语言文化论文-A Brief Analysis of english teaching in senior high school.doc语言文化论文-A Brief Analysis of english teaching in senior high school.doc

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语言文化论文ABRIEFANALYSISOFENGLISHTEACHINGINSENIORHIGHSCHOOLABSTRACTCLASSROOMTEACHINGISTHEMAINWAYFORSTUDENTSTOLEARNENGLISHBUTINSENIORHIGHSCHOOL,ALOTSOFPROBELMSSTILLEXSITINTHEENGLISHTEACHINGESPECIALLYINTHETEACHINGOFREADINGANDWRITINGINTHISPAPER,THEIMPORTANCEANDMETHODSOFREADINGANDWRITINGWILLBEFURTHERDISCUSSEDKEYWORDSREADINGWRITINGTECHNIQUESINTRODUCTIONCLASSESSHOULDBELEARNERCENTERED,WITHMEANINGFUL,FUNCTIONALACTIVITIES,OFTEN,CLASSESBEGINBYFINDINGOUTWHATTHESTUDENTSDON’TKNOWTHESECLASSESOPERATEONTHEASSUMPTIONTHATTHEREISAGREATDEALOFINFORMATIONTHATSTUDENTSLACKANDTHATTHETEACHERANDTEXTBOOKSWILLIMPACTTHATINFORMATIONTOTHESTUDENTSTEACHERSWHOHOLDTHISASSUMPTIONVIEWSTUDENTSASPLANTSWAITINGPASSIVELYTOBEFEDANDWATEREDBUTITHINKTHESTUDENTSSHOULDBEREGARDEDASEXPLORERS,ACTIVELEARNERSWHOBRINGAGREATDEALTOTHELEARNINGPROCESSANDATTHESAMETIME,DRAWFROMTHEIRENVIRONMENTASTHEYDEVELOPNEWUNDERSTANDINGSTHEBASICPRINCIPLEWILLBEUSEDINTHETEACHINGOFREADINGANDWRITINGSECTIONONEHOWTOTEACHREADINGIWHYTEACHREADINGTHEREAREMANYREASONSWHYGETTINGSTUDENTSTOREADENGLISHTEXTSISANIMPORTANTPARTOFTHETEACHER’SJOBINTHEFIRSTPLACE,MANYOFTHEMWANTTOBEABLETOREADTEXTSINENGLISHEITHERFORTHEIRCAREERS,FORSTUDYPURPOSESORSIMPLYFORPLEASUREANYTHINGWECANDOTOMAKEREADINGEASIERFORTHEMMUSTBEAGOODIDEAREADINGTEXTSPROVIDEGOODMODELSFORENGLISHWRITING,PROVIDEOPPORTUNITIESTOSTUDYLANGUAGEVOCABULARY,GRAMMAR,PUNCTUATION,ANDTHEWAYTOCONSTRUCTSENTENCES,PARAGRAPHSANDTEXTSLASTLY,GOODREADINGTEXTSCANINTRODUCEINTERESTINGTOPICS,STIMULATEDISCUSSION,EXCITEIMAGINATIVERESPONSESANDBETHESPRINGBOARDFORWELLROUNDED,FASCINATINGLESSONSTHELASTBUTNOTTHELEAST,STUDENTSMUSTREADWIDELYBECAUSEONLYAFRACTIONOFKNOWLEDGEABOUTTHEWORLDCANCOMEFROMOTHEREXPERIENCESINTHEIRSHORTLIVESIIWHATKINDOFREADINGSHOULDSTUDENTSDOWHENTHETEACHERSGIVEREADINGCLASSTOSTUDENTS,THEYSHOULDNOTICEABALANCEABALANCETOBESTRUCKBETWEENREALENGLISHONTHEONEHANDANDTHESTUDENTS’CAPABILITIESANDINTERESTSONTHEOTHERTHEREISSOMEAUTHENTICWRITTENMATERIALWHICHBEGINNERSTUDENTSCANUNDERSTANDTOSOMEDEGREEMENUS,TIMETABLES,SIGNSANDBASICINSTRUCTIONS,FOREXAMPLE,AND,WHEREAPPROPRIATE,TEACHERSCANUSETHESEBUTFORLONGERPROSE,TEACHERSCANOFFERTHEIRSTUDENTSTEXTS,WHICH,WHILEBEINGLIKEENGLISH,ARENEVERTHELESSWRITTENORADAPTEDESPECIALLYFORTHEIRLEVELANYWAY,THEMATERIALSTOBEREADSHOULDBEINTERESTINGANDMEANINGFULTEACHERSSHOULDBECOMEBETTERACQUAINTEDWITHBOOKSWRITTENSPECIALLYFORTEENAGERSANDDEALINGWITHTHEIRPROBLEMSIIIWHATARETHEPRINCIPLESBEHINDTHETEACHINGOFREADINGIPERMITSTUDENTSTOREADNOONEHASLEARNEDTOSWIMBYPRACTICINGTHESKILLSOFBACKSTROKES,FLUTTERKICKSORTREADINGWATERWHILESTAYINGONTHEEDGEOFTHESWIMMINGPOOLYET,INTHETEACHINGOFREADINGTEACHERSOFTENDOJUSTTHATRATHERTHANLETTHESTUDENTSINTO“THEWATER”,TEACHERSKEEPTHEMINSKILLSBOOKSLEARNINGRULESABOUTLETTERS,SYLLABLESORDEFINITIONSOFWORDSRATHERTHANLETTINGTHEMINTOTHEBOOKITSELF,PERMITTINGTHEMTOBEIMMERSEDINTHELANGUAGEWHICHCOMESFROMTHEAUTHORSASTHEREADERSTRYTORECONSTRUCTTHEWRITTENMESSAGEIIENCOURAGESTUDENTSTORESPONDTOTHECONTENTOFAREADINGTEXT,NOTJUSTTOTHELANGUAGEOFCOURSE,ITISIMPORTANTTOSTUDYREADINGTEXTSFORTHEWAYTHEYUSELANGUAGE,HOWMANYPARAGRAPHSTHEYCONTAINANDHOWMANYTIMESTHEYUSERELATIVECLAUSESBUTTHEMEANING,THEMESSAGEOFTHETEXT,ISMUCHMOREIMPORTANTTEACHERSSHOULDHELPSTUDENTSUNDERSTANDTHATTHEMAINREASONTOREADISFORTHEMTHEYHAVETOHAVETHEIROWNPURPOSETOREADANDREADINGMUSTMAKESENSE,THEYHAVETOFINDWAYSOFDOINGSOMETHINGABOUTITTHEYSHOULDBEENCOURAGEDEITHERTOREREADORTOCONTINUEREADINGTOGAINMEANINGBUTTHEYMUSTREALIZETHATTHEMEANINGISNOTINTHETEACHER,BUTINTHEINTERACTIONBETWEENTHEREADERANDAUTHORSTUDENTSSHOULDBEENCOURAGEDTOASKTHEMSELVESREPEATEDLY,“DOESTHISMAKESENSETOME”STUDENTSSHOULDBEENCOURAGEDTOREJECTANDTOBEINTOLERANTOFREADINGMATERIALSTHATDONOTMAKESENSEIIIENCOURAGESTUDENTSTOGUESSORPREDICTREADERS’GUESSESORPREDICTIONSAREBASEDONTHECUMULATIVEINFORMATIONANDSYNTACTICSTRUCTURETHEYHAVEBEENLEARNINGASTHEYHAVEBEENREADINGTHEREFORE,THEIRGUESSESAREMOREOFTENTHANNOTAPPROPRIATETOTHEMATERIALSSTUDENTSHAVETOREALIZETHATRISKTAKINGINREADINGISAPPROPRIATE;THATUSINGCONTEXTTODECIDEWHATWORDSMEANISAPROFICIENTREADINGSTRATEGYANDTHATTHEYHAVETHELANGUAGESENSETOMAKEAPPROPRIATEGUESSESWHICHCANFITBOTHTHEGRAMMATICALANDSEMANTICSENSEOFWHATTHEYAREREADINGIVMATCHTHETASKTOTHETOPICONCEADECISIONHASBEENTAKENABOUTWHATKINDOFREADINGTEXTTHESTUDENTSAREGOINGTOREAD,TEACHERSNEEDTOCHOOSEGOODREADINGTASKSTHERIGHTKINDOFQUESTIONSANDUSEFULPUZZLES,ETCASKINGBORINGANDINAPPROPRIATEQUESTIONSCANUNDERMINETHEMOSTINTERESTINGTEXT;THEMOSTCOMMONPLACEPASSAGECANBEMADEREALLYEXCITINGWITHIMAGINATIVEANDCHALLENGINGTASKSWORKINGINGROUPS,THEENGLISHTEACHERANDSTUDENTSTAKETURNSASKINGEACHOTHERQUESTIONSFOLLOWINGTHEREADINGTHETEACHERMAYASK,“WHATISTHESIGNIFICANCEOFTHECHARACTER’SAGE”THESEQUESTIONSREQUIREINFERENCESBASEDONDETAILSFROMTHEREADINGTEXTSECTIONTWOHOWTOTEACHWRITINGDEVELOPINGCORRECTNESSINSTUDENTS’WRITING“STUDENTSLEARNTOWRITEBYWRITING,ANDTHEYLEARNTOWRITECORRECTLYBYWRITING,REVISING,ANDPROOFREADINGTHEIROWNWORK”WITHSOMEHELPORDIRECTIONFROMTHETEACHERWHENITISNECESSARYTHEYDONOTLEARNTOWRITECORRECTLYBYSTUDYINGABOUTWRITINGORDOINGISOLATEDWORKBOOKEXERCISESUNRELATEDTOTHEIROWNWRITINGSO,THEMOSTIMPORTANTTECHNIQUEATEACHERCANUSETOGUIDESTUDENTSTOWARDGRAMMATICALLYCORRECTWRITINGISTOLETTHEMWRITE,LETTHEMWRITETHINGSRELATEDTOTHEIROWNEXPERIENCESTHEREISNOLIMITTOTHEKINDSOFTEXTTHETEACHERCANASKSTUDENTSTOWRITETEACHERS’DECISIONS,THOUGH,SHOULDBASEDONHOWMUCHLANGUAGETHESTUDENTSKNOW,WHATTHEIRINTERESTSARE“DOIREADAPAPERANDIGNOREALLPUNCTUATION,WHATGOODISTHATFORSTUDENTSWESPENDHOURSATNIGHTWITHPAPERSI’MNOTSURETHESTUDENTSGETASMUCHFROMITASTHETIMEISPENDONIT”THESECOMMENTSBYSENIORHIGHSCHOOLENGLISHTEACHERSDISCUSSINGTHEPROCESSOFMARKINGSTUDENTPAPERSREFLECTTHEDISSATISFACTIONANDFRUSTRATIONOFMANYTEACHERSOVERTHEPROBLEMOFDEALINGWITHTHEERRORSINSTUDENTWRITINGTHEOBVIOUSMISTAKESINSPELLING,PUNCTUATIONTRADITIONALLY,TEACHERSHAVEWORKEDTOCORRECTERRORSINTWOWAYSBYTEACHINGGRAMMATICALLYCORRECTNESSTHROUGHEXERCISEINGRAMMARTEXTS;BYPOINTINGOUTALLERRORSWHENMAKINGSTUDENTPAPERSMOSTSTUDENTSFINDITVERYDISPIRITINGIFTHEYGETAPIECEOFWRITTENWORKBACKANDITISCOVEREDINREDINK,UNDERLINGSANDCROSSINGOUTITISAPOWERFULVISUALSTATEMENTOFTHEFACTTHATTHEIRWRITTENENGLISHISTERRIBLEOFCOURSE,SOMEPIECESOFWRITTENWORKARECOMPLETELYFULLOFMISTAKES,BUTEVENINTHESECASES,THETEACHERHASTOACHIEVEABALANCEBETWEENBEINGACCURATEANDTRUTHFULONTHEONEHANDANDTREATINGSTUDENTSSENSITIVELYANDSYMPATHETICALLYONTHEOTHERSOMETECHNIQUESCANBEUSEDINDEALINGWITHTHEERRORSINSTUDENTPAPERSISELECTIVITYRATHERTHANENGAGEININTENSIVEERRORCORRECTIONWHENRESPONDINGTOSTUDENTWRITING,TEACHERSAREENCOURAGEDTOADOPTAMOREMODERATEAPPROACHTOERRORIFTHETEACHEROVERCORRECTSTHESTUDENTS’MISTAKES,THESTUDENTSWOULDBELIKELYTOFOCUSONERRORSINSTEADOFIDEASSTUDENTSAREMORELIKELYTOGROWASWRITERSWHENTHETEACHER’SPRIMARYPURPOSEINREADINGSTUDENTPAPERSISTORESPONDTOCONTENTHOWEVER,IFATTENTIONTOCONTENTANDCORRECTNESSARECOMBINEDWHENMAKINGPAPERS,ITISMOREHELPFULTOSELECTONEORTWOKINDSOFERRORSTHEINDIVIDUALSTUDENTISMAKINGTHANTOPOINTOUTEVERYERRORINTHEPAPERTHETEACHERCANIDENTIFYASELECTEDERROR,SHOWANEXAMPLEORTWOONTHESTUDENTPAPER,ANDEITHEREXPLAINTHECORRECTFORMORDIRECTTHESTUDENTTOAHANDBOOKFORFURTHEREXPLANATIONITISALWAYSWORTHWRITINGACOMMENTATTHEENDOFAPIECEOFWRITTENWORKANYTHINGFROM“WELLDONE”TO“THISISAGOODSTORY,BUTYOUMUSTLOOKAGAINATYOURUSEOFPASTTENSESSEEXGRAMMARBOOKPAGEXX”IIERRORANALYSISANOTHERMETHODFORWORKINGWITHSTUDENTERROR,ONETHATCANBEESPECIALLYFRUITFULFORTEACHERS,ISTOAPPROACHITFROMANANALYTICPERSPECTIVETEACHERS,ASERRORANALYST,LOOKFORPATTERNSINTHEERRORSOFANINDIVIDUALSTUDENT,TRIESTODISCOVERHOWTHEMISTAKEARRIVEDATTHEMISTAKESBYANALYZINGTHEERRORLACKOFKNOWLEDGEABOUTACERTAINGRAMMATICALPOINT;ACARELESSONEORAMISLEARNEDRULE,ANDPLANSSTRATEGIESACCORDINGLYIIIPUBLISHSTUDENTWRITINGTHEFINALBASICSTRATEGYISPUBLISHINGSTUDENTSNEEDAREASONFORLABORINGOVERADRAFTUNTILITISPERFECT;THEURGETOSEEONESELFINPRINTCANBEAPOWERFULDRIVETOWARDREVISIONANDPROOFREADINGCONCLUSIONASTEACHERSTOTHESTUDENTSWHOAREINSENIORHIGHSCHOOL,THEYSHOULDLEARNTOTURNSTUDENTS’HARDWORKTOWARDSUPPORTINGTHELANGUAGESTRENGTHSSTUDENTSALREADYHAVE,PROVINGSTUDENTSWITHAFEELINGOFSUCCESS,FINDINGMATERIALSANDPLANNINGCLASSROOMEXPERIENCESWILLTURNSTUDENTSONTOREADINGANDWRITING,THEREADINGANDWRITINGWILLDEVELOPWITHMUCHGREATEREASETHANITDOESATTHEPRESENTTIMEREFERENCEGUXUELIANG,THEBASICTECHNICALTRAININGINENGLISHTEACHING,HANGZHOUUNIVERSITYPRESS,1998WILGAMRIVERSMARYSTEMPERLEY,APRACTICALGUIDETOTHETEACHINGOFENGLISHASASECONDORFOREIGNLANGUAGE,NEWYORKOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESS,1978SMITHFUNDERSTANDINGREADING2DED,NEWYORKHOLT,RINEHARTANDWINSTON,1978DAVIDFREEMANYVOMESFREEMAN,AROADTOSUCCESSFORLANGUAGE,NEWYORKOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESS龚雅芳张连忠李静军(编辑),英语教学基本讲座,北京师范学院出版社,1991
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