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2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc -- 3 元

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2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题12007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsBy1830theformerSpanishandPortuguesecolonieshadbecomeindependentnations.Theroughly20million大1家ofthesenationslooked大2家tothefuture.BorninthecrisisoftheoldregimeandIberianColonialism,manyoftheleadersofindependence大3家theidealsofrepresentativegovernment,careers大4家totalent,freedomofcommerceandtrade,the大5家toprivateproperty,andabeliefintheindividualasthebasisofsociety.大6家therewasabeliefthatthenewnationsshouldbesovereignandindependentstates,largeenoughtobeeconomicallyviableandintegratedbya大7家setoflaws.Ontheissueof大8家ofreligionandthepositionofthechurch,大9家,therewaslessagreement大10家theleadership.RomanCatholicismhadbeenthestatereligionandtheonlyone大11家bytheSpanishcrown.大12家mostleaderssoughttomaintainCatholicism大13家theofficialreligionofthenewstates,somesoughttoendthe大14家ofotherfaiths.ThedefenseoftheChurchbecamearallying大15家fortheconservativeforces.Theidealsoftheearlyleadersofindependencewereoftenegalitarian,valuingequalityofeverything.BolivarhadreceivedaidfromHaitiandhad大16家inreturntoabolishslaveryintheareasheliberated.By1854slaveryhadbeenabolishedeverywhereexceptSpains大17家colonies.EarlypromisestoendIndiantributeandtaxesonpeopleofmixedorigincamemuch大18家becausethenewnationsstillneededtherevenuesuchpolicies大19家.Egalitariansentimentswereoftentemperedbyfearsthatthemassofthepopulationwas大20家selfruleanddemocracy.1.AnativesBinhabitantsCpeoplesDindividuals2.AconfusedlyBcheerfully2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题2CworriedlyDhopefully3.AsharedBforgotCattainedDrejected4.ArelatedBcloseCopenDdevoted5.AaccessBsuccessionCrightDreturn6.APresumablyBIncidentallyCObviouslyDGenerally7.AuniqueBcommonCparticularDtypical8.AfreedomBoriginCimpactDreform2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题39.AthereforeBhoweverCindeedDmoreover10.AwithBaboutCamongDby11.AallowedBpreachedCgrantedDfunded12.ASinceBIfCUnlessDWhile13.AasBforCunderDagainst14.AspreadBinterferenceCexclusionDinfluence15.AsupportBcry2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题4CpleaDwish16.AurgedBintendedCexpectedDpromised17.AcontrollingBformerCremainingDoriginal18.AslowerBfasterCeasierDtougher19.AcreatedBproducedCcontributedDpreferred20.ApuzzledbyBhostiletoCpessimisticaboutDunpreparedforSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirections2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题5Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,C,orD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1Ifyouweretoexaminethebirthcertificatesofeverysoccerplayerin2006sWorldCuptournament,youwouldmostlikelyfindanoteworthyquirkelitesoccerplayersaremorelikelytohavebeenbornintheearliermonthsoftheyearthaninthelatermonths.IfyouthenexaminedtheEuropeannationalyouthteamsthatfeedtheWorldCupandprofessionalranks,youwouldfindthisstrangephenomenontobeevenmorepronounced.WhatmightaccountforthisstrangephenomenonHereareafewguessesacertainastrologicalsignsconfersuperiorsoccerskillsbwinterbornbabiestendtohavehigheroxygencapacity,whichincreasessoccerstaminacsoccermadparentsaremorelikelytoconceivechildreninspringtime,attheannualpeakofsoccermaniadnoneoftheabove.AndersEricsson,a58yearoldpsychologyprofessoratFloridaStateUniversity,sayshebelievesstronglyinnoneoftheabove.EricssongrewupinSweden,andstudiednuclearengineeringuntilherealizedhewouldhavemoreopportunitytoconducthisownresearchifheswitchedtopsychology.Hisfirstexperiment,nearly30yearsago,involvedmemorytrainingapersontohearandthenrepeatarandomseriesofnumbers.Withthefirstsubject,afterabout20hoursoftraining,hisdigitspanhadrisenfrom7to20,Ericssonrecalls.Hekeptimproving,andafterabout200hoursoftraininghehadrisentoover80numbers.Thissuccess,coupledwithlaterresearchshowingthatmemoryitselfisnotgeneticallydetermined,ledEricssontoconcludethattheactofmemorizingismoreofacognitiveexercisethananintuitiveone.Inotherwords,whateverinborndifferencestwopeoplemayexhibitintheirabilitiestomemorize,thosedifferencesareswampedbyhowwelleachpersonencodestheinformation.Andthebestwaytolearnhowtoencodeinformationmeaningfully,Ericssondetermined,wasaprocessknownasdeliberatepractice.Deliberatepracticeentailsmorethansimplyrepeatingatask.Rather,itinvolvessettingspecificgoals,obtainingimmediatefeedbackandconcentratingasmuchontechniqueasonoutcome.Ericssonandhiscolleagueshavethustakentostudyingexpertperformersinawiderangeofpursuits,includingsoccer.Theygatherallthedatatheycan,notjustperformancestatisticsandbiographicaldetailsbutalsotheresultsoftheirownlaboratoryexperimentswithhighachievers.Theirworkmakesaratherstartlingassertionthetraitwecommonlycalltalentishighlyoverrated.Or,putanotherway,expertperformers–whetherinmemoryorsurgery,balletor2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题6computerprogramming–arenearlyalwaysmade,notborn.21.ThebirthdayphenomenonfoundamongsoccerplayersismentionedtoAstresstheimportanceofprofessionaltraining.BspotlightthesoccersuperstarsintheWorldCup.Cintroducethetopicofwhatmakesexpertperformance.Dexplainwhysomesoccerteamsplaybetterthanothers.22.ThewordmaniaLine4,Paragraph2mostprobablymeansAfun.Bcraze.Chysteria.Dexcitement.23.AccordingtoEricsson,goodmemoryAdependsonmeaningfulprocessingofinformation.Bresultsfromintuitiveratherthancognitiveexercises.Cisdeterminedbygeneticratherthanpsychologicalfactors.Drequiresimmediatefeedbackandahighdegreeofconcentration.24.EricssonandhiscolleaguesbelievethatAtalentisadominatingfactorforprofessionalsuccess.Bbiographicaldataprovidethekeytoexcellentperformance.Ctheroleoftalenttendstobeoverlooked.Dhighachieversowetheirsuccessmostlytonurture.25.WhichofthefollowingproverbsisclosesttothemessagethetexttriestoconveyAFaithwillmovemountains.BOnereapswhatonesows.CPracticemakesperfect.DLikefather,likeson.2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题7Text2Forthepastseveralyears,theSundaynewspapersupplementParadehasfeaturedacolumncalledAskMarilyn.PeopleareinvitedtoqueryMarilynvosSavant,whoatage10hadtestedatamentallevelofsomeoneabout23yearsoldthatgaveheranIQof228–thehighestscoreeverrecorded.IQtestsaskyoutocompleteverbalandvisualanalogies,toenvisionpaperafterithasbeenfoldedandcut,andtodeducenumericalsequences,amongothersimilartasks.SoitisabitconfusingwhenvosSavantfieldssuchqueriesfromtheaverageJoewhoseIQis100as,WhatsthedifferencebetweenloveandfondnessOrwhatisthenatureofluckandcoincidenceItsnotobvioushowthecapacitytovisualizeobjectsandtofigureoutnumericalpatternssuitsonetoanswerquestionsthathaveeludedsomeofthebestpoetsandphilosophers.Clearly,intelligenceencompassesmorethanascoreonatest.JustwhatdoesitmeantobesmartHowmuchofintelligencecanbespecified,andhowmuchcanwelearnaboutitfromneurology,genetics,computerscienceandotherfieldsThedefiningtermofintelligenceinhumansstillseemstobetheIQscore,eventhoughIQtestsarenotgivenasoftenastheyusedtobe.ThetestcomesprimarilyintwoformstheStanfordBinetIntelligenceScaleandtheWechslerIntelligenceScalesbothcomeinadultandchildrensversion.Generallycostingseveralhundreddollars,theyareusuallygivenonlybypsychologists,althoughvariationsofthempopulatebookstoresandtheWorldWideWeb.SuperhighscoreslikevosSavantsarenolongerpossible,becausescoringisnowbasedonastatisticalpopulationdistributionamongagepeers,ratherthansimplydividingthementalagebythechronologicalageandmultiplyingby100.Otherstandardizedtests,suchastheScholasticAssessmentTestSATandtheGraduateRecordExamGRE,capturethemainaspectsofIQtests.Suchstandardizedtestsmaynotassessalltheimportantelementsnecessarytosucceedinschoolandinlife,arguesRobertJ.Sternberg.InhisarticleHowIntelligentIsIntelligenceTesting,Sternbergnotesthattraditionaltestbestassessanalyticalandverbalskillsbutfailtomeasurecreativityandpracticalknowledge,componentsalsocriticaltoproblemsolvingandlifesuccess.Moreover,IQtestsdonotnecessarilypredictsowelloncepopulationsorsituationschange.ResearchhasfoundthatIQpredictedleadershipskillswhenthetestsweregivenunderlowstressconditions,butunderhighstressconditions,IQwasnegativelycorrelatedwithleadership–thatis,itpredictedtheopposite.AnyonewhohastoiledthroughSATwilltestifythattesttakingskillalsomatters,whetheritsknowingwhentoguessorwhatquestionstoskip.2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题826.WhichofthefollowingmayberequiredinanintelligencetestAAnsweringphilosophicalquestions.BFoldingorcuttingpaperintodifferentshapes.CTellingthedifferencesbetweencertainconcepts.DChoosingwordsorgraphssimilartothegivenones.27.WhatcanbeinferredaboutintelligencetestingfromParagraph3APeoplenolongeruseIQscoresasanindicatorofintelligence.BMoreversionsofIQtestsarenowavailableontheInternet.CThetestcontentsandformatsforadultsandchildrenmaybedifferent.DScientistshavedefinedtheimportantelementsofhumanintelligence.28.PeoplenowadayscannolongerachieveIQscoresashighasvosSavantsbecauseAthescoresareobtainedthroughdifferentcomputationalprocedures.Bcreativityratherthananalyticalskillsisemphasizednow.CvosSavantscaseisanextremeonethatwillnotrepeat.DthedefiningcharacteristicofIQtestshaschanged.29.WecanconcludefromthelastparagraphthatAtestscoresmaynotbereliableindicatorsofonesability.BIQscoresandSATresultsarehighlycorrelated.Ctestinginvolvesalotofguesswork.Dtraditionaltestareoutofdate.30.WhatistheauthorsattitudetowardsIQtestsASupportive.BSkeptical.CImpartial.DBiased.2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题9Text3Duringthepastgeneration,theAmericanmiddleclassfamilythatoncecouldcountonhardworkandfairplaytokeepitselffinanciallysecurehadbeentransformedbyeconomicriskandnewrealities.Nowapinkslip,abaddiagnosis,oradisappearingspousecanreduceafamilyfromsolidlymiddleclasstonewlypoorinafewmonths.Injustonegeneration,millionsofmothershavegonetowork,transformingbasicfamilyeconomics.Scholars,policymakers,andcriticsofallstripeshavedebatedthesocialimplicationsofthesechanges,butfewhavelookedatthesideeffectfamilyriskhasrisenaswell.Todaysfamilieshavebudgetedtothelimitsoftheirnewtwopaycheckstatus.Asaresult,theyhavelosttheparachutetheyoncehadintimesoffinancialsetback–abackupearnerusuallyMomwhocouldgointotheworkforceiftheprimaryearnergotlaidofforfellsick.Thisaddedworkereffectcouldsupportthesafetynetofferedbyunemploymentinsuranceordisabilityinsurancetohelpfamiliesweatherbadtimes.Buttoday,adisruptiontofamilyfortunescannolongerbemadeupwithextraincomefromanotherwisestayathomepartner.Duringthesameperiod,familieshavebeenaskedtoabsorbmuchmoreriskintheirretirementincome.Steelworkers,airlineemployees,andnowthoseintheautoindustryarejoiningmillionsoffamilieswhomustworryaboutinterestrates,stockmarketfluctuation,andtheharshrealitythattheymayoutlivetheirretirementmoney.Formuchofthepastyear,PresidentBushcampaignedtomoveSocialSecuritytoasavingaccountmodel,withretireestradingmuchoralloftheirguaranteedpaymentsforpaymentsdependingoninvestmentreturns.Foryoungerfamilies,thepictureisnotanybetter.Boththeabsolutecostofhealthcareandtheshareofitbornebyfamilieshaverisen–andnewlyfashionablehealthsavingsplansarespreadingfromlegislativehallstoWalMartworkers,withmuchhigherdeductiblesandalargenewdoseofinvestmentriskforfamiliesfuturehealthcare.Evendemographicsareworkingagainstthemiddleclassfamily,astheoddsofhavingaweakelderlyparent–andalltheattendantneedforphysicalandfinancialassistance–havejumpedeightfoldinjustonegeneration.Fromthemiddleclassfamilyperspective,muchofthis,understandably,looksfarlesslikeanopportunitytoexercisemorefinancialresponsibility,andagooddealmorelikeafrighteningaccelerationofthewholesaleshiftoffinancialriskontotheiralreadyoverburdenedshoulders.Thefinancialfallouthasbegun,andthepoliticalfalloutmaynotbefarbehind.31.Todaysdoubleincomefamiliesareatgreaterfinancialriskinthat
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