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12012年考研英语25个阅读模版SAMPLE1经济学类题目序号题型归类第1题中心主旨题型第2题反推题型第3题关键词语题型第4题反论题型第5题关键词语题型RecentyearshavebroughtminorityownedbusinessesintheUnitedStatesunprecedentedopportunitiesaswellasnewandsignificantrisks.CivilrightsactivistshavelongarguedthatoneoftheprincipalreasonswhyBlacks,Hispanics,andotherminoritygroupshavedifficultyestablishingthemselvesinbusinessisthattheylackaccesstothesizableordersandsubcontractsthataregeneratedbylargecompanies.NowCongress,inapparentagreement,hasrequiredbylawthatbusinessesawardedfederalcontractsofmorethan500,000dotheirbesttofindminoritysubcontractorsandrecordtheireffortstodosoonformsfiledwiththegovernment.Indeed,somefederalandlocalagencieshavegonesofarastosetspecificpercentagegoalsforapportioningpartsofpublicworkscontractstominorityenterprises.Corporateresponseappearstohavebeensubstantial.Accordingtofigurescollectedin1977,thetotalofcorporatecontractswithminoritybusinessesrosefrom77millionin1972to1.1billionin1977.Theprojectedtotalofcorporatecontractswithminoritybusinessesfortheearly1980sisestimatedtobeover53billionperyearwithnoletupanticipatedinthenextdecade.Promisingasitisforminoritybusinesses,thisincreasedpatronageposesdangersforthem,too.First,minorityfirmsriskexpandingtoofastandoverextendingthemselvesfinancially,sincemostaresmallconcernsand,unlikelargebusinesses,theyoftenneedtomakesubstantialinvestmentsinnewplants,staff,equipment,andthelikeinordertoperformworksubcontractedtothem.If,thereafter,theirsubcontractsareforsomereasonreduced,suchfirmscanfacepotentiallycripplingfixedexpenses.Theworldofcorporatepurchasingcanbefrustratingforsmallentrepreneurswhogetrequestsforelaborateformalestimatesandbids.Bothconsumevaluabletimeandresources,andasmallcompanyseffortsmustsoonresultinorders,orboththemoraleandthefinancialhealthofthebusinesswillsuffer.AsecondriskisthatWhiteownedcompaniesmayseektocashinontheincreasingapportionmentsthroughformationofjointventureswithminorityownedconcerns.Ofcourse,inmanyinstancestherearelegitimatereasonsforjointventuresclearly,Whiteandminorityenterprisescanteamuptoacquirebusinessthatneithercouldacquirealone.Butcivilrightsgroupsandminoritybusinessownershave2complainedtoCongressaboutminoritiesbeingsetupasfrontswithWhitebacking,ratherthanbeingacceptedasfullpartnersinlegitimatejointventures.Third,aminorityenterprisethatsecuresthebusinessofonelargecorporatecustomeroftenrunthedangerofbecomingandremainingdependent.Eveninthebestofcircumstances,fiercecompetitionfromlarger,moreestablishedcompaniesmakesitdifficultforsmallconcernstobroadentheircustomerbaseswhensuchfirmshavenearlyguaranteedordersfromasinglecorporatebenefactor,theymaytrulyhavetostruggleagainstcomplacencyarisingfromtheircurrentsuccess.1.TheprimarypurposeofthetextistoApresentacommonplaceideaanditsinaccuracies.Bdescribeasituationanditspotentialdrawbacks.Cproposeatemporarysolutiontoaproblem.Danalyzeafrequentsourceofdisagreement.2.ThetextsuggeststhatthefailureofalargebusinesstohaveitsbidsforsubcontractsresultquicklyinordersmightcausesittoAexperiencefrustrationbutnotseriousfinancialharm.Bfacepotentiallycripplingfixedexpenses.Chavetorecorditseffortsonformsfiledwiththegovernment.Dincreaseitsspendingwithminoritysubcontractors.3.Itcanbeinferredfromthetextthat,comparedwiththerequirementsoflaw,thepercentagegoalssetbysomefederalandlocalagenciesline9,paragraph1areAmorepopularwithlargecorporations.Bmoreconcrete.Clesscontroversial.Dlessexpensivetoenforce.4.Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,wouldmostweakentheauthorsassertionthat,inthe1970s,corporateresponsetofederalrequirementsline1,paragraph2wassubstantialACorporatecontractswithminorityownedbusinessestotaled2billionin1979.BBetween1970and1972,corporatecontractswithminorityownedbusinessesdeclinedby25percent.CThefigurescollectedin1977underrepresentedtheextentofcorporatecontractswithminorityownedbusinesses.DThe1.1billionrepresentedthesamepercentageoftotalcorporatespendingin1977asdid77millionin1972.5.Theauthorwouldmostlikelyagreewithwhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutcorporateresponsetoworkingwithminoritysubcontractors3AAnnoyedbytheproliferationoffrontorganizations,corporationsarelikelytoreducetheireffortstoworkwithminorityownedsubcontractorsinthenearfuture.BAlthoughcorporationsshowedconsiderableinterestinworkingwithminoritybusinessesinthe1970s,theiraversiontogovernmentpaperworkmadethemreluctanttopursuemanygovernmentcontracts.CThesignificantresponseofcorporationsinthe1970sislikelytobesustainedandconceivablybeincreasedthroughoutthe1980s.DAlthoughcorporationsareeagertocooperatewithminorityownedbusinesses,ashortageofcapitalinthe1970smadesubstantialresponseimpossible.答案与考点解析1.【答案】B【考点解析】本题是一道中心主旨题。破解本题的关键在于考生是否完全理解本文第一段首句的内容,尤其是第一句中破折号后面的内容。破折号后面的内容和选项B中的itspotentialdrawbacks是相互吻合的。望考生注意培养捕捉全文中心主旨句的能力。2.【答案】A【考点解析】这是一道逻辑思维上的反推题,也可以说是逆向思维题。本题反推即逆向思维的信息依据在第三段的最后一句。该句在谈论小的企业,大概内容是一个小企业的投资要马上在定货中反映出效果,否则其士气和财政前景都将深受影响。根据小的企业的状况,我们可以推导出大的企业所面临的处境。希望考生加强逆向思维即反推的解题能力。3.【答案】B【考点解析】本题是一道关键词语的理解题目,其答案信息来源在第一段的尾句,原文当中的specific一词是本题的答案所在。考生要加强对原文中重点形容词和副词的理解。4.【答案】D【考点解析】这是一道反论题。这种题的关键在于利用原文的信息否定原文所要表达的观点。原文讲少数民族企业签订的合同金额由1972年的7700万美元升至1977年的11亿美元。原文所要表达的观点是合同金额的增长。选项D正是利用原文的信息否定了原文所要表达的观点。选项D所表达的信息是变化增长数字背后的不变。这种题属于较难的题型,希望考生加以重视。5.【答案】C【考点解析】这是一道关键词语理解题。本题的答案信息在第二段的尾句,句中letup一词决定了本题的正确答案是C,因为该词的含义是停顿,减弱。考生在备考过程中要尽力扩大自己的词汇量。4参考译文最近几年美国少数民族所有的企业可以说是空前的机会和重大风险并存。人权活动家早就指出过黑人,拉美裔美国人,以及其他少数民族难以在生意场中立足的主要原因是他们缺少能得到有规模的订货或与大公司分合同的机会。现在议会以一致意见通过法律,要求企业获得价值50万美元以上的联邦合同后要尽最大可能来寻找少数民族合作者,并且需将他们在此点上的成效如何在政府中存档立案。实际上,一些联邦和地方机构走得更远,它们甚至规定了公共合同有多少比例要分给少数民族公司。企业对此的反应是强烈的。从1977年统计的数据看,与少数民族企业签订的合同金额由1972年的7700万美元升至1977年的11亿美元。预计此金额要在80年代前期达到每年30亿美元以上,在下一个10年中看来也不会停止。尽管这对少数民族企业来说前途光明,这种增加的财源也给它们带来了危险。首先,少数民族企业冒着过快膨胀和财政上力不从心的危险,因为它们大部分是小企业,和大企业不同之外在于它们为履行合同常需要在厂房、人员、设备(以及诸如此类)等上做一大笔投资。如果其后由于某种原因其合同量减少,它们将会遇到潜在的财政危机。对于被要求做正式评估和投标的小企业来说,市场供求情况有可能令人非常沮丧。评估和投标都消耗时间、资源,而且一个小企业的投资要马上在定货中反映出效果,否则其士气和财政前景都将深受影响。第二个危险是有些白人企业想通过和少数民族企业合资也能享受更好的待遇。当然,在许多时候,合资是有正当理由的显然,白人和少数民族企业可以联合起来做成任何一方都无法单独完成的事业。但是人权组织和少数民族企业主已经向议会报怨少数民族企业常在合资中成为白人操纵者的前台傀儡,而不是平等的合作伙伴。第三,已获得一个大客户的生意的少数民族企业常会有陷入依赖性的危险。即使在最好的环境下,来自更大、更完备的对手的竞争常使一个小企业很难扩展自己的客户当这样的企业已拥有来自一个客户的近乎稳定的定货时,它们确实需要和眼前的胜利所滋生出的自满做斗争。SAMPLE2生物学类题目序号题型归类第1题审题定位题型第2题句间关系题型第3题审题定位题型第4题归纳推导题型第5题段落结构题型Thefossilremainsofthefirstflyingvertebrates,thepterosaurs,haveintriguedpaleontologistsformorethantwocenturies.Howsuchlargecreatures,whichweighedinsomecasesasmuchasapilotedhanggliderandhadwingspansfrom8to12meters,solvedtheproblemsofpoweredflight,andexactlywhatthesecreatureswere5reptilesorbirdsareamongthequestionsscientistshavepuzzledover.Perhapstheleastcontroversialassertionaboutthepterosaursisthattheywerereptiles.Theirskulls,pelvises,andhindfeetarereptilian.Theanatomyoftheirwingssuggeststhattheydidnotevolveintotheclassofbirds.Inpterosaursagreatlyelongatedfourthfingerofeachforelimbsupportedawinglikemembrane.Theotherfingerswereshortandreptilian,withsharpclaws.Inbirdsthesecondfingeristheprincipalstrutofthewing,whichconsistsprimarilyoffeathers.Ifthepterosaurswalkedonallfours,thethreeshortfingersmayhavebeenemployedforgrasping.Whenapterosaurwalkedorremainedstationary,thefourthfinger,andwithitthewing,couldonlyturnupwardinanextendedinvertedVshapealongeachsideoftheanimalsbody.Thepterosaursresembledbothbirdsandbatsintheiroverallstructureandproportions.Thisisnotsurprisingbecausethedesignofanyflyingvertebrateissubjecttoaerodynamicconstraints.Boththepterosaursandthebirdshavehollowbones,afeaturethatrepresentsasavingsinweight.Inthebirds,however,thesebonesarereinforcedmoremassivelybyinternalstruts.Althoughscalestypicallycoverreptiles,thepterosaursprobablyhadhairycoats.T.H.Huxleyreasonedthatflyingvertebratesmusthavebeenwarmbloodedbecauseflyingimpliesahighrateofmetabolism,whichinturnimpliesahighinternaltemperature.Huxleyspeculatedthatacoatofhairwouldinsulateagainstlossofbodyheatandmightstreamlinethebodytoreducedraginflight.Therecentdiscoveryofapterosaurspecimencoveredinlong,dense,andrelativelythickhairlikefossilmaterialwasthefirstclearevidencethathisreasoningwascorrect.Effortstoexplainhowthepterosaursbecameairbornehaveledtosuggestionsthattheylaunchedthemselvesbyjumpingfromcliffs,bydroppingfromtrees,orevenbyrisingintolightwindsfromthecrestsofwaves.Eachhypothesishasitsdifficulties.Thefirstwronglyassumesthatthepterosaurshindfeetresembledabatsandcouldserveashooksbywhichtheanimalcouldhanginpreparationforflight.Thesecondhypothesisseemsunlikelybecauselargepterosaurscouldnothavelandedintreeswithoutdamagingtheirwings.Thethirdcallsforhighwavestochannelupdrafts.Thewindthatmadesuchwaveshowever,mighthavebeentoostrongforthepterosaurstocontroltheirflightonceairborne.1.ItcanbeinferredfromthetextthatscientistnowgenerallyagreethattheAenormouswingspanofthepterosaursenabledthemtoflygreatdistances.Bstructureoftheskeletonofthepterosaurssuggestsacloseevolutionaryrelationshiptobats.Cfossilremainsofthepterosaursrevealhowtheysolvedtheproblemofpoweredflight.Dpterosaurswerereptiles.2.Theauthorviewstheideathatthepterosaursbecameairbornebyrisingintolightwindscreatedbywavesas6Arevolutionary.Bunlikely.Cunassailable.Dprobable.3.Accordingtothetext,theskeletonofapterosaurcanbedistinguishedfromthatofabirdbytheAsizeofitswingspan.Bpresenceofhollowspacesinitsbones.Canatomicoriginofitswingstrut.Dpresenceofhooklikeprojectionsonitshindfeet.4.TheideasattributedtoT.H.HuxleyinthetextsuggestthathewouldmostlikelyagreewithwhichofthefollowingstatementsAAnanimalsbrainsizehaslittlebearingonitsabilitytomastercomplexbehaviors.BAnanimalsappearanceisofteninfluencedbyenvironmentalrequirementsandphysicalcapabilities.CAnimalswithinagivenfamilygroupareunlikelytochangetheirappearancedramaticallyoveraperiodoftime.DTheoriginofflightinvertebrateswasanaccidentaldevelopmentratherthantheoutcomeofspecializationoradaptation.5.WhichofthefollowingbestdescribestheorganizationofthelastparagraphofthetextANewevidenceisintroducedtosupportatraditionalpointofview.BThreeexplanationsforaphenomenonarepresentedandeachisdisputedbymeansofspecificinformation.CThreehypothesesareoutlinedandevidencesupportingeachisgiven.DRecentdiscoveriesaredescribedandtheirimplicationsforfuturestudyareprojected.答案与考点解析1.【答案】D【考点解析】这是一道审题定位题型。该题的答案信息在第二段的第一句,根据本句的内容即可得出本题的正确答案是D。考生要加强对题干的理解和认识,并且要善于找到原文和题干相吻合之处,否则就会失去解题思路。2.【答案】B【考点解析】本题是一道句间关系题型。本题的答案信息在尾段的第一、二句和尾段的倒数第一、二句。从尾段的第二句Eachhypothesishasitsdifficulties每种假设都有缺陷可以判断作者认为从浪尖上伴轻风飞起7是不可能的。考生要加强对句子之间语意关系的理解。3.【答案】C【考点解析】本题是一道审题定位题。其答案信息在第三段。题干中问翼龙和鸟类骨骼方面的不同。原文第三段中涉及两者相同与不同。第三段的尾句暗示本题的正确答案是C。考生在解题时应加强审题定位的能力。4.【答案】B【考点解析】这是一道归纳推导题。本题的正确答案在第四段的第一、二、三句。这三句话的内容暗示本题的正确答案是B,即动物的外型通常受环境要求和生理能力的影响。考生在解题时应注意提高对原文信息的归纳推导能力。5.【答案】B【考点解析】本题是一道段落结构识别题。尾段的第一句对所谈现象提出了三种解释,然后针对每一种解释进行科学上的否定。可见本题的正确答案是B。考生在复习中应该加强对段落结构的识别能力。参考译文第一批会飞的脊椎动物翼龙的化石,已经让古生物学家感兴趣达两个多世纪了。这种有时和大型滑翔机一样重,而且翅膀展开达812米宽的庞然大物是如何克服飞行时的重力,以及这种生物到底是属于鸟类还是爬行动物,对科学家们来讲仍旧是个谜。可能,最少引起争论的意见就是翼龙是爬行动物。它们的头盖骨、骨盆以及后腿都是爬行动物类型。对它们翅膀的解剖学研究证明它们尚未进化为鸟。翼龙每个前肢的大大延长的第四指支撑一个翅膀状的薄膜,其它指头小,而且是典型的爬行动物式,有尖爪。而鸟类的第二指进化成为翅膀的主要支架,翅膀也主要是羽毛构成的。当翼龙四肢爬行时,其它指可以用来抓取。而当它行走或不动时,第四指,连同翅膀,只能向上伸展,在身体两侧呈倒转的V字型。翼龙和鸟类以及蝙蝠在总体结构及比例上很相似。这并不奇怪,因为任何飞翔脊椎动物都要受空气动力的约束。翼龙和鸟都有中空的骨头,这是为了节省重量。不过在鸟类中,这种骨头受内部支柱影响,重量大大增加。尽管爬行动物通常全身鳞片,翼龙却可能拥有毛发。赫胥黎对此解释说,飞翔脊椎动物肯定已经是热血动物,因为飞翔要求一个高新陈代谢率,后者要求一个较高的体温。赫氏设想一层毛发覆盖物可以隔绝身体热量的损失,从而使身体在减轻飞行重量方面更为有效。最近一些有又长又密且厚的毛发的翼龙化石的发现,终于明白无误地证明赫氏的观点是对的。解释翼龙怎样起飞的努力产生以下设想它们从悬崖上起跳,或从树上起跳或者甚至从浪尖上伴轻风飞起。每种假设都有缺陷。第一种错误地设想翼龙的后爪象蝙蝠一样,钩子似的挂着为飞行做准备。第二种看来也不可能,因为大型翼龙不可能降在树上而不伤害它们的翅膀。第三种假设必须要有高浪来形成上升气流才能实现。然而,能产生此种大浪的风可能对翼龙来说过于猛烈,以至于它一8旦升空,就无法控制自己。SAMPLE3历史学题目序号题型归类第1题中心主旨题型第2题细节推导题型第3题段落间关系题型第4题审题定位题型第5题段落间关系与指代词题型BetweentheeighthandeleventhcenturiesA.D.,theByzantineEmpirestagedanalmostunparalleledeconomicandculturalrevival,arecoverythatisallthemorestrikingbecauseitfollowedalongperiodofsevereinternaldecline.Bytheearlyeighthcentury,theempirehadlostroughlytwothirdsoftheterritoryithadpossessedintheyear600,anditsremainingareawasbeingraidedbyArabsandBulgarians,whoattimesthreatenedtotakeConstantinopleandextinguishedtheempirealtogether.Thewealthofthestateanditssubjectswasgreatlydiminished,andartisticandliteraryproductionhadvirtuallyceased.Bytheearlyeleventhcentury,however,theempirehadregainedalmosthalfofitslostpossessions,itsnewfrontiersweresecure,anditsinfluenceextendedfarbeyonditsborders.Theeconomyhadrecovered,thetreasurywasfull,andartandscholarshiphadadvanced.ToconsidertheByzantinemilitary,cultural,andeconomicadvancesasdifferentiatedaspectsofasinglephenomenonisreasonable.Afterall,thesethreeformsofprogresshavegonetogetherinanumberofstatesandcivilizations.RomeunderAugustusandfifthcenturyAthensprovidethemostobviousexamplesinantiquity.Moreover,anexaminationoftheapparentsequentialconnectionsamongmilitary,economic,andculturalformsofprogressmighthelpexplainthedynamicsofhistoricalchange.ThecommonexplanationoftheseapparentconnectionsinthecaseofByzantiumwouldrunlikethiswhentheempirehadturnedbackenemyraidsonitsownterritoryandhadbeguntoraidandconquerenemyterritory,Byzantineresourcesnaturallyexpandedandmoremoneybecameavailabletopatronizeartandliterature.Therefore,Byzantinemilitaryachievementsledtoeconomicadvances,whichinturnledtoculturalrevival.Nodoubtthishypotheticalpatterndidapplyattimesduringthecourseoftherecovery.Yetitisnotclearthatmilitaryadvancesinvariablycamefirst.Economicadvancessecond,andintellectualadvancesthird.Inthe860stheByzantineEmpirebegantorecoverfromArabincursionssothatby872themilitarybalancewiththeAbbasidCaliphatehadbeenpermanentlyalteredintheempiresfavor.Thebeginning9oftheempireseconomicrevival,however,canbeplacedbetween810and830.Finally,theByzantinerevivaloflearningappearstohavebegunevenearlier.Anumberofnotablescholarsandwritersappearedby788and,bythelastdecadeoftheeighthcentury,aculturalrevivalwasinfullbloom,arevivalthatlasteduntilthefallofConstantinoplein1453.ThusthecommonlyexpectedorderofmilitaryrevivalfollowedbyeconomicandthenbyculturalrecoverywasreversedinByzantium.Infact,therevivalofByzantinelearningmayitselfhaveinfluencedthesubsequenteconomicandmilitaryexpansion.1.WhichofthefollowingbeststatesthecentralideaofthetextATheByzantineEmpirewasauniquecaseinwhichtheusualorderofmilitaryandeconomicrevivalprecedingculturalrevivalwasreversed.BTheeconomic,cultural,andmilitaryrevivalintheByzantineEmpirebetweentheeighthandeleventhcenturieswassimilarinitsordertothesequenceofrevivalinAugustanRomeandfifthcenturyAthens.CAfter810Byzantineeconomicrecoveryspurredamilitaryand,later,culturalexpansionthatlasteduntil1453.DTherevivaloftheByzantineEmpirebetweentheeighthandeleventhcenturiesshowsculturalrebirthprecedingeconomicandmilitaryrevival,thereverseofthegenerallyacceptedsequenceofprogress.2.ItcanbeinferredfromthetextthattheByzantineEmpiresustainedsignificantterritoriallossesAin600.Bduringtheseventhcentury.CacenturyaftertheculturalachievementsoftheByzantineEmpirehadbeenlost.DsoonaftertherevivalofByzantinelearning.3.Inthethirdparagraph,theauthormostprobablyprovidesanexplanationoftheapparentconnectionsamongeconomic,military,andculturaldevelopmentinordertoAsuggestthattheprocessofrevivalinByzantiumaccordswiththismodel.BsetupanorderofeventsthatisthenshowntobenotgenerallyapplicabletothecaseofByzantium.CcastaspersionsontraditionalhistoricalscholarshipaboutByzantium.DsuggestthatByzantiumrepresentsacaseforwhichnohistoricalprecedentexists.4.WhichofthefollowingdoestheauthormentionascrucialevidenceconcerningthemannerinwhichtheByzantinerevivalbeganATheByzantinemilitaryrevivalofthe860sledtoeconomicandculturaladvances.
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