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THEPRINCEbyNicoloMachiavelliTranslatedbyW.K.MarriottNicoloMachiavelli,bornatFlorenceon3rdMay1469.From1494to1512heldanofficialpostatFlorencewhichincludeddiplomaticmissionstovariousEuropeancourts.ImprisonedinFlorence,1512laterexiledandreturnedtoSanCasciano.DiedatFlorenceon22ndJune1527.INTRODUCTIONNicoloMachiavelliwasbornatFlorenceon3rdMay1469.HewasthesecondsonofBernardodiNicoloMachiavelli,alawyerofsomerepute,andofBartolommeadiStefanoNelli,hiswife.BothparentsweremembersoftheoldFlorentinenobility.Hislifefallsnaturallyintothreeperiods,eachofwhichsingularlyenoughconstitutesadistinctandimportanterainthehistoryofFlorence.HisyouthwasconcurrentwiththegreatnessofFlorenceasanItalianpowerundertheguidanceofLorenzodeMedici,IlMagnifico.ThedownfalloftheMediciinFlorenceoccurredin1494,inwhichyearMachiavellienteredthepublicservice.DuringhisofficialcareerFlorencewasfreeunderthegovernmentofaRepublic,whichlasteduntil1512,whentheMedicireturnedtopower,andMachiavellilosthis第1页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网office.TheMediciagainruledFlorencefrom1512until1527,whentheywereoncemoredrivenout.ThiswastheperiodofMachiavellisliteraryactivityandincreasinginfluencebuthedied,withinafewweeksoftheexpulsionoftheMedici,on22ndJune1527,inhisfiftyeighthyear,withouthavingregainedoffice.YOUTHAet.125146994AlthoughthereislittlerecordedoftheyouthofMachiavelli,theFlorenceofthosedaysissowellknownthattheearlyenvironmentofthisrepresentativecitizenmaybeeasilyimagined.Florencehasbeendescribedasacitywithtwooppositecurrentsoflife,onedirectedbytheferventandaustereSavonarola,theotherbythesplendourlovingLorenzo.SavonarolasinfluenceupontheyoungMachiavellimusthavebeenslight,foralthoughatonetimehewieldedimmensepoweroverthefortunesofFlorence,heonlyfurnishedMachiavelliwithasubjectofagibeinThePrince,whereheiscitedasanexampleofanunarmedprophetwhocametoabadend.WhereasthemagnificenceoftheMediceanruleduringthelifeofLorenzoappearedtohaveimpressedMachiavellistrongly,forhefrequentlyrecurstoitinhiswritings,anditistoLorenzosgrandsonthathededicatesThePrince.Machiavelli,inhisHistoryofFlorence,givesusapictureoftheyoungmenamongwhomhisyouthwaspassed.HewritesTheywerefreerthantheirforefathersindressandliving,andspentmoreinotherkindsofexcesses,consumingtheirtimeandmoneyinidleness,gaming,andwomentheirchiefaimwastoappearwelldressedandtospeakwithwitandacuteness,whilsthewhocouldwoundothersthemostcleverlywasthoughtthewisest.InalettertohissonGuido,Machiavellishowswhyyouthshouldavailitselfofitsopportunitiesforstudy,andleadsustoinferthathisownyouthhadbeensooccupied.HewritesIhavereceivedyourletter,whichhasgivenmethegreatestpleasure,especiallybecauseyoutellmeyouarequiterestoredinhealth,thanwhichIcouldhavenobetternewsforifGodgrantlifetoyou,andtome,Ihopetomakeagoodmanofyouifyouarewillingtodoyourshare.Then,writingofanewpatron,hecontinuesThiswillturnoutwellforyou,butitisnecessaryforyoutostudysince,then,youhavenolongertheexcuseofillness,takepainstostudylettersandmusic,foryouseewhathonourisdonetomeforthelittleskillIhave.Therefore,myson,ifyouwishtopleaseme,andtobringsuccessandhonourtoyourself,dorightandstudy,becauseotherswillhelpyouifyouhelpyourself.OFFICEAet.254314941512ThesecondperiodofMachiavellislifewasspentintheserviceofthefreeRepublicofFlorence,whichflourished,asstatedabove,fromtheexpulsionoftheMediciin1494untiltheirreturnin1512.AfterservingfouryearsinoneofthepublicofficeshewasappointedChancellorandSecretarytotheSecondChancery,theTenofLibertyandPeace.HereweareonfirmgroundwhendealingwiththeeventsofMachiavellislife,forduringthistimehetookaleadingpartintheaffairsoftheRepublic,andwehaveitsdecrees,records,anddispatchesto第2页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网guideus,aswellashisownwritings.Amererecapitulationofafewofhistransactionswiththestatesmenandsoldiersofhistimegivesafairindicationofhisactivities,andsuppliesthesourcesfromwhichhedrewtheexperiencesandcharacterswhichillustrateThePrince.Hisfirstmissionwasin1499toCatherinaSforza,myladyofForliofThePrince,fromwhoseconductandfatehedrewthemoralthatitisfarbettertoearntheconfidenceofthepeoplethantorelyonfortresses.ThisisaverynoticeableprincipleinMachiavelli,andisurgedbyhiminmanywaysasamatterofvitalimportancetoprinces.In1500hewassenttoFrancetoobtaintermsfromLouisXIIforcontinuingthewaragainstPisathiskingitwaswho,inhisconductofaffairsinItaly,committedthefivecapitalerrorsinstatecraftsummarizedinThePrince,andwasconsequentlydrivenout.He,also,itwaswhomadethedissolutionofhismarriageaconditionofsupporttoPopeAlexanderVIwhichleadsMachiavellitoreferthosewhourgethatsuchpromisesshouldbekepttowhathehaswrittenconcerningthefaithofprinces.MachiavellispubliclifewaslargelyoccupiedwitheventsarisingoutoftheambitionsofPopeAlexanderVIandhisson,CesareBorgia,theDukeValentino,andthesecharactersfillalargespaceofThePrince.Machiavellineverhesitatestocitetheactionsofthedukeforthebenefitofusurperswhowishtokeepthestatestheyhaveseizedhecan,indeed,findnopreceptstooffersogoodasthepatternofCesareBorgiasconduct,insomuchthatCesareisacclaimedbysomecriticsastheheroofThePrince.YetinThePrincethedukeisinpointoffactcitedasatypeofthemanwhorisesonthefortuneofothers,andfallswiththemwhotakeseverycoursethatmightbeexpectedfromaprudentmanbutthecoursewhichwillsavehimwhoispreparedforalleventualitiesbuttheonewhichhappensandwho,whenallhisabilitiesfailtocarryhimthrough,exclaimsthatitwasnothisfault,butanextraordinaryandunforeseenfatality.OnthedeathofPiusIII,in1503,MachiavelliwassenttoRometowatchtheelectionofhissuccessor,andtherehesawCesareBorgiacheatedintoallowingthechoiceoftheCollegetofallonGiulianodelleRovereJuliusII,whowasoneofthecardinalsthathadmostreasontofeartheduke.Machiavelli,whencommentingonthiselection,saysthathewhothinksnewfavourswillcausegreatpersonagestoforgetoldinjuriesdeceiveshimself.JuliusdidnotrestuntilhehadruinedCesare.ItwastoJuliusIIthatMachiavelliwassentin1506,whenthatpontiffwascommencinghisenterpriseagainstBolognawhichhebroughttoasuccessfulissue,ashedidmanyofhisotheradventures,owingchieflytohisimpetuouscharacter.ItisinreferencetoPopeJuliusthatMachiavellimoralizesontheresemblancebetweenFortuneandwomen,andconcludesthatitistheboldratherthanthecautiousmanthatwillwinandholdthemboth.ItisimpossibletofollowherethevaryingfortunesoftheItalianstates,whichin1507werecontrolledbyFrance,Spain,andGermany,withresultsthathavelastedtoourdayweareconcernedwiththoseevents,andwiththethreegreatactorsinthem,sofaronlyastheyimpingeonthepersonalityofMachiavelli.HehadseveralmeetingswithLouisXIIofFrance,andhisestimateofthatmonarchscharacterhasalreadybeenalludedto.MachiavellihaspaintedFerdinandofAragonasthemanwhoaccomplishedgreatthingsunderthecloakofreligion,butwhoinrealityhadnomercy,faith,humanity,orintegrityandwho,hadheallowedhimselftobeinfluencedbysuchmotives,wouldhavebeenruined.TheEmperorMaximilianwasoneofthemostinterestingmenoftheage,andhischaracterhasbeendrawnbymanyhandsbutMachiavelli,whowasanenvoyathiscourtin15078,revealsthesecretofhismanyfailureswhenhedescribeshimasasecretiveman,withoutforceofcharacterignoring第3页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网thehumanagenciesnecessarytocarryhisschemesintoeffect,andneverinsistingonthefulfilmentofhiswishes.TheremainingyearsofMachiavellisofficialcareerwerefilledwitheventsarisingoutoftheLeagueofCambrai,madein1508betweenthethreegreatEuropeanpowersalreadymentionedandthepope,withtheobjectofcrushingtheVenetianRepublic.ThisresultwasattainedinthebattleofVaila,whenVenicelostinonedayallthatshehadwonineighthundredyears.Florencehadadifficultparttoplayduringtheseevents,complicatedastheywerebythefeudwhichbrokeoutbetweenthepopeandtheFrench,becausefriendshipwithFrancehaddictatedtheentirepolicyoftheRepublic.When,in1511,JuliusIIfinallyformedtheHolyLeagueagainstFrance,andwiththeassistanceoftheSwissdrovetheFrenchoutofItaly,FlorencelayatthemercyofthePope,andhadtosubmittohisterms,oneofwhichwasthattheMedicishouldberestored.ThereturnoftheMedicitoFlorenceon1stSeptember1512,andtheconsequentfalloftheRepublic,wasthesignalforthedismissalofMachiavelliandhisfriends,andthusputanendtohispubliccareer,for,aswehaveseen,hediedwithoutregainingoffice.LITERATUREANDDEATHAet.4358151227OnthereturnoftheMedici,Machiavelli,whoforafewweekshadvainlyhopedtoretainhisofficeunderthenewmastersofFlorence,wasdismissedbydecreedated7thNovember1512.ShortlyafterthishewasaccusedofcomplicityinanabortiveconspiracyagainsttheMedici,imprisoned,andputtothequestionbytorture.ThenewMediceanpeople,LeoX,procuredhisrelease,andheretiredtohissmallpropertyatSanCasciano,nearFlorence,wherehedevotedhimselftoliterature.InalettertoFrancescoVettori,dated13thDecember1513,hehasleftaveryinterestingdescriptionofhislifeatthisperiod,whichelucidateshismethodsandhismotivesinwritingThePrince.Afterdescribinghisdailyoccupationswithhisfamilyandneighbours,hewritesTheeveningbeingcome,IreturnhomeandgotomystudyattheentranceIpulloffmypeasantclothes,coveredwithdustanddirt,andputonmynoblecourtdress,andthusbecominglyreclothedIpassintotheancientcourtsofthemenofold,where,beinglovinglyreceivedbythem,IamfedwiththatfoodwhichisminealonewhereIdonothesitatetospeakwiththem,andtoaskforthereasonoftheiractions,andtheyintheirbenignityanswermeandforfourhoursIfeelnoweariness,Iforgeteverytrouble,povertydoesnotdismay,deathdoesnotterrifymeIampossessedentirelybythosegreatmen.AndbecauseDantesaysKnowledgedothcomeoflearningwellretained,Unfruitfulelse,IhavenoteddownwhatIhavegainedfromtheirconversation,andhavecomposedasmallworkonPrincipalities,whereIpourmyselfoutasfullyasIcaninmeditationonthesubject,discussingwhataprincipalityis,whatkindsthereare,howtheycanbeacquired,howtheycanbekept,whytheyarelostandifanyofmyfancieseverpleasedyou,thisoughtnottodispleaseyouandtoaprince,especiallytoanewone,itshouldbewelcomethereforeIdedicateittohisMagnificenceGiuliano.FilippoCasavecchiohasseenithewillbeabletotellyouwhatisinit,andofthediscoursesIhavehadwithhimnevertheless,Iamstillenrichingandpolishingit.