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2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题及答案.doc -- 3 元

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更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsIn1924AmericasNationalResearchCouncilsenttwoengineerstosuperviseaseriesofindustrialexperimentsatalargetelephonepartsfactorycalledtheHawthornePlantnearChicago.Ithopedtheywouldlearnhowstopfloorlighting大1家workersproductivity.Instead,thestudiesended大2家givingtheirnametotheHawthorneeffect,theextremelyinfluentialideathatthevery大3家tobeingexperimenteduponchangedsubjectsbehavior.Theideaarosebecauseofthe大4家behaviorofthewomenintheHawthorneplant.Accordingto大5家oftheexperiments,theirhourlyoutputrosewhenlightingwasincreased,butalsowhenitwasdimmed.Itdidnot大6家whatwasdoneintheexperiment大7家somethingwaschanged,productivityrose.An大8家thattheywerebeingexperimenteduponseemedtobe大9家toalterworkersbehavior大10家itself.Afterseveraldecades,thesamedatawere大11家toeconometrictheanalysis.Hawthorneexperimentshasanothersurprisestore大12家thedescriptionsonrecord,nosystematic大13家wasfoundthatlevelsofproductivitywererelatedtochangesinlighting.Itturnsoutthatpeculiarwayofconductingtheexperimentsmaybehaveletto大14家interpretationofwhathapped.大15家,lightingwasalwayschangedonaSunday.WhenworkstartedagainonMonday,output大16家rosecomparedwiththepreviousSaturdayand大17家toriseforthenextcoupleofdays.大18家,acomparisonwithdataforweekswhentherewasnoexperimentationshowedthatoutputalwayswentuponMonday,workers大19家tobediligentforthefirstfewdaysoftheweekinanycase,before大20家aplateauandthenslackeningoff.ThissuggeststhattheallegedHawthorneeffectishardtopindown.1.AaffectedBachievedCextractedDrestored2.AatBupCwithDoff3.AtruthBsightCactDproof4.AcontroversialBperplexingCmischievousDambiguous更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台5.ArequirementsBexplanationsCaccountsDassessments6.AconcludeBmatterCindicateDwork7.AasfarasBforfearthatCincasethatDsolongas8.AawarenessBexpectationCsentimentDillusion9.AsuitableBexcessiveCenoughDabundant10.AaboutBforConDby11.AcomparedBshownCsubjectedDconveyed12.AcontrarytoBconsistentwithCparallelwithDpeculiarto13.AevidenceBguidanceCimplicationDsource14.AdisputableBenlighteningCreliableDmisleading15.AIncontrastBForexampleCInconsequenceDAsusual16.AdulyBaccidentallyCunpredictablyDsuddenly17.AfailedBceasedCstartedDcontinued20.AbreakingBclimbingCsurpassingDhittingSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1OfallthechangesthathavetakenplaceinEnglishlanguagenewspapersduringthepast更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台quartercentury,perhapsthemostfarreachinghasbeentheinexorabledeclineinthescopeandseriousnessoftheirartscoverage.Itisdifficulttothepointofimpossibilityfortheaveragereaderundertheageoffortytoimagineatimewhenhighqualityartscriticismcouldbefoundinmostbigcitynewspapers.Yetaconsiderablenumberofthemostsignificantcollectionsofcriticismpublishedinthe20thcenturyconsistedinlargepartofnewspaperreviews.Toreadsuchbookstodayistomarvelatthefactthattheirlearnedcontentswereoncedeemedsuitableforpublicationingeneralcirculationdailies.WeareevenfartherremovedfromtheunfocusednewspaperreviewspublishedinEnglandbetweentheturnofthe20thcenturyandtheeveofWorldWarII,atatimewhennewsprintwasdirtcheapandstylishartscriticismwasconsideredanornamenttothepublicationsinwhichitappeared.Inthosefaroffdays,itwastakenforgrantedthatthecriticsofmajorpaperswouldwriteindetailandatlengthabouttheeventstheycovered.Theirswasaseriousbusiness,andeventhosereviewerswhoworetheirlearninglightly,likeGeorgeBernardShawandErnestNewman,couldbetrustedtoknowwhattheywereabout.Thesemenbelievedinjournalismasacalling,andwereproudtobepublishedinthedailypress.Sofewauthorshavebrainsenoughorliterarygiftenoughtokeeptheirownendupinjournalism,Newmanwrote,thatIamtemptedtodefinejournalismasatermofcontemptappliedbywriterswhoarenotreadtowriterswhoare.Unfortunately,thesecriticsarevirtuallyforgotten.NevilleCardus,whowrotefortheManchesterGuardianfrom1917untilshortlybeforehisdeathin1975,isnowknownsolelyasawriterofessaysonthegameofcricket.Duringhislifetime,though,hewasalsooneofEnglandsforemostclassicalmusiccritics,astylistsowidelyadmiredthathisAutobiography1947becameabestseller.Hewasknightedin1967,thefirstmusiccritictobesohonored.Yetonlyoneofhisbooksisnowinprint,andhisvastbodyofwritingsonmusicisunknownsavetospecialists.IsthereanychancethatCardusscriticismwillenjoyarevivalTheprospectseemsremote.Journalistictasteshadchangedlongbeforehisdeath,andpostmodernreadershavelittleusefortherichlyupholsteredVicwardianproseinwhichhespecialized.Moreover,theamateurtraditioninmusiccriticismhasbeeninheadlongretreat.21.ItisindicatedinParagraphs1and2thatAartscriticismhasdisappearedfrombigcitynewspapers.BEnglishlanguagenewspapersusedtocarrymoreartsreviews.Chighqualitynewspapersretainalargebodyofreaders.Dyoungreadersdoubtthesuitabilityofcriticismondailies.更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台22.NewspaperreviewsinEnglandbeforeWorldWarIIwerecharacterizedbyAfreethemes.Bcasualstyle.Celaboratelayout.Dradicalviewpoints.23.WhichofthefollowingwouldShawandNewmanmostprobablyagreeonAItiswritersdutytofulfilljournalisticgoals.BItiscontemptibleforwriterstobejournalists.CWritersarelikelytobetemptedintojournalism.DNotallwritersarecapableofjournalisticwriting.24.WhatcanbelearnedaboutCardusaccordingtothelasttwoparagraphsAHismusiccriticismmaynotappealtoreaderstoday.BHisreputationasamusiccritichaslongbeenindispute.CHisstylecaterslargelytomodernspecialists.DHiswritingsfailtofollowtheamateurtradition.25.WhatwouldbethebesttitleforthetextANewspapersoftheGoodOldDaysBTheLostHorizoninNewspapersCMournfulDeclineofJournalismDProminentCriticsinMemoryText2Overthepastdecade,thousandsofpatentshavebeengrantedforwhatarecalledbusinessmethods.Amazon.comreceivedoneforitsoneclickonlinepaymentsystem.MerrillLynchgotlegalprotectionforanassetallocationstrategy.Oneinventorpatentedatechniqueforliftingabox.Nowthenationstoppatentcourtappearscompletelyreadytoscalebackonbusinessmethodpatents,whichhavebeencontroversialeversincetheywerefirstauthorized10yearsago.InamovethathasintellectualpropertylawyersabuzztheU.S.courtofAppealsforthefederalcircuit更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台saiditwoulduseaparticularcasetoconductabroadreviewofbusinessmethodpatents.InreBilski,asthecaseisknown,isaverybigdeal,saysDennisD.CrouchoftheUniversityofMissouriSchooloflaw.Ithasthepotentialtoeliminateanentireclassofpatents.Curbsonbusinessmethodclaimswouldbeadramaticaboutface,becauseitwasthefederalcircuititselfthatintroducedsuchpatentswithis1998decisioninthesocalledstateStreetBankcase,approvingapatentonawayofpoolingmutualfundassets.Thatrulingproducedanexplosioninbusinessmethodpatentfilings,initiallybyemerginginternetcompaniestryingtostakeoutexclusiverightstospecifictypesofonlinetransactions.Later,moveestablishedcompaniesracedtoaddsuchpatentstotheirfiles,ifonlyasadefensivemoveagainstrivalsthatmightbeatthemtothepunch.In2005,IBMnotedinacourtfilingthatithadbeenissuedmorethan300businessmethodpatentsdespitethefactthatitquestionedthelegalbasisforgrantingthem.Similarly,someWallStreetinvestmentfilmsarmedthemselveswithpatentsforfinancialproducts,evenastheytookpositionsincourtcasesopposingthepractice.TheBilskicaseinvolvesaclaimedpatentonamethodforhedgingriskintheenergymarket.TheFederalcircuitissuedanunusualorderstatingthatthecasewouldbeheardbyall12ofthecourtsjudges,ratherthanatypicalpanelofthree,andthatoneissueitwantstoevaluateiswhetheritshouldreconsideritsstatestreetBankruling.TheFederalCircuitsactioncomesinthewakeofaseriesofrecentdecisionsbythesupremeCourtthathasnarrowedthescopeofprotectionsforpatentholders.LastApril,forexamplethejusticessignaledthattoomanypatentswerebeingupheldforinventionsthatareobvious.ThejudgesontheFederalcircuitarereactingtotheantipatenttrendattheSupremeCourt,saysHaroldC.Wegner,apatentattorneyandprofessoratGeorgeWashingtonUniversityLawSchool.26.BusinessmethodpatentshaverecentlyarousedconcernbecauseofAtheirlimitedvaluetobusinessBtheirconnectionwithassetallocationCthepossiblerestrictionontheirgrantingDthecontroversyoverauthorization27.WhichofthefollowingistrueoftheBilskicaseAItsrulingcomplieswiththecourtdecisionsBItinvolvesaverybigbusinesstransactionCIthasbeendismissedbytheFederalCircuit更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台DItmaychangethelegalpracticesintheU.S.28.ThewordaboutfaceLine1,Para3mostprobablymeansAlossofgoodwillBincreaseofhostilityCchangeofattitudeDenhancementofdignity29.WelearnfromthelasttwoparagraphsthatbusinessmethodpatentsAareimmunetolegalchallengesBareoftenunnecessarilyissuedClowertheesteemforpatentholdersDincreasetheincidenceofrisks30.WhichofthefollowingwouldbethesubjectofthetextAAloomingthreattobusinessmethodpatentsBProtectionforbusinessmethodpatentholdersCAlegalcaseregardingbusinessmethodpatentsDAprevailingtrendagainstbusinessmethodpatentsText3InhisbookTheTippingPoint,MalcolmGladwellarguesthatsocialepidemicsaredriveninlargepartbytheactingofatinyminorityofspecialindividuals,oftencalledinfluentials,whoareunusuallyinformed,persuasive,orwellconnected.Theideaisintuitivelycompelling,butitdoesntexplainhowideasactuallyspread.ThesupposedimportanceofinfluentialsderivesfromaplausiblesoundingbutlargelyuntestedtheorycalledthetwostepflowofcommunicationInformationflowsfromthemediatotheinfluentialsandfromthemtoeveryoneelse.Marketershaveembracedthetwostepflowbecauseitsuggeststhatiftheycanjustfindandinfluencetheinfluentials,thoseselectedpeoplewilldomostoftheworkforthem.Thetheoryalsoseemstoexplainthesuddenandunexpectedpopularityofcertainlooks,brands,orneighborhoods.Inmanysuchcases,acursorysearchforcausesfindsthatsomesmallgroupofpeoplewaswearing,promoting,ordevelopingwhateveritisbeforeanyoneelsepaidattention.Anecdotalevidenceofthiskindfitsnicelywiththeideathat更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台onlycertainspecialpeoplecandrivetrendsIntheirrecentwork,however,someresearchershavecomeupwiththefindingthatinfluentialshavefarlessimpactonsocialepidemicsthanisgenerallysupposed.Infact,theydontseemtoberequiredofall.Theresearchersargumentstemsfromasimpleobservingaboutsocialinfluence,withtheexceptionofafewcelebritieslikeOprahWinfreywhoseoutsizepresenceisprimarilyafunctionofmedia,notinterpersonal,influenceeventhemostinfluentialmembersofapopulationsimplydontinteractwiththatmanyothers.Yetitispreciselythesenoncelebrityinfluentialswho,accordingtothetwostepflowtheory,aresupposedtodrivesocialepidemicsbyinfluencingtheirfriendsandcolleaguesdirectly.Forasocialepidemictooccur,however,eachpersonsoaffected,musttheninfluencehisorherownacquaintances,whomustinturninfluencetheirs,andsoonandjusthowmanyotherspayattentiontoeachofthesepeoplehaslittletodowiththeinitialinfluential.Ifpeopleinthenetworkjusttwodegreesremovedfromtheinitialinfluentialproveresistant,forexamplefromtheinitialinfluentialproveresistant,forexamplethecascadeofchangewontpropagateveryfaroraffectmanypeople.Buildingonthebasictruthaboutinterpersonalinfluence,theresearchersstudiedthedynamicsofpopulationsmanipulatinganumberofvariablesrelatingofpopulations,manipulatinganumberofvariablesrelatingtopeoplesabilitytoinfluenceothersandtheirtendencytobeinfluenced.Ourworkshowsthattheprincipalrequirementforwhatwecallglobalcascades–thewidespreadpropagationofinfluencethroughnetworks–isthepresencenotofafewinfluentialsbut,rather,ofacriticalmassofeasilyinfluencedpeople,eachofwhomadopts,say,alookorabrandafterbeingexposedtoasingleadoptingneighbor.Regardlessofhowinfluentialanindividualislocally,heorshecanexertglobalinfluenceonlyifthiscriticalmassisavailabletopropagateachainreaction.31.BycitingthebookTheTippingPoint,theauthorintendstoAanalyzetheconsequencesofsocialepidemicsBdiscussinfluentialsfunctioninspreadingideasCexemplifypeoplesintuitiveresponsetosocialepidemicsDdescribetheessentialcharacteristicsofinfluentials.32.TheauthorsuggeststhatthetwostepflowtheoryAservesasasolutiontomarketingproblems更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台BhashelpedexplaincertainprevalenttrendsChaswonsupportfrominfluentialsDrequiressolidevidenceforitsvalidity33.WhattheresearchershaveobservedrecentlyshowsthatAthepowerofinfluencegoeswithsocialinteractionsBinterpersonallinkscanbeenhancedthroughthemediaCinfluentialshavemorechannelstoreachthepublicDmostcelebritiesenjoywidemediaattention34.Theunderlinedphrasethesepeopleinparagraph4referstotheoneswhoAstayoutsidethenetworkofsocialinfluenceBhavelittlecontactwiththesourceofinfluenceCareinfluencedandtheninfluenceothersDareinfluencedbytheinitialinfluential35.whatistheessentialelementinthedynamicsofsocialinfluenceATheeagernesstobeacceptedBTheimpulsetoinfluenceothersCThereadinesstobeinfluencedDTheinclinationtorelyonothersText4Bankershavebeenblamingthemselvesfortheirtroublesinpublic.Behindthescenes,theyhavebeentakingaimatsomeoneelsetheaccountingstandardsetters.Theirrules,moanthebanks,haveforcedthemtoreportenormouslosses,anditsjustnotfair.Theserulessaytheymustvaluesomeassetsatthepriceathirdpartywouldpay,notthepricemanagersandregulatorswouldlikethemtofetch.Unfortunately,bankslobbyingnowseemstobeworking.Thedetailsmaybeunknowable,buttheindependenceofstandardsetters,essentialtotheproperfunctioningofcapitalmarkets,isbeingcompromised.And,unlessbankscarrytoxicassetsatpricesthatattractbuyers,revivingthebankingsystemwillbedifficult.更多资料仅在秀文网www.showdoc.cn专业的学习资料文档分享交易平台AfterabruisingencounterwithCongress,AmericasFinancialAccountingStandardsBoardFASBrushedthroughrulechanges.Thesegavebanksmorefreedomtousemodelstovalueilliquidassetsandmoreflexibilityinrecognizinglossesonlongtermassetsintheirincomestatement.BobHerz,theFASBschairman,criedoutagainstthosewhoquestionourmotives.Yetbanksharesroseandthechangesenhancewhatonelobbygrouppolitelycallstheuseofjudgmentbymanagement.EuropeanministersinstantlydemandedthattheInternationalAccountingStandardsBoardIASBdolikewise.TheIASBsaysitdoesnotwanttoactwithoutoverallplanning,butthepressuretofoldwhenitcompletesitreconstructionofruleslaterthisyearisstrong.CharlieMcCreevy,aEuropeancommissioner,warnedtheIASBthatitdidnotliveinapoliticalvacuumbutintherealwordandthatEuropecouldyetdevelopdifferentrules.Itwasbanksthatwereonthewrongplanet,withaccountsthatvastlyovervaluedassets.Todaytheyarguethatmarketpricesoverstatelosses,becausetheylargelyreflectthetemporaryilliquidityofmarkets,notthelikelyextentofbaddebts.Thetruthwillnotbeknownforyears.Butbankssharestradebelowtheirbookvalue,suggestingthatinvestorsareskeptical.Anddeadmarketspartlyreflecttheparalysisofbankswhichwillnotsellassetsforfearofbookinglosses,yetarereluctanttobuyallthosesupposedbargains.Togetthesystemworkingagain,lossesmustberecognizedanddealtwith.Americasnewplantobuyuptoxicassetswillnotworkunlessbanksmarkassetstolevelswhichbuyersfindattractive.Successfulmarketsrequireindependentandevencombativestandardsetters.TheFASBandIASBhavebeenexactlythat,cleaninguprulesonstockoptionsandpensions,forexample,againsthostilityfromspecialinterests.Butbygivingintocriticsnowtheyareinvitingpressuretomakemoreconcessions.36.BankerscomplainedthattheywereforcedtoAfollowunfavorableassetevaluationrulesBcollectpaymentsfromthirdpartiesCcooperatewiththepricemanagersDreevaluatesomeoftheirassets.37.Accordingtotheauthor,therulechangesoftheFASBmayresultinAthediminishingroleofmanagementBtherevivalofthebankingsystem
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