2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc

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2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题12008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SECTIONIUSEOFENGLISHDIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGTEXTCHOOSETHEBESTWORDSFOREACHNUMBEREDBLANKANDMARKA,B,CORDONANSWERSHEET110POINTSTHEIDEATHATSOMEGROUPSOFPEOPLEMAYBEMOREINTELLIGENTTHANOTHERSISONEOFTHOSEHYPOTHESESTHATDARENOTSPEAKITSNAMEBUTGREGORYCOCHRANIS大1家TOSAYITANYWAYHEISTHAT大2家BIRD,ASCIENTISTWHOWORKSINDEPENDENTLY大3家ANYINSTITUTIONHEHELPEDPOPULARIZETHEIDEATHATSOMEDISEASESNOT大4家THOUGHTTOHAVEABACTERIALCAUSEWEREACTUALLYINFECTIONS,WHICHAROUSEDMUCHCONTROVERSYWHENITWASFIRSTSUGGESTED大5家HE,HOWEVER,MIGHTTREMBLEATTHE大6家OFWHATHEISABOUTTODOTOGETHERWITHANOTHERTWOSCIENTISTS,HEISPUBLISHINGAPAPERWHICHNOTONLY大7家THATONEGROUPOFHUMANITYISMOREINTELLIGENTTHANTHEOTHERS,BUTEXPLAINSTHEPROCESSTHATHASBROUGHTTHISABOUTTHEGROUPIN大8家AREAPARTICULARPEOPLEORIGINATEDFROMCENTRALEUROPETHEPROCESSISNATURALSELECTIONTHISGROUPGENERALLYDOWELLINIQTEST,大9家1215POINTSABOVETHE大10家VALUEOF100,ANDHAVECONTRIBUTED大11家TOTHEINTELLECTUALANDCULTURALLIFEOFTHEWEST,ASTHE大12家OFTHEIRELITES,INCLUDINGSEVERALWORLDRENOWNEDSCIENTISTS,大13家THEYALSOSUFFERMOREOFTENTHANMOSTPEOPLEFROMANUMBEROFNASTYGENETICDISEASES,SUCHASBREASTCANCERTHESEFACTS,大14家,HAVEPREVIOUSLYBEENTHOUGHTUNRELATEDTHEFORMERHASBEEN大15家TOSOCIALEFFECTS,SUCHASASTRONGTRADITIONOF大16家EDUCATIONTHELATTERWASSEENASAAN大17家OFGENETICISOLATIONDRCOCHRANSUGGESTSTHATTHEINTELLIGENCEANDDISEASESAREINTIMATELY大18家HISARGUMENTISTHATTHEUNUSUALHISTORYOFTHESEPEOPLEHAS大19家THEMTOUNIQUEEVOLUTIONARYPRESSURESTHATHAVERESULTEDINTHIS大20家STATEOFAFFAIRS1ASELECTEDBPREPAREDCOBLIGEDDPLEASED2AUNIQUEBPARTICULARCSPECIALDRARE3AOFBWITHCINDAGAINST4ASUBSEQUENTLYBPRESENTLYCPREVIOUSLYDLATELY2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题25AONLYBSOCEVENDHENCE6ATHOUGHTBSIGHTCCOSTDRISK7AADVISESBSUGGESTSCPROTESTSDOBJECTS8APROGRESSBFACTCNEEDDQUESTION9AATTAININGBSCORINGCREACHINGDCALCULATING10ANORMALBCOMMONCMEANDTOTAL11AUNCONSCIOUSLYBDISPROPORTIONATELYCINDEFINITELYDUNACCOUNTABLY12AMISSIONSBFORTUNESCINTERESTSDCAREERS13AAFFIRMBWITNESSCOBSERVEDAPPROVE14AMOREOVERBTHEREFORECHOWEVERDMEANWHILE15AGIVENUPBGOTOVERCCARRIEDONDPUTDOWN16AASSESSINGBSUPERVISINGCADMINISTERINGDVALUING17ADEVELOPMENTBORIGINCCONSEQUENCEDINSTRUMENT18ALINKEDBINTEGRATEDCWOVENDCOMBINED19ALIMITEDBSUBJECTEDCCONVERTEDDDIRECTED20APARADOXICALBINCOMPATIBLECINEVITABLEDCONTINUOUSSECTIONIIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONPARTADIRECTIONS2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题3READTHEFOLLOWINGFOURTEXTSANSWERTHEQUESTIONSBELOWEACHTEXTBYCHOOSINGA,B,CORDMARKYOURANSWERSONANSWERSHEET140POINTSTEXT1WHILESTILLCATCHINGUPTOMENINSOMESPHERESOFMODERNLIFE,WOMENAPPEARTOBEWAYAHEADINATLEASTONEUNDESIRABLECATEGORY“WOMENAREPARTICULARLYSUSCEPTIBLETODEVELOPINGDEPRESSIONANDANXIETYDISORDERSINRESPONSETOSTRESSCOMPAREDTOMEN,”ACCORDINGTODRYEHUDA,CHIEFPSYCHIATRISTATNEWYORK’SVETERAN’SADMINISTRATIONHOSPITALSTUDIESOFBOTHANIMALSANDHUMANSHAVESHOWNTHATSEXHORMONESSOMEHOWAFFECTTHESTRESSRESPONSE,CAUSINGFEMALESUNDERSTRESSTOPRODUCEMOREOFTHETRIGGERCHEMICALSTHANDOMALESUNDERTHESAMECONDITIONSINSEVERALOFTHESTUDIES,WHENSTRESSEDOUTFEMALERATSHADTHEIROVARIESTHEFEMALEREPRODUCTIVEORGANSREMOVED,THEIRCHEMICALRESPONSESBECAMEEQUALTOTHOSEOFTHEMALESADDINGTOAWOMAN’SINCREASEDDOSEOFSTRESSCHEMICALS,AREHERINCREASED“OPPORTUNITIES”FORSTRESS“IT’SNOTNECESSARILYTHATWOMENDON’TCOPEASWELLIT’SJUSTTHATTHEYHAVESOMUCHMORETOCOPEWITH,”SAYSDRYEHUDA“THEIRCAPACITYFORTOLERATINGSTRESSMAYEVENBEGREATERTHANMEN’S,”SHEOBSERVES,“IT’SJUSTTHATTHEY’REDEALINGWITHSOMANYMORETHINGSTHATTHEYBECOMEWORNOUTFROMITMOREVISIBLYANDSOONER”DRYEHUDANOTESANOTHERDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHESEXES“ITHINKTHATTHEKINDSOFTHINGSTHATWOMENAREEXPOSEDTOTENDTOBEINMOREOFACHRONICORREPEATEDNATUREMENGOTOWARANDAREEXPOSEDTOCOMBATSTRESSMENAREEXPOSEDTOMOREACTSOFRANDOMPHYSICALVIOLENCETHEKINDSOFINTERPERSONALVIOLENCETHATWOMENAREEXPOSEDTOTENDTOBEINDOMESTICSITUATIONS,BY,UNFORTUNATELY,PARENTSOROTHERFAMILYMEMBERS,ANDTHEYTENDNOTTOBEONESHOTDEALSTHEWEARANDTEARTHATCOMESFROMTHESELONGERRELATIONSHIPSCANBEQUITEDEVASTATING”ADELINEALVAREZMARRIEDAT18ANDGAVEBIRTHTOASON,BUTWASDETERMINEDTOFINISHCOLLEGE“ISTRUGGLEDALOTTOGETTHECOLLEGEDEGREEIWASLIVINGINSOMUCHFRUSTRATIONTHATTHATWASMYESCAPE,TOGOTOSCHOOL,ANDGETAHEADANDDOBETTER”LATER,HERMARRIAGEENDEDANDSHEBECAMEASINGLEMOTHER“IT’STHEHARDESTTHINGTOTAKECAREOFATEENAGER,HAVEAJOB,PAYTHERENT,PAYTHECARPAYMENT,ANDPAYTHEDEBTILIVEDFROMPAYCHECKTOPAYCHECK”NOTEVERYONEEXPERIENCESTHEKINDSOFSEVERECHRONICSTRESSESALVAREZDESCRIBESBUTMOSTWOMENTODAYARECOPINGWITHALOTOFOBLIGATIONS,WITHFEWBREAKS,ANDFEELINGTHESTRAINALVAREZ’SEXPERIENCEDEMONSTRATESTHEIMPORTANCEOFFINDINGWAYSTODIFFUSESTRESSBEFOREITTHREATENSYOURHEALTHANDYOURABILITYTOFUNCTION2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题421WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTRUEACCORDINGTOTHEFIRSTTWOPARAGRAPHSAWOMENAREBIOLOGICALLYMOREVULNERABLETOSTRESSBWOMENARESTILLSUFFERINGMUCHSTRESSCAUSEDBYMENCWOMENAREMOREEXPERIENCEDTHANMENINCOPINGWITHSTRESSDMENANDWOMENSHOWDIFFERENTINCLINATIONSWHENFACEDWITHSTRESS22DRYEHUDA’SRESEARCHSUGGESTSTHATWOMENANEEDEXTRADOSESOFCHEMICALSTOHANDLESTRESSBHAVELIMITEDCAPACITYFORTOLERATINGSTRESSCAREMORECAPABLEOFAVOIDINGSTRESSDAREEXPOSEDTOMORESTRESS23ACCORDINGTOPARAGRAPH4,THESTRESSWOMENCONFRONTTENDSTOBEADOMESTICANDTEMPORARYBIRREGULARANDVIOLENTCDURABLEANDFREQUENTDTRIVIALANDRANDOM24THESENTENCE“ILIVEDFROMPAYCHECKTOPAYCHECK”LINE6,PARA5SHOWSTHATAALVAREZCAREDABOUTNOTHINGBUTMAKINGMONEYBALVAREZ’SSALARYBARELYCOVEREDHERHOUSEHOLDEXPENSESCALVAREZGOTPAYCHECKSFROMDIFFERENTJOBSDALVAREZPAIDPRACTICALLYEVERYTHINGBYCHECK25WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGWOULDBETHEBESTTITLEFORTHETEXTASTRAINOFSTRESSNOWAYOUTBRESPONSESTOSTRESSGENDERDIFFERENCECSTRESSANALYSISWHATCHEMICALSSAYDGENDERINEQUALITYWOMENUNDERSTRESS2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题5TEXT2ITUSEDTOBESOSTRAIGHTFORWARDATEAMOFRESEARCHERSWORKINGTOGETHERINTHELABORATORYWOULDSUBMITTHERESULTSOFTHEIRRESEARCHTOAJOURNALAJOURNALEDITORWOULDTHENREMOVETHEAUTHORS’NAMESANDAFFILIATIONSFROMTHEPAPERANDSENDITTOTHEIRPEERSFORREVIEWDEPENDINGONTHECOMMENTSRECEIVED,THEEDITORWOULDACCEPTTHEPAPERFORPUBLICATIONORDECLINEITCOPYRIGHTRESTEDWITHTHEJOURNALPUBLISHER,ANDRESEARCHERSSEEKINGKNOWLEDGEOFTHERESULTSWOULDHAVETOSUBSCRIBETOTHEJOURNALNOLONGERTHEINTERNET–ANDPRESSUREFROMFUNDINGAGENCIES,WHOAREQUESTIONINGWHYCOMMERCIALPUBLISHERSAREMAKINGMONEYFROMGOVERNMENTFUNDEDRESEARCHBYRESTRICTINGACCESSTOIT–ISMAKINGACCESSTOSCIENTIFICRESULTSAREALITYTHEORGANIZATIONFORECONOMICCOOPERATIONANDDEVELOPMENTOECDHASJUSTISSUEDAREPORTDESCRIBINGTHEFARREACHINGCONSEQUENCESOFTHISTHEREPORT,BYJOHNHOUGHTONOFVICTORIAUNIVERSITYINAUSTRALIAANDGRAHAMVICKERYOFTHEOECD,MAKESHEAVYREADINGFORPUBLISHERSWHOHAVE,SOFAR,MADEHANDSOMEPROFITSBUTITGOESFURTHERTHANTHATITSIGNALSACHANGEINWHATHAS,UNTILNOW,BEENAKEYELEMENTOFSCIENTIFICENDEAVORTHEVALUEOFKNOWLEDGEANDTHERETURNONTHEPUBLICINVESTMENTINRESEARCHDEPENDS,INPART,UPONWIDEDISTRIBUTIONANDREADYACCESSITISBIGBUSINESSINAMERICA,THECORESCIENTIFICPUBLISHINGMARKETISESTIMATEDATBETWEEN7BILLIONAND11BILLIONTHEINTERNATIONALASSOCIATIONOFSCIENTIFIC,TECHNICALANDMEDICALPUBLISHERSSAYSTHATTHEREAREMORETHAN2,000PUBLISHERSWORLDWIDESPECIALIZINGINTHESESUBJECTSTHEYPUBLISHMORETHAN12MILLIONARTICLESEACHYEARINSOME16,000JOURNALSTHISISNOWCHANGINGACCORDINGTOTHEOECDREPORT,SOME75OFSCHOLARLYJOURNALSARENOWONLINEENTIRELYNEWBUSINESSMODELSAREEMERGING;THREEMAINONESWEREIDENTIFIEDBYTHEREPORT’SAUTHORSTHEREISTHESOCALLEDBIGDEAL,WHEREINSTITUTIONALSUBSCRIBERSPAYFORACCESSTOACOLLECTIONOFONLINEJOURNALTITLESTHROUGHSITELICENSINGAGREEMENTSTHEREISOPENACCESSPUBLISHING,TYPICALLYSUPPORTEDBYASKINGTHEAUTHORORHISEMPLOYERTOPAYFORTHEPAPERTOBEPUBLISHEDFINALLY,THEREAREOPENACCESSARCHIVES,WHEREORGANIZATIONSSUCHASUNIVERSITIESORINTERNATIONALLABORATORIESSUPPORTINSTITUTIONALREPOSITORIESOTHERMODELSEXISTTHATAREHYBRIDSOFTHESETHREE,SUCHASDELAYEDOPENACCESS,WHEREJOURNALSALLOWONLYSUBSCRIBERSTOREADAPAPERFORTHEFIRSTSIXMONTHS,BEFOREMAKINGITFREELYAVAILABLETOEVERYONEWHOWISHESTOSEEITALLTHISCOULDCHANGETHETRADITIONALFORMOFTHEPEERREVIEWPROCESS,ATLEASTFORTHEPUBLICATIONOFPAPERS2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题626INTHEFIRSTPARAGRAPH,THEAUTHORDISCUSSESATHEBACKGROUNDINFORMATIONOFJOURNALEDITINGBTHEPUBLICATIONROUTINEOFLABORATORYREPORTSCTHERELATIONSOFAUTHORSWITHJOURNALPUBLISHERSDTHETRADITIONALPROCESSOFJOURNALPUBLICATION27WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTRUEOFTHEOECDREPORTAITCRITICIZESGOVERNMENTFUNDEDRESEARCHBITINTRODUCESANEFFECTIVEMEANSOFPUBLICATIONCITUPSETSPROFITMAKINGJOURNALPUBLISHERSDITBENEFITSSCIENTIFICRESEARCHCONSIDERABLY28ACCORDINGTOTHETEXT,ONLINEPUBLICATIONISSIGNIFICANTINTHATAITPROVIDESANEASIERACCESSTOSCIENTIFICRESULTSBITBRINGSHUGEPROFITSTOSCIENTIFICRESEARCHERSCITEMPHASIZESTHECRUCIALROLEOFSCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGEDITFACILITATESPUBLICINVESTMENTINSCIENTIFICRESEARCH29WITHTHEOPENACCESSPUBLISHINGMODEL,THEAUTHOROFAPAPERISREQUIREDTOACOVERTHECOSTOFITSPUBLICATIONBSUBSCRIBETOTHEJOURNALPUBLISHINGITCALLOWOTHERONLINEJOURNALSTOUSEITFREELYDCOMPLETETHEPEERREVIEWBEFORESUBMISSION30WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGBESTSUMMARIZESTHETEXTATHEINTERNETISPOSINGATHREATTOPUBLISHERSBANEWMODEOFPUBLICATIONISEMERGINGCAUTHORSWELCOMETHENEWCHANNELFORPUBLICATIONDPUBLICATIONISRENDEREDEASIERBYONLINESERVICE2008年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题7TEXT3INTHEEARLY1960SWILTCHAMBERLAINWASONEOFONLYTHREEPLAYERSINTHENATIONALBASKETBALLASSOCIATIONNBALISTEDATOVERSEVENFEETIFHEHADPLAYEDLASTSEASON,HOWEVER,HEWOULDHAVEBEENONEOF42THEBODIESPLAYINGMAJORPROFESSIONALSPORTSHAVECHANGEDDRAMATICALLYOVERTHEYEARS,ANDMANAGERSHAVEBEENMORETHANWILLINGTOADJUSTTEAMUNIFORMSTOFITTHEGROWINGNUMBERSOFBIGGER,LONGERFRAMESTHETRENDINSPORTS,THOUGH,MAYBEOBSCURINGANUNRECOGNIZEDREALITYAMERICANSHAVEGENERALLYSTOPPEDGROWINGTHOUGHTYPICALLYABOUTTWOINCHESTALLERNOWTHAN140YEARSAGO,TODAY’SPEOPLE–ESPECIALLYTHOSEBORNTOFAMILIESWHOHAVELIVEDINTHEUSFORMANYGENERATIONS–APPARENTLYREACHEDTHEIRLIMITINTHEEARLY1960SANDTHEYAREN’TLIKELYTOGETANYTALLER“INTHEGENERALPOPULATIONTODAY,ATTHISGENETIC,ENVIRONMENTALLEVEL,WE’VEPRETTYMUCHGONEASFARASWECANGO,”SAYSANTHROPOLOGISTWILLIAMCAMERONCHUMLEAOFWRIGHTSTATEUNIVERSITYINTHECASEOFNBAPLAYERS,THEIRINCREASEINHEIGHTAPPEARSTORESULTFROMTHEINCREASINGLYCOMMONPRACTICEOFRECRUITINGPLAYERSFROMALLOVERTHEWORLDGROWTH,WHICHRARELYCONTINUESBEYONDTHEAGEOF20,DEMANDSCALORIESANDNUTRIENTS–NOTABLY,PROTEIN–TOFEEDEXPANDINGTISSUESATTHESTARTOFTHE20THCENTURY,UNDERNUTRITIONANDCHILDHOODINFECTIONSGOTINTHEWAYBUTASDIETANDHEALTHIMPROVED,CHILDRENANDADOLESCENTSHAVE,ONAVERAGE,INCREASEDINHEIGHTBYABOUTANINCHANDAHALFEVERY20YEARS,APATTERNKNOWNASTH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