2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc

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2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题12007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SECTIONIUSEOFENGLISHDIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGTEXTCHOOSETHEBESTWORDSFOREACHNUMBEREDBLANKANDMARKA,B,CORDONANSWERSHEET110POINTSBY1830THEFORMERSPANISHANDPORTUGUESECOLONIESHADBECOMEINDEPENDENTNATIONSTHEROUGHLY20MILLION大1家OFTHESENATIONSLOOKED大2家TOTHEFUTUREBORNINTHECRISISOFTHEOLDREGIMEANDIBERIANCOLONIALISM,MANYOFTHELEADERSOFINDEPENDENCE大3家THEIDEALSOFREPRESENTATIVEGOVERNMENT,CAREERS大4家TOTALENT,FREEDOMOFCOMMERCEANDTRADE,THE大5家TOPRIVATEPROPERTY,ANDABELIEFINTHEINDIVIDUALASTHEBASISOFSOCIETY大6家THEREWASABELIEFTHATTHENEWNATIONSSHOULDBESOVEREIGNANDINDEPENDENTSTATES,LARGEENOUGHTOBEECONOMICALLYVIABLEANDINTEGRATEDBYA大7家SETOFLAWSONTHEISSUEOF大8家OFRELIGIONANDTHEPOSITIONOFTHECHURCH,大9家,THEREWASLESSAGREEMENT大10家THELEADERSHIPROMANCATHOLICISMHADBEENTHESTATERELIGIONANDTHEONLYONE大11家BYTHESPANISHCROWN大12家MOSTLEADERSSOUGHTTOMAINTAINCATHOLICISM大13家THEOFFICIALRELIGIONOFTHENEWSTATES,SOMESOUGHTTOENDTHE大14家OFOTHERFAITHSTHEDEFENSEOFTHECHURCHBECAMEARALLYING大15家FORTHECONSERVATIVEFORCESTHEIDEALSOFTHEEARLYLEADERSOFINDEPENDENCEWEREOFTENEGALITARIAN,VALUINGEQUALITYOFEVERYTHINGBOLIVARHADRECEIVEDAIDFROMHAITIANDHAD大16家INRETURNTOABOLISHSLAVERYINTHEAREASHELIBERATEDBY1854SLAVERYHADBEENABOLISHEDEVERYWHEREEXCEPTSPAIN’S大17家COLONIESEARLYPROMISESTOENDINDIANTRIBUTEANDTAXESONPEOPLEOFMIXEDORIGINCAMEMUCH大18家BECAUSETHENEWNATIONSSTILLNEEDEDTHEREVENUESUCHPOLICIES大19家EGALITARIANSENTIMENTSWEREOFTENTEMPEREDBYFEARSTHATTHEMASSOFTHEPOPULATIONWAS大20家SELFRULEANDDEMOCRACY1ANATIVESBINHABITANTSCPEOPLESDINDIVIDUALS2ACONFUSEDLYBCHEERFULLY2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题2CWORRIEDLYDHOPEFULLY3ASHAREDBFORGOTCATTAINEDDREJECTED4ARELATEDBCLOSECOPENDDEVOTED5AACCESSBSUCCESSIONCRIGHTDRETURN6APRESUMABLYBINCIDENTALLYCOBVIOUSLYDGENERALLY7AUNIQUEBCOMMONCPARTICULARDTYPICAL8AFREEDOMBORIGINCIMPACTDREFORM2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题39ATHEREFOREBHOWEVERCINDEEDDMOREOVER10AWITHBABOUTCAMONGDBY11AALLOWEDBPREACHEDCGRANTEDDFUNDED12ASINCEBIFCUNLESSDWHILE13AASBFORCUNDERDAGAINST14ASPREADBINTERFERENCECEXCLUSIONDINFLUENCE15ASUPPORTBCRY2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题4CPLEADWISH16AURGEDBINTENDEDCEXPECTEDDPROMISED17ACONTROLLINGBFORMERCREMAININGDORIGINAL18ASLOWERBFASTERCEASIERDTOUGHER19ACREATEDBPRODUCEDCCONTRIBUTEDDPREFERRED20APUZZLEDBYBHOSTILETOCPESSIMISTICABOUTDUNPREPAREDFORSECTIONIIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONPARTADIRECTIONS2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