPAPER,TVANDINTERNETINMAINLANDCHINA,WHICHALSOINCLUDESACASESTUDYOF21STCENTURY,ANENGLISHLEARNINGWEEKLYTHEPAPERTHENTURNSTOANALYZETHELINGUISTICSTYLEANDTHEUSEOFENGLISHOVERTHEENGLISHMEDIAVIAACONTENTANALYSISONTHESAMPLEDNEWSSTORIESOFCHINADAILYFROM1981TO1999,FIRSTNATIONALENGLISHLANGUAGEDAILYINTHECOUNTRYINTHEEND,THEPAPERMAKESANASSESSMENTONTHEENGLISHMEDIAINCHINAINTERMSOFTHEIRDEVELOPMENTPATTERNS,OWNERSHIPANDINVESTMENT,ROLESANDFUNCTIONSASWELLASTHEWRITTENSTYLEOFCHINAENGLISH,ASPROPOSEDBYTHETWOWRITERSONEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINAREVIEWFORTHESAKEOFEASYDISCUSSIONSONTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINASINCE1978,THEWRITERSHAVEDIVIDEDTHEIRDISCUSSIONSONTHEENGLISHMEDIAINCHINAINRELEVANCEWITHTHREETRADITIONALMEDIAANDTHENEWMEDIUMINTERNETBYDIVIDINGINTORADIOERA,NEWSPAPERERA,TELEVISIONERAANDSYMBIOSISERA,THEWRITERSDONOTMAINTAINTHATONEMEDIUMCANNEGATEOROVERSHADOWOTHERMEDIAINFACT,THEDIVISIONHASBEENMADESIMPLYTOFOLLOWTHESEQUENCEOFRADIONEWSPAPERTELEVISIONINTERNETASTHEYEMERGEDINTHEINTERNATIONALCOMMUNICATIONINCHINAINADDITION,EVENTHOUGHITISEXTREMELYNECESSARY,THEWRITERSDONOTMAKECLEARSTARTINGANDENDINGPOINTSFOREACHERABECAUSE,FIRSTOFALL,ITISDIFFICULTANDEVENIMPOSSIBLEFORTHETWOWRITERSTODOSO,ANDSECONDLYTHEWRITERSASSUMEALLTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIAINCHINAHAVE,INFACT,PLAYEDTHEIRRESPECTIVEANDUNIQUEROLESINTHEPROCESSOFCHINA’SINTERNATIONALCOMMUNICATION1RADIOERAALTHOUGHTHEINTERNATIONALCOMMUNICATIONINCHINAINTHISERAMAYBECHARACTERIZEDBYRADIOSERVICES,PARTICULARLYTHEENGLISHSERVICE,THEENGLISHLANGUAGEMEDIACANSTILLINCLUDEENGLISHMAGAZINESANDEVENTHEENGLISHNEWSRELEASEOFXINHUANEWSAGENCYITMAYINCLUDETHEMEDIAORGANIZATIONSBOTHATTHECENTRALLEVELANDATTHEREGIONALLEVEL11RADIOINAUGURATEDONDECEMBER3,1943,CHINARADIOINTERNATIONALCRI,FORMERLYRADIOBEIJINGHASINFACTBEENTHEMAJORCHANNELANDTHEONLYINTERNATIONALRADIOSERVICEAVAILABLEINCHINATHATTARGETSFOREIGNLISTENERSALLOVERTHEWORLD,ZHANGZHENHUA,FORMERDIRECTOROFCRI,PERSONALCOMMUNICATION,2000,PARTICULARLYWHENNEWCHINAWASBLOCKEDOFFFROMTHEOUTSIDESINCE1949BYFOREIGNCOUNTRIESANDLATERBYSUCHKINDOFCAMPAIGNSASTHECULTURALREVOLUTION19661976NOWWITHATOTALDAILYPROGRAMMINGOF192HOURSIN43LANGUAGESWITHENGLISHANDCHINESEBROADCASTGLOBALLY,CRIREACHESABOUT240MILLIONLISTENERS1INMORETHAN200COUNTRIESANDREGIONSTHROUGH10TRANSMITTINGSTATIONSINCHINAANDEIGHTRELAYSTATIONSINEUROPE,AFRICAANDTHEAMERICASINTERMSOFTHENUMBEROFLANGUAGESUSEDANDBROADCASTHOURS,THEVOLUMEOFLISTENER’SLETTERSANDTOTALTRANSMISSIONPOWER,CRIRANKSAMONGTHETOPINTHEWORLDANDISONEOFTHEMOSTINFLUENTIALINTERNATIONALBROADCASTERSINTHEWORLDITISESTIMATEDTHATCRIENJOYSMOREINFLUENCEAMONGTHEDEVELOPINGANDUNDERDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESZHANG,2001CRIPAMPHLETTHECRI’SENGLISHSERVICEHASALWAYSBEENONEOFITSMOSTIMPORTANTDIVISIONSWHICHWASFOUNDEDONSEPTEMBER11,1947ANDNOWOFFERSOVER60BROADCASTHOURSPERDAY,WITHABOUT60MILLIONOVERSEASLISTENERSFROMMORETHAN100COUNTRIESANDREGIONSZHANG,2001WEBSITETHEPROGRAMSOFTHEENGLISHSERVICEARECOMPREHENSIVE,WHICHFOCUSONNEWS,FEATURESANDMUSICPROGRAMS,INCLUDINGPOPULARPROGRAMSSUCHASTALKTOTHEMINISTER,PEOPLEINTHEKNOW,SPORTSWORLD,CHINAHORIZONS,VOICESFROMOTHERLANDS,LIFEINCHINA,LISTENERSGARDENANDINTHESPOTLIGHTITISACKNOWLEDGEDTHATTHECRIENGLISHSERVICEISONEOFTHEWORLDSMOSTEFFECTIVEANDCONVENIENTMEDIATOLEARNABOUTCHINAANDTHATCRISENGLISHSERVICEHASBECOMEAPOPULARCHOICEOFDOMESTICLISTENERSASWELLWHOWANTTOKEEPINFORMEDWITHCURRENTAFFAIRS,LEARNENGLISHANDENJOYMUSICZHANG,2001WEBSITEASMOREFOREIGNTOURISTSCAMETOVISITCHINAINTHEEARLY1990S,REGIONALENGLISHRADIOSERVICESALSOCAMEINTOBEINGONOCTOBER1,1992,SHANGHAICALLING,THEFIRSTREGIONALENGLISHSERVICE,WASOFFICIALLYLAUNCHEDBYSHANGHAIPEOPLE’SRADIOSTATIONATTHEBEGINNING,SHANGHAICALLINGBROADCASTFORABOUT12HOURSADAY,FOCUSINGONTHELOCALNEWS,WEATHER,MUSICANDSERVICESFORFOREIGNERSINTHELOCALAREAZHU,19922INTHESAMEYEAR,RADIOGUANGDONGWASSTARTED,APPEALINGTOTHELOCALAUDIENCEINTHEPEARLDELTAAREAINSOUTHCHINARANNYLEI,VICEHEADOFINTERNATIONALNEWSSECTIONOFGUANGDONGTVSTATION,PERSONALCOMMUNICATION,JUNE11,2001ONMAY8,2001,BEIJINGALSOSTARTEDATHREEHOURENGLISHSERVICEKNOWNASTOUCHENGLISH,TARGETINGBEIJINGLISTENERSWITHLOCALNEWSANDCHINESECULTURE,INFORMATIONABOUTEASYLIFEINBEIJINGTOUCHENGLISHAIMEDTOCREATEABETTERLANGUAGEENVIRONMENTINTHECAPITALANDTOHELPRAISETHECURRENT15ENGLISHSPEAKINGPOPULATIONTO30BYTHEYEAR2008,ASPARTOFTHEBIDDINGEFFORTFORTHE2008OLYMPICSSINAWEBSITEHOWEVER,EXCEPTFORTOUCHENGLISHWHICHHASJUSTBEENSTARTEDFORTHESAKEOFTHE2008OLYMPICS,OTHERREGIONALENGLISHRADIOSERVICESHAVEBEENSHRINKINGANDAREALMOSTDIMINISHINGTONONEXISTENCESHANGHAICALLINGCEASEDBROADCASTINGIN1998ANDNOWONLYRELAYSTHEENGLISHBROADCASTSOFCRIHEGUANGYU,DEPUTYDIRECTOROFEDITORINCHIEF’SOFFICE,SHANGHAIPEOPLE’SRADIOSTATION,PERSONALCOMMUNICATION,JUNE11,200112MAGAZINESBEFORE1981WHENCHINADAILYWASLAUNCHED,EXCEPTFORENGLISHRADIOSERVICES,THEONLYOTHERENGLISHMEDIAAVAILABLEINCHINAAREENGLISHMAGAZINESSUCHASBEIJINGREVIEW,CHINATODAY,CHINAPICTORIALANDCHINAWOMEN,ALLSPONSOREDBYSUCHBEIJINGBASEDORGANIZATIONSASCHINAFOREIGNLANGUAGEPUBLICATIONADMINISTRATIONANDALLCHINAWOMEN’SFEDERATIONTHETOTALCIRCULATIONOFALLTHEMAGAZINESPUBLISHEDBYTHECHINAINTERNATIONALPUBLISHINGGROUPIS100,000COPIESBOTHDOMESTICALLYANDOVERSEASJIANG,2001LAUNCHEDONMARCH5,1958,BEIJINGREVIEWSTARTEDASTHEFIRSTMULTILINGUALNEWSWEEKLYINCHINA,PUBLISHEDINENGLISH,JAPANESE,FRENCH,GERMANANDSPANISHSINCEEARLY2001,THEFULLCOLORENGLISHEDITIONWILLBETHEONLYPRINTEDFORMOFBEIJINGREVIEW,WITHALLOTHEREDITIONSBEPUBLISHEDONTHEINTERNETCHINANETWEBSITECHINATODAYISAMONTHLYMAGAZINEPUBLISHEDINFIVELANGUAGESINCLUDINGENGLISHTHEFIRSTISSUEOFCHINAPICTORIALWASPUBLISHEDIN1950,ANDLATECHAIRMANMAOZEDONGINSCRIBEDTHETITLEFORTHEMAGAZINECHINAPICTORIALISALSOAMONTHLYMAGAZINEANDPUBLISHEDINCHINESE,ENGLISH,FRENCH,GERMANANDSPANISHDURINGTHEPAST50YEARS,CHINAPICTORIALHASMAINLYFOCUSEDONCHANGESINCHINATHROUGHTRUETOLIFEPICTURESANDSTORIESCHINANETWEBSITEWOMENOFCHINA,LAUNCHEDIN1956,ISACOMPREHENSIVEENGLISHALLCOLORMONTHLYONTHELIFEOFCHINESEWOMENINADDITION,LOCALENGLISHMAGAZINESWEREPUBLISHEDINBIGCITIESLIKESHANGHAISHANGHAITODAYISAMONTHLYTHATREPORTSONTHECULTUREINSHANGHAIZHANGCIYUN,EDITORINCHIEFOFSHANGHAIDAILY,PERSONALCOMMUNICATION,JUNE11,2001SOMESPECIALIZEDJOURNALSSUCHASCHINESEMEDICALJOURNALENGLISHEDITIONAREALSOAVAILABLEINCHINATHEYARENORMALLYPUBLISHEDBYASSOCIATIONSOFTHEKINDSFORINSTANCE,CHINAMEDICALJOURNALENGLISHEDITIONISPUBLISHEDBYTHECHINESEMEDICALASSOCIATIONMEDICALJOURNALWEBSITE13ENGLISHRELEASEOFXINHUANEWSAGENCYALTHOUGHITISNOTAMEDIUMDIRECTLYTARGETINGAUDIENCE,THEENGLISHNEWSRELEASEOFXINHUANEWSAGENCYALSOPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINTHEINTERNATIONALCOMMUNICATIONINCHINATHEENGLISHNEWSRELEASEOFXINHUANEWSAGENCYSTARTEDONSEPTEMBER1,1944WITHASTAFFOFONLYTHREEJU,199412NOWTHEENGLISHNEWSRELEASEHASBECOMEAMAJORINFORMATIONSOURCEFORMEDIAINSTITUTIONSINCHINAANDINTHEWORLDASWELLITISESTIMATEDIN1999THATXINHUANOWRELEASESMORETHAN260NEWSSTORIESANDTWOFEATURESTORIESINENGLISHEACHDAYTOABOUT1,000NEWSMEDIAINMORETHAN100COUNTRIESGUO,200054THEENGLISHRELEASEOFXINHUANEWSAGENCYMAYBELARGEENOUGHFORANEWSAGENCYINANONNATIVECOUNTRY,BUTTHENEWSFLOWSTILLCANNOTBECOMPAREDWITHTHENEWSAGENCIESINENGLISHSPEAKINGCOUNTRIESTHEREFORE,ITSINFLUENCEISSTILLLIMITEDTOSOMEDEGREEYANGGUOQIANG,HEADOFVIPNEWSSECTIONOFXINHUA,PERSONALCOMMUNICATION,20012NEWSPAPERERABEFORE1951,CHINAHADSEVERALINFLUENTIALENGLISHNEWSPAPERS,MOSTOFTHEMWERELOCATEDINSHANGHAI,SUCHASNORTHCHINADAILYNEWS,CELESTIALEMPIREANDSHANGHAIMERCURYBUTDURINGTHENEXTTHIRTYYEARS,THEEXISTENCEOFENGLISHNEWSPAPERSWASVIRTUALLYMADEIMPOSSIBLEBYCONTINUOUSPOLITICALCAMPAIGNS,WHICHBASICALLYISOLATEDCHINAFROMTHERESTOFTHEWORLD
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