第4页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网Thelittlebooksufferedmanyvicissitudesbeforeattainingtheforminwhichithasreachedus.VariousmentalinfluenceswereatworkduringitscompositionitstitleandpatronwerechangedandforsomeunknownreasonitwasfinallydedicatedtoLorenzodeMedici.AlthoughMachiavellidiscussedwithCasavecchiowhetheritshouldbesentorpresentedinpersontothepatron,thereisnoevidencethatLorenzoeverreceivedorevenreadithecertainlynevergaveMachiavellianyemployment.AlthoughitwasplagiarizedduringMachiavellislifetime,ThePrincewasneverpublishedbyhim,anditstextisstilldisputable.MachiavelliconcludeshislettertoVettorithusAndastothislittlethinghisbook,whenithasbeenreaditwillbeseenthatduringthefifteenyearsIhavegiventothestudyofstatecraftIhaveneithersleptnoridledandmenoughtevertodesiretobeservedbyonewhohasreapedexperienceattheexpenseofothers.Andofmyloyaltynonecoulddoubt,becausehavingalwayskeptfaithIcouldnotnowlearnhowtobreakitforhewhohasbeenfaithfulandhonest,asIhave,cannotchangehisnatureandmypovertyisawitnesstomyhonesty.BeforeMachiavellihadgotThePrinceoffhishandshecommencedhisDiscourseontheFirstDecadeofTitusLivius,whichshouldbereadconcurrentlywithThePrince.Theseandseveralminorworksoccupiedhimuntiltheyear1518,whenheacceptedasmallcommissiontolookaftertheaffairsofsomeFlorentinemerchantsatGenoa.In1519theMediceanrulersofFlorencegrantedafewpoliticalconcessionstohercitizens,andMachiavelliwithotherswasconsulteduponanewconstitutionunderwhichtheGreatCouncilwastoberestoredbutononepretextoranotheritwasnotpromulgated.In1520theFlorentinemerchantsagainhadrecoursetoMachiavellitosettletheirdifficultieswithLucca,butthisyearwaschieflyremarkableforhisreentryintoFlorentineliterarysociety,wherehewasmuchsoughtafter,andalsofortheproductionofhisArtofWar.ItwasinthesameyearthathereceivedacommissionattheinstanceofCardinaldeMedicitowritetheHistoryofFlorence,ataskwhichoccupiedhimuntil1525.HisreturntopopularfavourmayhavedeterminedtheMedicitogivehimthisemployment,foranoldwriterobservesthatanablestatesmanoutofwork,likeahugewhale,willendeavourtooverturntheshipunlesshehasanemptycasktoplaywith.WhentheHistoryofFlorencewasfinished,MachiavellitookittoRomeforpresentationtohispatron,GiulianodeMedici,whohadinthemeanwhilebecomepopeunderthetitleofClementVII.Itissomewhatremarkablethat,as,in1513,MachiavellihadwrittenThePrincefortheinstructionoftheMediciaftertheyhadjustregainedpowerinFlorence,so,in1525,hededicatedtheHistoryofFlorencetotheheadofthefamilywhenitsruinwasnowathand.InthatyearthebattleofPaviadestroyedtheFrenchruleinItaly,andleftFrancisIaprisonerinthehandsofhisgreatrival,CharlesV.ThiswasfollowedbythesackofRome,uponthenewsofwhichthepopularpartyatFlorencethrewofftheyokeoftheMedici,whowereoncemorebanished.MachiavelliwasabsentfromFlorenceatthistime,buthastenedhisreturn,hopingtosecurehisformerofficeofsecretarytotheTenofLibertyandPeace.UnhappilyhewastakenillsoonafterhereachedFlorence,wherehediedon22ndJune1527.THEMANANDHISWORKS第5页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网NoonecansaywherethebonesofMachiavellirest,butmodernFlorencehasdecreedhimastatelycenotaphinSantaCroce,bythesideofhermostfamoussonsrecognizingthat,whateverothernationsmayhavefoundinhisworks,ItalyfoundinthemtheideaofherunityandthegermsofherrenaissanceamongthenationsofEurope.Whilstitisidletoprotestagainsttheworldwideandevilsignificationofhisname,itmaybepointedoutthattheharshconstructionofhisdoctrinewhichthissinisterreputationimplieswasunknowntohisownday,andthattheresearchesofrecenttimeshaveenabledustointerprethimmorereasonably.Itisduetotheseinquiriesthattheshapeofanunholynecromancer,whichsolonghauntedmensvision,hasbeguntofade.Machiavelliwasundoubtedlyamanofgreatobservation,acuteness,andindustrynotingwithappreciativeeyewhateverpassedbeforehim,andwithhissupremeliterarygiftturningittoaccountinhisenforcedretirementfromaffairs.Hedoesnotpresenthimself,norishedepictedbyhiscontemporaries,asatypeofthatrarecombination,thesuccessfulstatesmanandauthor,forheappearstohavebeenonlymoderatelyprosperousinhisseveralembassiesandpoliticalemployments.HewasmisledbyCatherinaSforza,ignoredbyLouisXII,overawedbyCesareBorgiaseveralofhisembassieswerequitebarrenofresultshisattemptstofortifyFlorencefailed,andthesoldierythatheraisedastonishedeverybodybytheircowardice.IntheconductofhisownaffairshewastimidandtimeservinghedarednotappearbythesideofSoderini,towhomheowedsomuch,forfearofcompromisinghimselfhisconnectionwiththeMediciwasopentosuspicion,andGiulianoappearstohaverecognizedhisrealfortewhenhesethimtowritetheHistoryofFlorence,ratherthanemployhiminthestate.Anditisontheliterarysideofhischaracter,andtherealone,thatwefindnoweaknessandnofailure.AlthoughthelightofalmostfourcenturieshasbeenfocusedonThePrince,itsproblemsarestilldebatableandinteresting,becausetheyaretheeternalproblemsbetweentheruledandtheirrulers.Suchastheyare,itsethicsarethoseofMachiavelliscontemporariesyettheycannotbesaidtobeoutofdatesolongasthegovernmentsofEuroperelyonmaterialratherthanonmoralforces.ItshistoricalincidentsandpersonagesbecomeinterestingbyreasonoftheuseswhichMachiavellimakesofthemtoillustratehistheoriesofgovernmentandconduct.LeavingoutofconsiderationthosemaximsofstatewhichstillfurnishsomeEuropeanandeasternstatesmenwithprinciplesofaction,ThePrinceisbestrewnwithtruthsthatcanbeprovedateveryturn.Menarestillthedupesoftheirsimplicityandgreed,astheywereinthedaysofAlexanderVI.ThecloakofreligionstillconcealstheviceswhichMachiavellilaidbareinthecharacterofFerdinandofAragon.Menwillnotlookatthingsastheyreallyare,butastheywishthemtobeandareruined.Inpoliticstherearenoperfectlysafecoursesprudenceconsistsinchoosingtheleastdangerousones.ThentopasstoahigherplaneMachiavellireiteratesthat,althoughcrimesmaywinanempire,theydonotwinglory.Necessarywarsarejustwars,andthearmsofanationarehallowedwhenithasnootherresourcebuttofight.ItisthecryofafarlaterdaythanMachiavellisthatgovernmentshouldbeelevatedintoalivingmoralforce,capableofinspiringthepeoplewithajustrecognitionofthefundamentalprinciplesofsocietytothishighargumentThePrincecontributesbutlittle.Machiavellialwaysrefusedtowriteeitherofmenorofgovernmentsotherwisethanashefoundthem,andhewriteswithsuchskillandinsightthathisworkisofabidingvalue.ButwhatinvestsThePrincewithmorethanamerelyartisticorhistoricalinterestistheincontrovertibletruththatitdealswiththegreatprincipleswhichstillguidenationsandrulersintheirrelationshipwitheachotherandtheirneighbours.IntranslatingThePrincemyaimhasbeentoachieveatallcostsanexactliteralrenderingoftheoriginal,ratherthanafluentparaphraseadaptedtothemodernnotionsofstyleandexpression.Machiavelliwasnofacilephrasemongertheconditionsunderwhichhewroteobligedhimtoweigheverywordhisthemeswerelofty,his第6页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网substancegrave,hismannernoblyplainandserious.Quiseofuitunquaminpartiundisrebus,indefiniendis,inexplanandispressiorInThePrince,itmaybetrulysaid,thereisreasonassignable,notonlyforeveryword,butforthepositionofeveryword.ToanEnglishmanofShakespearestimethetranslationofsuchatreatisewasinsomewaysacomparativelyeasytask,forinthosetimesthegeniusoftheEnglishmorenearlyresembledthatoftheItalianlanguagetotheEnglishmanoftodayitisnotsosimple.Totakeasingleexamplethewordintrattenere,employedbyMachiavellitoindicatethepolicyadoptedbytheRomanSenatetowardstheweakerstatesofGreece,wouldbyanElizabethanbecorrectlyrenderedentertain,andeverycontemporaryreaderwouldunderstandwhatwasmeantbysayingthatRomeentertainedtheAetoliansandtheAchaeanswithoutaugmentingtheirpower.Buttodaysuchaphrasewouldseemobsoleteandambiguous,ifnotunmeaningwearecompelledtosaythatRomemaintainedfriendlyrelationswiththeAetolians,etc.,usingfourwordstodotheworkofone.IhavetriedtopreservethepithybrevityoftheItaliansofaraswasconsistentwithanabsolutefidelitytothesense.IftheresultbeanoccasionalasperityIcanonlyhopethatthereader,inhiseagernesstoreachtheauthorsmeaning,mayoverlooktheroughnessoftheroadthatleadshimtoit.ThefollowingisalistoftheworksofMachiavelliPrincipalworks.DiscorsosopralecosediPisa,1499DelmododitrattareipopolidellaValdichianaribellati,1502DelmodotenutodalducaValentinonellammazzareVitellozzoVitelli,OliverottodaFermo,etc.,1502Discorsosopralaprovisionedeldanaro,1502Decennaleprimopoeminterzarima,1506RitrattidellecosedellAlemagna,150812Decennalesecondo,1509RitrattidellecosediFrancia,1510DiscorsisopralaprimadecadiT.Livio,3vols.,151217IlPrincipe,1513Andria,comedytranslatedfromTerence,1513Mandragola,prosecomedyinfiveacts,withprologueinverse,1513Dellalinguadialogue,1514Clizia,comedyinprose,1515Belfagorarcidiavolonovel,1515Asinodoropoeminterzarima,1517Dellartedellaguerra,151920DiscorsosoprailriformarelostatodiFirenze,1520SommariodellecosedellacittadiLucca,1520VitadiCastruccioCastracanidaLucca,1520Istoriefiorentine,8books,15215Frammentistorici,1525.OtherpoemsincludeSonetti,Canzoni,Ottave,andCanticarnascialeschi.Editions.Aldo,Venice,1546dellaTertina,1550Cambiagi,Florence,6vols.,17825deiClassici,Milan,101813Silvestri,9vols.,18202Passerini,Fanfani,Milanesi,6vols.onlypublished,18737.Minorworks.Ed.F.L.Polidori,1852Letterefamiliari,ed.E.Alvisi,1883,2editions,onewithexcisionsCreditedWritings,ed.G.Canestrini,1857LetterstoF.Vettori,seeA.Ridolfi,PensieriintornoalloscopodiN.MachiavellinellibroIlPrincipe,etc.D.Ferrara,ThePrivateCorrespondenceofNicoloMachiavelli,1929.DEDICATIONTotheMagnificentLorenzoDiPieroDeMediciThosewhostrivetoobtainthegoodgracesofaprinceareaccustomedtocomebeforehimwithsuchthingsastheyholdmost第7页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网precious,orinwhichtheyseehimtakemostdelightwhenceoneoftenseeshorses,arms,clothofgold,preciousstones,andsimilarornamentspresentedtoprinces,worthyoftheirgreatness.DesiringthereforetopresentmyselftoyourMagnificencewithsometestimonyofmydevotiontowardsyou,IhavenotfoundamongmypossessionsanythingwhichIholdmoredearthan,orvaluesomuchas,theknowledgeoftheactionsofgreatmen,acquiredbylongexperienceincontemporaryaffairs,andacontinualstudyofantiquitywhich,havingreflecteduponitwithgreatandprolongeddiligence,Inowsend,digestedintoalittlevolume,toyourMagnificence.AndalthoughImayconsiderthisworkunworthyofyourcountenance,neverthelessItrustmuchtoyourbenignitythatitmaybeacceptable,seeingthatitisnotpossibleformetomakeabettergiftthantoofferyoutheopportunityofunderstandingintheshortesttimeallthatIhavelearntinsomanyyears,andwithsomanytroublesanddangerswhichworkIhavenotembellishedwithswellingormagnificentwords,norstuffedwithroundedperiods,norwithanyextrinsicallurementsoradornmentswhatever,withwhichsomanyareaccustomedtoembellishtheirworksforIhavewishedeitherthatnohonourshouldbegivenit,orelsethatthetruthofthematterandtheweightinessofthethemeshallmakeitacceptable.NordoIholdwiththosewhoregarditasapresumptionifamanoflowandhumbleconditiondaretodiscussandsettletheconcernsofprincesbecause,justasthosewhodrawlandscapesplacethemselvesbelowintheplaintocontemplatethenatureofthemountainsandofloftyplaces,andinordertocontemplatetheplainsplacethemselvesuponhighmountains,evensotounderstandthenatureofthepeopleitneedstobeaprince,andtounderstandthatofprincesitneedstobeofthepeople.Takethen,yourMagnificence,thislittlegiftinthespiritinwhichIsenditwherein,ifitbediligentlyreadandconsideredbyyou,youwilllearnmyextremedesirethatyoushouldattainthatgreatnesswhichfortuneandyourotherattributespromise.AndifyourMagnificencefromthesummitofyourgreatnesswillsometimesturnyoureyestotheselowerregions,youwillseehowunmeritedlyIsufferagreatandcontinuedmalignityoffortune.第8页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网THEPRINCECHAPTERIHOWMANYKINDSOFPRINCIPALITIESTHEREARE,ANDBYWHATMEANSTHEYAREACQUIREDAllstates,allpowers,thathaveheldandholdruleovermenhavebeenandareeitherrepublicsorprincipalities.Principalitiesareeitherhereditary,inwhichthefamilyhasbeenlongestablishedortheyarenew.Thenewareeitherentirelynew,aswasMilantoFrancescoSforza,ortheyare,asitwere,membersannexedtothehereditarystateoftheprincewhohasacquiredthem,aswasthekingdomofNaplestothatoftheKingofSpain.Suchdominionsthusacquiredareeitheraccustomedtoliveunderaprince,ortoliveinfreedomandareacquiredeitherbythearmsoftheprincehimself,orofothers,orelsebyfortuneorbyability.CHAPTERIICONCERNINGHEREDITARYPRINCIPALITIESIwillleaveoutalldiscussiononrepublics,inasmuchasinanotherplaceIhavewrittenofthematlength,andwilladdressmyselfonlytoprincipalities.IndoingsoIwillkeeptotheorderindicatedabove,anddiscusshowsuchprincipalitiesaretoberuledandpreserved.Isayatoncetherearefewerdifficultiesinholdinghereditarystates,andthoselongaccustomedtothefamilyoftheirprince,thannewonesforitissufficientonlynottotransgressthecustomsofhisancestors,andtodealprudentlywithcircumstancesastheyarise,foraprinceofaveragepowerstomaintainhimselfinhisstate,unlesshebedeprivedofitbysomeextraordinaryandexcessiveforceandifheshouldbesodeprivedofit,wheneveranythingsinisterhappenstotheusurper,hewillregainit.WehaveinItaly,forexample,theDukeofFerrara,whocouldnothavewithstoodtheattacksoftheVenetiansin84,northoseofPopeJuliusin10,unlesshehadbeenlongestablishedinhisdominions.Forthehereditaryprincehaslesscauseandlessnecessitytooffendhenceithappensthathewillbemorelovedandunlessextraordinaryvicescausehimtobehated,itisreasonabletoexpectthathissubjectswillbenaturallywelldisposedtowardshimandintheantiquityanddurationofhisrulethememoriesandmotivesthatmakeforchangearelost,foronechangealwaysleavesthetoothingforanother.第9页共74页http//www.en8848.com.cn/原版英语阅读网
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