题5READTHEFOLLOWINGFOURTEXTSANSWERTHEQUESTIONSBELOWEACHTEXTBYCHOOSINGA,B,C,ORDMARKYOURANSWERSONANSWERSHEET140POINTSTEXT1IFYOUWERETOEXAMINETHEBIRTHCERTIFICATESOFEVERYSOCCERPLAYERIN2006’SWORLDCUPTOURNAMENT,YOUWOULDMOSTLIKELYFINDANOTEWORTHYQUIRKELITESOCCERPLAYERSAREMORELIKELYTOHAVEBEENBORNINTHEEARLIERMONTHSOFTHEYEARTHANINTHELATERMONTHSIFYOUTHENEXAMINEDTHEEUROPEANNATIONALYOUTHTEAMSTHATFEEDTHEWORLDCUPANDPROFESSIONALRANKS,YOUWOULDFINDTHISSTRANGEPHENOMENONTOBEEVENMOREPRONOUNCEDWHATMIGHTACCOUNTFORTHISSTRANGEPHENOMENONHEREAREAFEWGUESSESACERTAINASTROLOGICALSIGNSCONFERSUPERIORSOCCERSKILLS;BWINTERBORNBABIESTENDTOHAVEHIGHEROXYGENCAPACITY,WHICHINCREASESSOCCERSTAMINA;CSOCCERMADPARENTSAREMORELIKELYTOCONCEIVECHILDRENINSPRINGTIME,ATTHEANNUALPEAKOFSOCCERMANIA;DNONEOFTHEABOVEANDERSERICSSON,A58YEAROLDPSYCHOLOGYPROFESSORATFLORIDASTATEUNIVERSITY,SAYSHEBELIEVESSTRONGLYIN“NONEOFTHEABOVE”ERICSSONGREWUPINSWEDEN,ANDSTUDIEDNUCLEARENGINEERINGUNTILHEREALIZEDHEWOULDHAVEMOREOPPORTUNITYTOCONDUCTHISOWNRESEARCHIFHESWITCHEDTOPSYCHOLOGYHISFIRSTEXPERIMENT,NEARLY30YEARSAGO,INVOLVEDMEMORYTRAININGAPERSONTOHEARANDTHENREPEATARANDOMSERIESOFNUMBERS“WITHTHEFIRSTSUBJECT,AFTERABOUT20HOURSOFTRAINING,HISDIGITSPANHADRISENFROM7TO20,”ERICSSONRECALLS“HEKEPTIMPROVING,ANDAFTERABOUT200HOURSOFTRAININGHEHADRISENTOOVER80NUMBERS”THISSUCCESS,COUPLEDWITHLATERRESEARCHSHOWINGTHATMEMORYITSELFISNOTGENETICALLYDETERMINED,LEDERICSSONTOCONCLUDETHATTHEACTOFMEMORIZINGISMOREOFACOGNITIVEEXERCISETHANANINTUITIVEONEINOTHERWORDS,WHATEVERINBORNDIFFERENCESTWOPEOPLEMAYEXHIBITINTHEIRABILITIESTOMEMORIZE,THOSEDIFFERENCESARESWAMPEDBYHOWWELLEACHPERSON“ENCODES”THEINFORMATIONANDTHEBESTWAYTOLEARNHOWTOENCODEINFORMATIONMEANINGFULLY,ERICSSONDETERMINED,WASAPROCESSKNOWNASDELIBERATEPRACTICEDELIBERATEPRACTICEENTAILSMORETHANSIMPLYREPEATINGATASKRATHER,ITINVOLVESSETTINGSPECIFICGOALS,OBTAININGIMMEDIATEFEEDBACKANDCONCENTRATINGASMUCHONTECHNIQUEASONOUTCOMEERICSSONANDHISCOLLEAGUESHAVETHUSTAKENTOSTUDYINGEXPERTPERFORMERSINAWIDERANGEOFPURSUITS,INCLUDINGSOCCERTHEYGATHERALLTHEDATATHEYCAN,NOTJUSTPERFORMANCESTATISTICSANDBIOGRAPHICALDETAILSBUTALSOTHERESULTSOFTHEIROWNLABORATORYEXPERIMENTSWITHHIGHACHIEVERSTHEIRWORKMAKESARATHERSTARTLINGASSERTIONTHETRAITWECOMMONLYCALLTALENTISHIGHLYOVERRATEDOR,PUTANOTHERWAY,EXPERTPERFORMERS–WHETHERINMEMORYORSURGERY,BALLETOR2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题6COMPUTERPROGRAMMING–ARENEARLYALWAYSMADE,NOTBORN21THEBIRTHDAYPHENOMENONFOUNDAMONGSOCCERPLAYERSISMENTIONEDTOASTRESSTHEIMPORTANCEOFPROFESSIONALTRAININGBSPOTLIGHTTHESOCCERSUPERSTARSINTHEWORLDCUPCINTRODUCETHETOPICOFWHATMAKESEXPERTPERFORMANCEDEXPLAINWHYSOMESOCCERTEAMSPLAYBETTERTHANOTHERS22THEWORD“MANIA”LINE4,PARAGRAPH2MOSTPROBABLYMEANSAFUNBCRAZECHYSTERIADEXCITEMENT23ACCORDINGTOERICSSON,GOODMEMORYADEPENDSONMEANINGFULPROCESSINGOFINFORMATIONBRESULTSFROMINTUITIVERATHERTHANCOGNITIVEEXERCISESCISDETERMINEDBYGENETICRATHERTHANPSYCHOLOGICALFACTORSDREQUIRESIMMEDIATEFEEDBACKANDAHIGHDEGREEOFCONCENTRATION24ERICSSONANDHISCOLLEAGUESBELIEVETHATATALENTISADOMINATINGFACTORFORPROFESSIONALSUCCESSBBIOGRAPHICALDATAPROVIDETHEKEYTOEXCELLENTPERFORMANCECTHEROLEOFTALENTTENDSTOBEOVERLOOKEDDHIGHACHIEVERSOWETHEIRSUCCESSMOSTLYTONURTURE25WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGPROVERBSISCLOSESTTOTHEMESSAGETHETEXTTRIESTOCONVEYA“FAITHWILLMOVEMOUNTAINS”B“ONEREAPSWHATONESOWS”C“PRACTICEMAKESPERFECT”D“LIKEFATHER,LIKESON”2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题7TEXT2FORTHEPASTSEVERALYEARS,THESUNDAYNEWSPAPERSUPPLEMENTPARADEHASFEATUREDACOLUMNCALLED“ASKMARILYN”PEOPLEAREINVITEDTOQUERYMARILYNVOSSAVANT,WHOATAGE10HADTESTEDATAMENTALLEVELOFSOMEONEABOUT23YEARSOLD;THATGAVEHERANIQOF228–THEHIGHESTSCOREEVERRECORDEDIQTESTSASKYOUTOCOMPLETEVERBALANDVISUALANALOGIES,TOENVISIONPAPERAFTERITHASBEENFOLDEDANDCUT,ANDTODEDUCENUMERICALSEQUENCES,AMONGOTHERSIMILARTASKSSOITISABITCONFUSINGWHENVOSSAVANTFIELDSSUCHQUERIESFROMTHEAVERAGEJOEWHOSEIQIS100AS,WHAT’STHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENLOVEANDFONDNESSORWHATISTHENATUREOFLUCKANDCOINCIDENCEIT’SNOTOBVIOUSHOWTHECAPACITYTOVISUALIZEOBJECTSANDTOFIGUREOUTNUMERICALPATTERNSSUITSONETOANSWERQUESTIONSTHATHAVEELUDEDSOMEOFTHEBESTPOETSANDPHILOSOPHERSCLEARLY,INTELLIGENCEENCOMPASSESMORETHANASCOREONATESTJUSTWHATDOESITMEANTOBESMARTHOWMUCHOFINTELLIGENCECANBESPECIFIED,ANDHOWMUCHCANWELEARNABOUTITFROMNEUROLOGY,GENETICS,COMPUTERSCIENCEANDOTHERFIELDSTHEDEFININGTERMOFINTELLIGENCEINHUMANSSTILLSEEMSTOBETHEIQSCORE,EVENTHOUGHIQTESTSARENOTGIVENASOFTENASTHEYUSEDTOBETHETESTCOMESPRIMARILYINTWOFORMSTHESTANFORDBINETINTELLIGENCESCALEANDTHEWECHSLERINTELLIGENCESCALESBOTHCOMEINADULTANDCHILDREN’SVERSIONGENERALLYCOSTINGSEVERALHUNDREDDOLLARS,THEYAREUSUALLYGIVENONLYBYPSYCHOLOGISTS,ALTHOUGHVARIATIONSOFTHEMPOPULATEBOOKSTORESANDTHEWORLDWIDEWEBSUPERHIGHSCORESLIKEVOSSAVANT’SARENOLONGERPOSSIBLE,BECAUSESCORINGISNOWBASEDONASTATISTICALPOPULATIONDISTRIBUTIONAMONGAGEPEERS,RATHERTHANSIMPLYDIVIDINGTHEMENTALAGEBYTHECHRONOLOGICALAGEANDMULTIPLYINGBY100OTHERSTANDARDIZEDTESTS,SUCHASTHESCHOLASTICASSESSMENTTESTSATANDTHEGRADUATERECORDEXAMGRE,CAPTURETHEMAINASPECTSOFIQTESTSSUCHSTANDARDIZEDTESTSMAYNOTASSESSALLTHEIMPORTANTELEMENTSNECESSARYTOSUCCEEDINSCHOOLANDINLIFE,ARGUESROBERTJSTERNBERGINHISARTICLE“HOWINTELLIGENTISINTELLIGENCETESTING”,STERNBERGNOTESTHATTRADITIONALTESTBESTASSESSANALYTICALANDVERBALSKILLSBUTFAILTOMEASURECREATIVITYANDPRACTICALKNOWLEDGE,COMPONENTSALSOCRITICALTOPROBLEMSOLVINGANDLIFESUCCESSMOREOVER,IQTESTSDONOTNECESSARILYPREDICTSOWELLONCEPOPULATIONSORSITUATIONSCHANGERESEARCHHASFOUNDTHATIQPREDICTEDLEADERSHIPSKILLSWHENTHETESTSWEREGIVENUNDERLOWSTRESSCONDITIONS,BUTUNDERHIGHSTRESSCONDITIONS,IQWASNEGATIVELYCORRELATEDWITHLEADERSHIP–THATIS,ITPREDICTEDTHEOPPOSITEANYONEWHOHASTOILEDTHROUGHSATWILLTESTIFYTHATTESTTAKINGSKILLALSOMATTERS,WHETHERIT’SKNOWINGWHENTOGUESSORWHATQUESTIONSTOSKIP2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题826WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGMAYBEREQUIREDINANINTELLIGENCETESTAANSWERINGPHILOSOPHICALQUESTIONSBFOLDINGORCUTTINGPAPERINTODIFFERENTSHAPESCTELLINGTHEDIFFERENCESBETWEENCERTAINCONCEPTSDCHOOSINGWORDSORGRAPHSSIMILARTOTHEGIVENONES27WHATCANBEINFERREDABOUTINTELLIGENCETESTINGFROMPARAGRAPH3APEOPLENOLONGERUSEIQSCORESASANINDICATOROFINTELLIGENCEBMOREVERSIONSOFIQTESTSARENOWAVAILABLEONTHEINTERNETCTHETESTCONTENTSANDFORMATSFORADULTSANDCHILDRENMAYBEDIFFERENTDSCIENTISTSHAVEDEFINEDTHEIMPORTANTELEMENTSOFHUMANINTELLIGENCE28PEOPLENOWADAYSCANNOLONGERACHIEVEIQSCORESASHIGHASVOSSAVANT’SBECAUSEATHESCORESAREOBTAINEDTHROUGHDIFFERENTCOMPUTATIONALPROCEDURESBCREATIVITYRATHERTHANANALYTICALSKILLSISEMPHASIZEDNOWCVOSSAVANT’SCASEISANEXTREMEONETHATWILLNOTREPEATDTHEDEFININGCHARACTERISTICOFIQTESTSHASCHANGED29WECANCONCLUDEFROMTHELASTPARAGRAPHTHATATESTSCORESMAYNOTBERELIABLEINDICATORSOFONE’SABILITYBIQSCORESANDSATRESULTSAREHIGHLYCORRELATEDCTESTINGINVOLVESALOTOFGUESSWORKDTRADITIONALTESTAREOUTOFDATE30WHATISTHEAUTHOR’SATTITUDETOWARDSIQTESTSASUPPORTIVEBSKEPTICALCIMPARTIALDBIASED2007年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题9TEXT3DURINGTHEPASTGENERATION,THEAMERICANMIDDLECLASSFAMILYTHATONCECOULDCOUNTONHARDWORKANDFAIRPLAYTOKEEPITSELFFINANCIALLYSECUREHADBEENTRANSFORMEDBYECONOMICRISKANDNEWREALITIESNOWAPINKSLIP,ABADDIAGNOSIS,ORADISAPPEARINGSPOUSECANREDUCEAFAMILYFROMSOLIDLYMIDDLECLASSTONEWLYPOORINAFEWMONTHSINJUSTONEGENERATION,MILLIONSOFMOTHERSHAVEGONETOWORK,TRANSFORMINGBASICFAMILYECONOMICSSCHOLARS,POLICYMAKERS,ANDCRITICSOFALLSTRIPESHAVEDEBATEDTHESOCIALIMPLICATIONSOFTHESECHANGES,BUTFEWHAVELOOKEDATTHESIDEEFFECTFAMILYRISKHASRISENASWELLTODAY’SFAMILIESHAVEBUDGETEDTOTHELIMITSOFTHEIRNEWTWOPAYCHECKSTATUSASARESULT,THEYHAVELOSTTHEPARACHUTETHEYONCEHADINTIMESOFFINANCIALSETBACK–ABACKUPEARNERUSUALLYMOMWHOCOULDGOINTOTHEWORKFORCEIFTHEPRIMARYEARNERGOTLAIDOFFORFELLSICKTHIS“ADDEDWORKEREFFECT”COULDSUPPORTTHESAFETYNETOFFEREDBYUNEMPLOYMENTINSURANCEORDISABILITYINSURANCETOHELPFAMILIESWEATHERBADTIMESBUTTODAY,ADISRUPTIONTOFAMILYFORTUNESCANNOLONGERBEMADEUPWITHEXTRAINCOMEFROMANOTHERWISESTAYATHOMEPARTNERDURINGTHESAMEPERIOD,FAMILIESHAVEBEENASKEDTOABSORBMUCHMORERIS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