语言文化论文-What are the most important culture differences and elements of intercultural communication that international managers should be aware of and why- .doc语言文化论文-What are the most important culture differences and elements of intercultural communication that international managers should be aware of and why- .doc

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语言文化论文WHATARETHEMOSTIMPORTANTCULTUREDIFFERENCESANDELEMENTSOFINTERCULTURALCOMMUNICATIONTHATINTERNATIONALMANAGERSSHOULDBEAWAREOFANDWHYASWEALLKNOW,DIFFERENTCOUNTRIESHAVEDIFFERENTCULTURESCULTUREISTHECOLLECTIVEPROGRAMMINGOFTHEMINDWHICHDISTINGUISHESTHEMEMBERSOFONECATEGORYOFPEOPLEFROMANOTHERHOFSTEDE,1991ITISINEVITABLETHATTHECULTURALDIFFERENCEHASIMPACTONBUSINESSFOREXAMPLE,WHENACOMPANYHAVINGMEETING,THEWORDTABLEINAMERICANENGLISHTHATMEANSTOPUTSOMETHINGONTHEAGENDABUTINBRITISHENGLISHITMEANSTOPUTSOMETHINGOFFTHEAGENDATHISEXAMPLEINDICATEDHOWTHECULTUREAFFECTSTHEBUSINESSTHEREAREFOURCULTURALDIMENSIONSTHATWEREDEFINEDINHOFSTEDESRESEARCHPOWERDISTANCE,UNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCE,INDIVIDUALISM,MASCULINITY,ANDRECENTLYHOFSTEDEADDONEMORELONGTERMSHORTTERMORIENTATIONWHATITHINKTHEMOSTSIGNIFICANTINFLUENCEINCULTURALDIFFERENCEISTHEPOWERDISTANCEHOECKLIN,199528ITWOULDCONDITIONTHEEXTENTTOWHICHEMPLOYEESACCEPTTHATTHEIRBOSSHASMOREPOWERTHANTHEYHAVEANDTHEEXTENTTOWHICHTHEYACCEPTTHATTHEIRBOSSSOPINIONSANDDECISIONSARERIGHTBECAUSEHEORSHEISTHEBOSSICONSIDEREDITASHOWMUCHSUBORDINATESCANCONSENTORDISSENTWITHBOSSESORMANAGERSITISTHEDISTANCEBETWEENAMANAGERANDSUBORDINATEAMONGMOSTORIENTALCORPORATECULTURES,THEREISHIERARCHISM,GREATERCENTRALIZATION,SOMETIMESCALLEDPOWERORIENTEDCULTURE,DUETOTHEHISTORICALREASONSTHATISAHIGHPOWERDISTANCECULTURETHATMANGERSMAKETHEDECISIONANDSUPERIORSAPPEALTOBEENTITLEDMOREPRIVILEGESTHEIRDECISIONALWAYSCLOSESUPERVISIONPOSITIVELYEVALUATEDBYSUBORDINATESINTHISSITUATION,ITISNOTBEREGARDEDIFASUBORDINATESHAVEADISAGREEMENTWITHTHEIRMANAGERS,ESPECIALLYINMALAYSIA,JAPAN,CHINA,INDIAINTHEORIENTAL,POWERDISTANCEISALSOASSOCIATEDWITHTHEFAMILYCULTURETROMPERNAARS,1993139INTHISKINDOFCORPORATECULTURETHEMANAGERISLIKETHECARINGFATHERWHOKNOWSBETTERTHANHISSUBORDINATESWHATSHOULDBEDONEANDWHATISSUITABLEFORTHEMTHESUBORDINATESALWAYSESTEEMTHEMANAGERSBECAUSEOFTHEMANAGERSAGEANDEXPERIENCETHATISUSUALLYHOWEMPLOYEESGETTHEIRPROMOTIONTHEREAREBOTHPOSITIVEANDNEGATIVEPARTSINTHEFAMILYCULTURESIFEELITISANEASYMANAGINGSYSTEMBUTSOMETIMEITISHARDTOGETYOUNGCREATIVEEMPLOYEESWORKWELLCAUSEOFTHEHIERARCHYASTROPMENAARS1993142TOLDUSFAMILYCULTUREATTHEIRLEASTEFFECTIVEDRAINTHEENERGIESANDLOYALTIESOFSUBORDINATESTOBUOYUPTHELEADERSOINFAMILYCULTURE,THEPOWERDISTANCECANBEVIEWEDASTHESUBORDINATESRESPECTTHESUPERIORSTHATISTHECORPORATECULTUREINORIENTLETUSTAKEALOOKATTHEWESTERNWAYITISNOTAWHOLECONVERSEPHENOMENONTHEREISTHEEIFFELTOWERCULTURETROMPERNAARS,1997166INTHEINTERNATIONALMANAGEMENTABOUTTHEEIFFELTOWERTROMPENAARS1993148TOLDUSITSHIERARCHYISVERYDIFFERENTFROMTHATOFTHEFAMILYEACHHIGHERLEVELHASACLEARANDDEMONSTRABLEFUNCTIONOFHOLDINGTOGETHERTHELEVELBENEATHITGERMAN,AUSTRIANHAVETHECHARACTERISTICOFTHEEIFFELTOWERCULTURE,WHICHISALOWPOWERDISTANCEINTHELOWERPOWERDISTANCE,HOECKLIN,199531HIGHEREDUCATEDEMPLOYEESHOLDMUCHLESSAUTHORITARIANVALUESTHANLOWEREDUCATEDONESTHEOBEDIENCESHOWEDFROMTHESUBORDINATESTOTHESUPERIORSISNOTASMUCHASTHEORIENTALWAYTHELEADERSHIPCANBECALLEDASHIERARCHYANDCONSENSUSEMPLOYEECANHAVEDIFFERENTOPINIONWITHHIS/HERBOSSANDWHENHE/SHEGOTDIFFERENTIDEAS,HE/SHECANGOALLTHEWAYUPTOTHEBOSSANDDISCUSSTHEPROBLEMTHISISAGOODTHINGUSUALLYCOMPANYMAYEXPLOREALLTHEPOTENTIALSOFITSEMPLOYEES,BECAUSESOMETIMETHESUBORDINATESMAYHAVETHEBETTERIDEAOFTHEBUSINESSITHINKBECAUSEOFTHEDIFFERENTREALIZATIONOFPOWERDISTANCE,PEOPLEBEHAVECOMPLETELYDIFFERENTINBUSINESSSOCONFLICTANDMISUNDERSTANDINGMUSTBEEMERGEDWHENTWOORMOREINTERCULTURESMEETUPUNDERTHISSITUATION,THEINTERNATIONALMANAGERSMUSTPAYATTENTIONTOTHECLASHESANDBEAWAREOFHOWTOWORKTHESUBORDINATESTOGETHEREFFICIENTLYANDMORECOOPERATIVELYISIMPORTANTTOOANDTHENTHEREISALSOALARGEDISCREPANCYONTHEUNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCEHOECKLIN,199531DEFINEDUNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCEISTHELACKOFTOLERANCEFORAMBIGUITYANDTHENEEDFORFORMALRULESTHATMEANSPEOPLETRYINGTOSETUPRULESTOFACETOTHEUNCERTAINTYTHEREISHIGHUNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCEINMOSTORIENTALCOUNTRIESSUCHASJAPAN,CHINAINTHESECOUNTRIES,PEOPLEPREFERASTABLEJOBTHEYFEELSAFEANDPRIDEFULWHENTHEYKEEPWORKINGHARDATTHEONEPLACEUNDERTHISCIRCUMSTANCE,ANEXCELLENTMANAGERSHOULDKEEPHISEMPLOYEEAWAYFROMUNPREDICTABLERISKANDTHEEMPLOYEEWOULDLIKETOBEWORKEDWITHINGROUPSRATHERTHANINDEPENDENTLYCAUSEOFTHELESSRISKTAKINGBUTINMOSTWESTERNCOUNTRIES,THEREISLOWUNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCESHOWED,WHEREASHIGHJOBMOBILITYOCCURSINTHOSECOUNTRIESSUCHASUSA,DENMARK,SINGAPORETHEWESTERNPEOPLETHINKTHATWHENTHEYCHANGETHEIRJOBS,THEYCANGETMOREEXPERIENCECAUSETHEYLIKECHALLENGEIBELIEVETHATTHEDIVERGENCEOFTHEUNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCEISFROMDIFFERENTBASICSOCIALIDEOLOGYACOMPETENTMANAGERSHOULDPAYATTENTIONONTHERULESSETTINGBETWEENDIFFERENTUNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCETHEMISREADINGOFTHATMAYAFFECTTHEINITIATIVEANDTHEASPIRATIONOFTHESUBORDINATESTHETHIRDDIMENSIONHOFSTEDEINDICATEDISTHEINDIVIDUALISMITISACONCERNFORYOURSELFASANINDIVIDUALASOPPOSEDTOCONCERNFORTHEGROUPTHEPRIORITYOFSELFCONCERNORGROUPCONCERNVARIESFROMDIFFERENTCULTURESFOREXAMPLE,MOSTWESTERNEMPLOYEESLIKETOWORKWITHTHEIROWNPLANFORDEFENDINGTHEIRINTERESTTHATISAHIGHINDIVIDUALISMBECAUSEOFTHEDIFFERENTATTITUDETOWORK,THEINCUBATORCULTURETROMPERNAARS,1997175ARISESWHENCROSSCULTURALINDIVIDUALSWORKTOGETHERASAGROUPTROMPENAARS1993158TOLDUSTHEINCUBATORISBOTHPERSONALAND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