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2009年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc2009年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc -- 3 元

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更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台2009年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsResearchonanimalintelligencealwaysmakesmewonderjusthowsmarthumansare.大1家thefruitflyexperimentsdescribedinCarlZimmerspieceintheScienceTimesonTuesday.Fruitflieswhoweretaughttobesmarterthantheaveragefruitfly大2家toliveshorterlives.Thissuggeststhat大3家bulbsburnlonger,thatthereisan大4家innotbeingtooterrificallybright.Intelligence,it大5家out,isahighpricedoption.Ittakesmoreupkeep,burnsmorefuelandisslow大6家thestartinglinebecauseitdependsonlearningagradual大7家insteadofinstinct.Plentyofotherspeciesareabletolearn,andoneofthethingstheyveapparentlylearnediswhento大8家.Isthereanadaptivevalueto大9家intelligenceThatsthequestionbehindthisnewresearch.Ilikeit.Insteadofcastingawistfulglance大10家atallthespeciesweveleftinthedustI.Q.wise,itimplicitlyaskswhatthereal大11家ofourownintelligencemightbe.Thisis大12家themindofeveryanimalIveevermet.Researchonanimalintelligencealsomakesmewonderwhatexperimentsanimalswould大13家onhumansiftheyhadthechance.Everycatwithanowner,大14家,isrunningasmallscalestudyinoperantconditioning.webelievethat大15家animalsranthelabs,theywouldtestusto大16家thelimitsofourpatience,ourfaithfulness,ourmemoryforterrain.Theywouldtrytodecidewhatintelligenceinhumansisreally大1家7,notmerelyhowmuchofitthereis.大18家,theywouldhopetostudya大19家questionArehumansactuallyawareoftheworldtheylivein大20家theresultsareinconclusive.1.ASupposeBConsiderCObserveDImagine2.AtendedBfearedChappenedDthreatened3.AthinnerBstablerClighterDdimmer4.AtendencyBadvantageCinclinationDpriority更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台5.AinsistsonBsumsupCturnsoutDputsforward6.AoffBbehindCoverDalong7.AincredibleBspontaneousCinevitableDgradual8.AfightBdoubtCstopDthink9.AinvisibleBlimitedCindefiniteDdifferent10.AupwardBforwardCafterwardDbackward11.AfeaturesBinfluencesCresultsDcosts12.AoutsideBonCbyDacross13.AdeliverBcarryCperformDapply14.AbychanceBincontrastCasusualDforinstance15.AifBunlessCasDlest16.AmoderateBovercomeCdetermineDreach17.AatBforCafterDwith18.AAboveallBAfterallCHoweverDOtherwise19.AfundamentalBcomprehensiveCequivalentDhostile20.AByaccidentBIntimeCSofarDBetterstillSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1Habitsareafunnything.Wereachforthemmindlessly,settingourbrainsonautopilotandrelaxingintotheunconsciouscomfortoffamiliarroutine.Notchoice,buthabitrulestheunreflectingherd,WilliamWordsworthsaidinthe19thcentury.Intheeverchanging21stcentury,eventhewordhabitcarriesanegativeconnotation.Soitseemsantitheticaltotalkabouthabitsinthesamecontextascreativityandinnovation.Butbrainresearchershavediscoveredthatwhenweconsciouslydevelopnewhabits,wecreateparallelsynapticpaths,andevenentirelynewbraincells,thatcanjumpourtrainsofthoughtontonew,innovativetracks.Butdontbothertryingtokilloffoldhabitsoncethoserutsofprocedurearewornintothehippocampus,theyretheretostay.Instead,thenewhabitswedeliberatelyingrainintoourselvescreateparallelpathwaysthatcanbypassthoseoldroads.Thefirstthingneededforinnovationisafascinationwithwonder,saysDawnaMarkova,authorofTheOpenMindandanexecutivechangeconsultantforProfessionalThinkingPartners.Butwearetaughtinsteadtodecide,justasourpresidentcallshimselftheDecider.Sheadds,however,thattodecideistokilloffallpossibilitiesbutone.Agoodinnovationalthinkerisalwaysexploringthemanyotherpossibilities.Allofusworkthroughproblemsinwaysofwhichwereunaware,shesays.Researchersinthelate1960coveredthathumansarebornwiththecapacitytoapproachchallengesinfourprimarywaysanalytically,procedurally,relationallyorcollaborativelyandinnovatively.Atpuberty,however,thebrainshutsdownhalfofthatcapacity,preservingonlythosemodesofthoughtthathaveseemedmostvaluableduringthefirstdecadeorsooflife.Thecurrentemphasisonstandardizedtestinghighlightsanalysisandprocedure,meaningthatfewofusinherentlyuseourinnovativeandcollaborativemodesofthought.ThisbreaksthemajorruleintheAmericanbeliefsystemthatanyonecandoanything,explainsM.J.Ryan,authorofthe2006bookThisYearIWill...andMs.Markovasbusinesspartner.Thatsaliethatwehaveperpetuated,anditfosterscommonness.Knowingwhatyouregoodatanddoingevenmoreofitcreatesexcellence.Thisiswheredevelopingnewhabitscomesin.21.TheviewofWordsworthhabitisclaimedbybeing________.A.casualB.familiarC.mechanicalD.changeable更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台22.Theresearchershavediscoveredthattheformationofhabitcanbe________A.predictedB.regulatedC.tracedD.guided23.rutsinlineone,paragraph3hasclosestmeaningto________A.tracksB.seriesC.characteristicsD.connections24.Ms.Markovascommentssuggestthatthepracticeofstandardtesting________A,preventsnewhabitsformbeingformedB,nolongeremphasizescommonnessC,maintainstheinherentAmericanthinkingmodelD,complieswiththeAmericanbeliefsystem25.RyanmostprobablyagreethatA.ideasarebornofarelaxingmindB.innovativenesscouldbetaughtC.decisivenessderivesfromfantasticideasD.curiosityactivatescreativemindsText2Itisawisefatherthatknowshisownchild,buttodayamancanboosthispaternalfatherlywisdom–oratleastconfirmthathesthekidsdad.Allheneedstodoisshellour30forpaternitytestingkitPTKathislocaldrugstore–andanother120togettheresults.Morethan60,000peoplehavepurchasedthePTKssincetheyfirstbecomeavailablewithoutprescriptionslastyears,accordingtoDougFog,chiefoperatingofficerofIdentigene,whichmakestheoverthecounterkits.MorethantwodozencompaniessellDNAtestsDirectlytothepublic,ranginginpricefromafewhundreddollarstomorethan2500.Amongthemostpopularpaternityandkinshiptesting,whichadoptedchildrencanusetofindtheirbiologicalrelativesandlatestrageamanypassionategenealogistsandsupportsbusinessesthatoffertosearchforafamilysgeographicroots.Mosttestsrequirecollectingcellsbywebbingsalivainthemouthandsendingittothecompanyfortesting.AlltestsrequireapotentialcandidatewithwhomtocompareDNA.Butsomeobserversareskeptical,Thereisakindoffalseprecisionbeinghawkedbypeople更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台claimingtheyaredoingancestrytesting,saysTreyDuster,aNewYorkUniversitysociologist.Henotesthateachindividualhasmanyancestorsnumberinginthehundredsjustafewcenturiesback.Yetmostancestrytestingonlyconsidersasinglelineage,eithertheYchromosomeinheritedthroughmeninafatherslineormitochondrialDNA,whichapasseddownonlyfrommothers.ThisDNAcanrevealgeneticinformationaboutonlyoneortwoancestors,eventhough,forexample,justthreegenerationsbackpeoplealsohavesixothergreatgrandparentsor,fourgenerationsback,14othergreatgreatgrandparents.Criticsalsoarguethatcommercialgenetictestingisonlyasgoodasthereferencecollectionstowhichasampleiscompared.Databasesusedbysomecompaniesdontrelyondatacollectedsystematicallybutratherlumptogetherinformationfromdifferentresearchprojects.ThismeansthataDNAdatabasemaydifferdependingonthecompanythatprocessestheresults.Inaddition,thecomputerprogramsacompanyusestoestimaterelationshipsmaybepatentedandnotsubjecttopeerrevieworoutsideevaluation.26.Inparagraphs1and2,thetextshowsPTKs___________.AeasyavailabilityBflexibilityinpricingCsuccessfulpromotionDpopularitywithhouseholds27.PTKisusedto__________.AlocateonesbirthplaceBpromotegeneticresearchCidentifyparentchildkinshipDchoosechildrenforadoption28.Skepticalobserversbelievethatancestrytestingfailsto__________.AtracedistantancestorsBrebuildreliablebloodlinesCfullyusegeneticinformationDachievetheclaimedaccuracy29.Inthelastparagraph,aproblemcommercialgenetictestingfacesis__________.