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语言文化论文-The politics of protest .doc语言文化论文-The politics of protest .doc -- 2 元

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语言文化论文ThepoliticsofprotestPierreBourdieuhasbecomealeadingfigureintheradicalmovementsthathavesweptFranceinthelastfewyears.HetalkedtoKevinOvendenaboutanticapitalismandresistanceTheWeightoftheWorldwasrecentlypublishedinBritain.Itdescribesthroughinterviewsintheearly1990sthesocialsufferingofcontemporarysociety.WhyislifegettingharderformostpeopleTherearesimilaritiesbetweenwhathashappenedtopeopleslivesinFranceandinBritain.Themainissue,ofcourse,isneoliberalismandwhatIcalltheretreatofthestate.Thestatehasabandonedalotofareasthatitwasinvolvedin,suchashealthcare,education,andsocialprovision.Whenweconductedthisstudyitwasonlybeginning.Nowitisfarworse.Soforexample,inFranceneoliberalphilosophyhasbecomeembeddedinallthesocialpracticesandpoliciesofthestate.Ithasbecomeinternalisedinthemindsofthepoliticalestablishment.Theministerofeducationwhowasrecentlyforcedoutofoffice,ClaudeAll鑗re,wasverysimilartotheoneyouhaveinBritain.Heintroducedintoeducationsocalledtoughpoliciesadriveforefficiencyandproductivity.Insteadoflookingverycarefullyathoweducationworks,theneoliberalsoptforaverysimplesolution.Theycreatecompetitionbetweenschoolsandbetweenthedirectorsofschools,whohavetocompeteforbudgetsandforstudents.Thiscompetitionisfakeitisartificiallyconstructed.Itdoesnotarisespontaneouslyfromthewaytheeducationsystemworks.Theeducationsystemwasnotperfect.Iwasverycriticalofit.Butinsteadofcorrectingitandprovidingthemeanstobetterit,theydestroyitbyintroducingthiscapitalisticvisionofeducation.Onecouldsaythesameabouthealthcare.Irecentlyreadarecordofameetingbetweenagroupofprofessorsofmedicinewhoaretraditionallyveryconservative.TheywenttomeetprimeministerJospin.Hedidnotreceivethem.Atechnocratmettheminstead.Thetranscriptofthediscussionisterrible.Thepeoplesay,Look,Ineverdemonstratedorparticipatedinanystrikeorprotestmovement.ButforthefirsttimeIamforcedtospeakoutonbehalfofmypatients.Onegaveanexampleofa73yearoldwomanwhohadcancer,buthermedicinewastooexpensiveforthehospitalsbudget.Anothersaidthathishospitaldoesnothavethemoneytopayanaesthetists,sotherearenoanaesthetistsatnight.Heaskedthetechnocrat,WouldyousendyourwifetosuchahospitalHereplies,ThatsapersonalquestionwhichIwillnotanswer.Weareseeingablindandchaoticresponsetotheproblemsofpublicinstitutions.Wehavehadaveryhierarchicalsysteminhealthcareformanyyears.Butafter1968youngerpeopletriedtochangeit.Theytriedtomakethesystemmorecollectiveandintroducetheideaofworkingaspartofateam.Nowthatisbeingdestroyedbecausetheyworkunderthethreatofcutsanddemandsforgreaterproductivity.CentreleftpartiesareingovernmentacrossmostofEurope.Theyarepresidingovertheseneoliberalpolicies.DoyouseeanythingnewinthewaysocialdemocraticpartiesaregoverningIamveryscepticalabouttheideathatthereisthisnewapproachcalledtheThirdWayortheNeueMitte.Wehave,tovaryingdegreesacrossthecontinent,basicallyneoliberalpoliciesdressedupwithtalkofanewformofpoliticswhichisnotterriblynewatall.SowefindsocialdemocraticrhetoricbeingdeployedtodestroythesocialdemocraticpolicieswhichgrewupintheperiodaftertheSecondWorldWar.InFrancemanyofthosepushingthisoffensivehailfromthe1968generation.Theybecameradicalisedthen,butnowareincorporatedintothesystem.ThefailureoftheMitterrandyearsgeneratedabacklashagainsttheFrenchSocialistParty.Ofcourse,thegreatrevoltofDecember1995usheredinawaveofsocialmovementswhichbroughttheSocialistsbackintopower.Buttheaimofthegovernmentanditstechnocratsistocurtailanddestroythosemovements.Ministersandadvisersusetheirprestigeandexperiencefrom1968againstthemovements.WhenstudentsoccupiedtheoleNormaleSupieur,thegovernmentfigurearguingtosendthepoliceinfirmlyandswiftlyhadhimselftakenpartintheoccupationsof1968.PeopleinGermanyandinBritainoftentellmethatitmustbewonderfultoliveinFrancewiththe35hourweekandotherreforms.Butthosegainsarearesultofthepressureofthemovements.Theyarenotfreelygivenbythegovernment.Theleftgovernmentbelievesitcanbemoresuccessfulthantherightincontrollingthosemovements.HowdoyoursociologicalideasinfluenceyourpoliticalstanceYoudevelopedyourideaswhenstructuralismwasthemaininfluenceonFrenchintellectuals.Iwasnotastructuralist.Thatapproachsawtheworldascomposedofstructureswhichstrictlydeterminethewaypeopleact.Therewasnoscopeforhumanagency.AsthestructuralistMarxistLouisAlthussersaidinthe1960s,humanbeingsweremerelytheunconsciousbearersofobjectivestructures.TheresultsofmyanthropologicalworkinAlgeriainthe1950sdidnotfitintothisstructuralistframework.Ofcoursepeoplearestructuredbysociety.Theyarenot,asfreemarkettheoryholds,isolatedindividualseachdecidingacourseofactionbymakingindividualeconomiccalculations.Idevelopedtheconceptofhabitustoincorporatetheobjectivestructuresofsocietyandthesubjectiveroleofagentswithinit.Thehabitusisasetofdispositions,reflexesandformsofbehaviourpeopleacquirethroughactinginsociety.Itreflectsthedifferentpositionspeoplehaveinsociety,forexample,whethertheyarebroughtupinamiddleclassenvironmentorinaworkingclasssuburb.Itispartofhowsocietyreproducesitself.Butthereisalsochange.Conflictisbuiltintosociety.Peoplecanfindthattheirexpectationsandwaysoflivingaresuddenlyoutofstepwiththenewsocialpositiontheyfindthemselvesin.ThisishappeninginFrancetoday.Thenthequestionofsocialagencyandpoliticalinterventionbecomesveryimportant.TheheartofMarxismisthestrugglebytheworkingclassforitsownemancipation.WheredoyouplacethestrugglesoftheworkingclasswithinthespectrumofthesocialmovementsyouareinvolvedinSeattlebroughttogetherorganisedlabourandvarioussingleissuecampaigns.Theywereoftenmobilisedondifferentpoliticalbases,buttheyinfluencedoneanother.Thatisnew.Forthefirsttimewehavethepossibilityofaggregatingthesekindsofpeoplewhowereverysuspiciousofoneanother.InFrancewehavethistraditionofworkerismwhichisantiintellectual.Theunionsareveryhostiletointellectualsandtheintellectualsareverydistantfromworkers.In1968itwasveryvisible.NowforthefirsttimebecauseofthefailureofSovietMarxismwearefreefromthat.SoIcanspeakwithaCGTofficialasIamspeakingtoyou.Theyareveryopen.Inasenseintellectualslikemedidnotexist20yearsago.PeoplelikeSartreandFoucaultweresympathetictothemovement,buttheydidnothavemuchempiricalknowledgeofworkers.Seattleisveryimportantinshowinghownewforcesaredeveloping.ThesmallfarmersleaderJosBoviswellinformed.Heexpresseshimselfclearlywithouttheoversimplificationwhichyouhearfrompoliticians.Heisanintellectual.Butatthesametimeheworksonhisfarm.IrecentlyorganisedameetingofalltheleadersofthesocialmovementsinFrancetheunemployed,thesanspapiersimmigrants,sometradeunionists.Youhadanarchists,Trotskyists,Marxistsalltypes.Thediscussionwasatalevelyoucouldnotimagine.YoucanseetherevivalofaleftpoliticalcultureinthehugesalesofLeMondeDiplomatique.Somesuspicionstillremainsamongthosewhoareworkingtogether,ofcourse.ButattheendofthemeetingtheygaveRaisonsdAgir,thegroupIaminvolvedin,amandatetoissueacharterforaEuropeansocialmovement.Wemustescapenationalistdivisionandhaveaninternationalmovementtofightagainstglobalcapital.HowcanthemovementsgeneraliseandhowwillthedifferentideaswithinthembeclarifiedThewaythemovementwilldevelopisopen.Itisaprocess.WeplantopublishanappealforaEuropeanmovementagainstneoliberalisminMay.WeareseekingthesupportoftheDGBunionfederationinGermany,theCGTinFrance,intellectuals,socialmovementsandmanydifferentorganisations.TherewillbeameetinginSeptemberofdifferentmovementstoelaboratethischarter.ThenwewillholdaconferenceinAthensinMarchofnextyeartodiscussthatandtrytocreatethefoundationsofasocialEurope.Wehavemanyideas,butwemustworkonthem.Theaimistocreateanintellectualandpracticalopposition.Itisnotonlyintellectuals.OneofthemostimportantleadersofoneofthemainunionsinGreecewantstofundtheconference.Ourmissionistoorganiseandtrytohelppeopletocommunicate.Thereisadivisionoflabourinthisdevelopingmovement.Socialscientistscanhelptoovercomedifficulties.IfwewantaneffectivesocialmovementatthelevelofEuropewemustovercomethatotherwisewewilldisappear.Therearepowerfulpoliticalobstaclesbetweenpeople.Themainobstaclescomefromthesocialdemocraticmovement.IfwesucceedinovercomingtheseitwillleadtoagenuineThirdWaywhichwillbemuchmoreradical.Weneedtobuildtheleftoftheleft.IntheecologymovementyouhavepeoplewhoarereallyontheleftevenamongtheCommunistParty,whichhashadadeadeningeffectontheleftinFrance.Manypeoplearecomingtorealisethatglobalisationismoreofapoliticalimperativethananeconomicfact.ThreequartersoftheexchangeofgoodsinEuropeisinternaltoEurope.Thesocialdemocraticpartiesinpowercouldimplementpoliciestolimitthefreemarket.HowwillweforcethemWillwerequireanewpoliticalpartyIdontknow.Itwouldbeniceifwecouldforcethem,butIamnotsureifwecan.Itseemstomethereisacrisisofthesocialdemocraticgovernments.InBritainthecrisisofBlairismhaswellandtrulystarted.ThereisalsothecrisisoftherightwingpartiesinmuchofEurope,particularlytheCDUinGermany.Thetruelefthasalwaysfacedafalsechoiceyouvotefortherightoryouacceptthisfakeleftwing.WehavehadthesameprobleminFrancesince1981.Forcesotherthantheleftaretryingtogainahearing.SoweseetheHaiderphenomenoninAustria.Buthehasnotgoneunchallenged.TherecreationofatrueleftwingmovementwillbethemaininstrumentofthedestructionofHaider.NobodyspokeaboutLePenandtheNationalFrontinFranceduringthehotwinterof1995inFrance.ThemassmovementindefenceofpensionsinItalyalsomarginalisedthefarright.Whethertherevivaloftheleftwillleadtoanewpartyisanopenquestion.Sotooishowideaswillbeclarified.Themainthingistobuildthemovement.Nooneshoulddoubttheradicalchangesthatarehappeninginthewaypeoplethink.Iammoreoptimisticaboutthefuturethanatanytimeinthelastthreedecades,despitetheseemingtriumphofglobalcapitalism.
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