更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台AdisorganizeddatacollectionBoverlappingdatabasebuildingCexcessivesamplecomparisonDlackofpatentevaluation30.Anappropriatetitleforthetextismostlikelytobe__________.AForsandAgainstsofDNAtestingBDNAtestingandItsproblemsCDNAtestingoutsidethelabDliesbehindDNAtestingText3Therelationshipbetweenformaleducationandeconomicgrowthinpoorcountriesiswidelymisunderstoodbyeconomistsandpoliticiansalikeprogressinbothareaisundoubtedlynecessaryforthesocial,politicalandintellectualdevelopmentoftheseandallothersocietieshowever,theconventionalviewthateducationshouldbeoneoftheveryhighestprioritiesforpromotingrapideconomicdevelopmentinpoorcountriesiswrong.Wearefortunatethatisit,becauseneweducationalsystemsthereandputtingenoughpeoplethroughthemtoimproveeconomicperformancewouldrequiretwoorthreegenerations.Thefindingsofaresearchinstitutionhaveconsistentlyshownthatworkersinallcountriescanbetrainedonthejobtoachieveradicalhigherproductivityand,asaresult,radicallyhigherstandardsofliving.Ironically,thefirstevidenceforthisideaappearedintheUnitedStates.Notlongago,withthecountryenteringarecessingandJapanatitsprebubblepeak.TheU.S.workforcewasderidedaspoorlyeducatedandoneofprimarycauseofthepoorU.S.economicperformance.Japanwas,andremains,thegloballeaderinautomotiveassemblyproductivity.YettheresearchrevealedthattheU.S.factoriesofHondaNissan,andToyotaachievedabout95percentoftheproductivityoftheirJapanesecounterpartsaresultofthetrainingthatU.S.workersreceivedonthejob.Morerecently,whileexamininghousingconstruction,theresearchersdiscoveredthatilliterate,nonEnglishspeakingMexicanworkersinHouston,Texas,consistentlymetbestpracticelaborproductivitystandardsdespitethecomplexityofthebuildingindustryswork.WhatistherealrelationshipbetweeneducationandeconomicdevelopmentWehavetosuspectthatcontinuingeconomicgrowthpromotesthedevelopmentofeducationevenwhengovernmentsdontforceit.Afterall,thatshoweducationgotstarted.Whenourancestorswere更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台huntersandgatherers10,000yearsago,theydidnthavetimetowondermuchaboutanythingbesidesfindingfood.Onlywhenhumanitybegantogetitsfoodinamoreproductivewaywastheretimeforotherthings.Aseducationimproved,humanitysproductivitypotential,theycouldinturnaffordmoreeducation.Thisincreasinglyhighlevelofeducationisprobablyanecessary,butnotasufficient,conditionforthecomplexpoliticalsystemsrequiredbyadvancedeconomicperformance.Thuspoorcountriesmightnotbeabletoescapetheirpovertytrapswithoutpoliticalchangesthatmaybepossibleonlywithbroaderformaleducation.Alackofformaleducation,however,doesntconstraintheabilityofthedevelopingworldsworkforcetosubstantiallyimproveproductivityfortheforestedfuture.Onthecontrary,constraintsonimprovingproductivityexplainwhyeducationisntdevelopingmorequicklytherethanitis.31.Theauthorholdsinparagraph1thattheimportantofeducationinpoorcountries___________.AissubjectgroundlessdoubtsBhasfallenvictimofbiasCisconventionaldowngradedDhasbeenoverestimated32.Itisstatedinparagraph1thatconstructionofaneweducationsystem__________.AchallengeseconomistsandpoliticiansBtakeseffortsofgenerationsCdemandspriorityfromthegovernmentDrequiressufficientlaborforce33.AmajordifferencebetweentheJapaneseandU.Sworkforcesisthat__________.AtheJapaneseworkforceisbetterdisciplinedBtheJapaneseworkforceismoreproductiveCtheU.SworkforcehasabettereducationDtheU.Sworkforceismoreorganize34.Theauthorquotestheexampleofourancestorstoshowthateducationemerged__________.Awhenpeoplehadenoughtime更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台BpriortobetterwaysoffindingfoodCwhenpeopleonlongerwenthungDasaresultofpressureongovernment35.Accordingtothelastparagraph,developmentofeducation__________.AresultsdirectlyfromcompetitiveenvironmentsBdoesnotdependoneconomicperformanceCfollowsimprovedproductivityDcannotaffordpoliticalchangesText4ThemostthoroughlystudiedinthehistoryofthenewworldaretheministersandpoliticalleadersofseventeenthcenturyNewEngland.AccordingtothestandardhistoryofAmericanphilosophy,nowhereelseincolonialAmericawasSomuchimportantattachedtointellectualpursuitsAccordingtomanybooksandarticles,NewEnglandsleadersestablishedthebasicthemesandpreoccupationsofanunfolding,dominantPuritantraditioninAmericanintellectuallife.TotakethisapproachtotheNewEnglandersnormallymeantostartwiththePuritanstheologicalinnovationsandtheirdistinctiveideasaboutthechurchimportantsubjectsthatwemaynotneglect.Butinkeepingwithourexaminationofsouthernintellectuallife,wemayconsidertheoriginalPuritansascarriersofEuropeancultureadjustingtoNewworldcircumstances.TheNewEnglandcolonieswerethescenesofimportantepisodesinthepursuitofwidelyunderstoodidealsofcivilityandvirtuosity.TheearlysettlersofMassachusettsBayincludedmenofimpressiveeducationandinfluenceinEngland.BesidestheninetyorsolearnedministerswhocametoMassachusettschurchinthedecadeafter1629,TherewerepoliticalleaderslikeJohnWinthrop,aneducatedgentleman,lawyer,andofficialoftheCrownbeforehejourneyedtoBoston.Theremenwroteandpublishedextensively,reachingbothNewWorldandOldWorldaudiences,andgivingNewEnglandanatmosphereofintellectualearnestness.Weshouldnotforget,however,thatmostNewEnglanderswerelesswelleducated.Whilefewcraftsmenorfarmers,letalonedependentsandservants,leftliterarycompositionstobeanalyzed,Theinthinkingoftenhadatraditionalsuperstitionsquality.AtailornamedJohnDane,whoemigratedinthelate1630s,leftanaccountofhisreasonsforleavingEnglandthatisfilled更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台withsigns.sexualconfusion,economicfrustrations,andreligioushopeallnametogetherinadecisivemomentwhenheopenedtheBible,toldhisfatherthefirstlinehesawwouldsettlehisfate,andreadthemagicalwordscomeoutfromamongthem,touchnouncleanthing,andIwillbeyourGodandyoushallbemypeople.OnewonderswhatDanethoughtofthecarefulsermonsexplainingtheBiblethatheheardinpuritanchurched.Meanwhile,manysettleshadslighterreligiouscommitmentsthanDanes,asoneclergymanlearnedinconfrontingfolkalongthecoastwhomockedthattheyhadnotcometotheNewworldforreligion.Ourmainendwastocatchfish.36.TheauthornotesthatintheseventeenthcenturyNewEngland___________.APuritantraditiondominatedpoliticallife.Bintellectualinterestswereencouraged.CPoliticsbenefitedmuchfromintellectualendeavors.Dintellectualpursuitsenjoyedaliberalenvironment.37.Itissuggestedinparagraph2thatNewEnglanders__________.Aexperiencedacomparativelypeacefulearlyhistory.BbroughtwiththemthecultureoftheOldWorldCpaidlittleattentiontosouthernintellectuallifeDwereobsessedwithreligiousinnovations38.TheearlyministersandpoliticalleadersinMassachusettsBay__________.AwerefamousintheNewWorldfortheirwritingsBgainedincreasingimportanceinreligiousaffairsCabandonedhighpositionsbeforecomingtotheNewWorldDcreatedanewintellectualatmosphereinNewEngland39.ThestoryofJohnDaneshowsthatlesswelleducatedNewEnglanderswereoften__________.AinfluencedbysuperstitionsBtroubledwithreligiousbeliefsCpuzzledbychurchsermons
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