语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc

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语言文化论文从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语【ABSTRACT】EUPHEMISM,COSMETICWORDS,ISNOTONLYALINGUALPHENOMENON,BUTALSOACULTURALANDSOCIALPHENOMENONITISLIKEAMIRROR,REFLECTINGTHEVALUES,AESTHETICCONCEPTIONSANDMORALCONCEPTSINSOMEEXTENTEUPHEMISMPLAYSANIMPORTANTPARTINSOCIALCOMMUNICATIONITISLIKELUBETHATAVOIDSHURTINGTHEOTHERPARTY’SFEELINGITOILSTHEHUMANRELATIONSHIPINCOMMUNICATIONANDHELPSTOSAVEFACEOFCOMMUNICATORSIFPEOPLEMAKEFULLUSEOFEUPHEMISM,ITCANACCELERATEANDFACILITATEHUMANCOMMUNICATIONTHISPAPERELABORATESONTHEFEATURESANDSOCIALFUNCTIONSOFEUPHEMISMANDITFOCUSESONTHERELATIONSHIPSBETWEENITSPOLITEFUNCTIONSANDPOLITENESSPRINCIPLETHISTHESISISCOMPOSEDOFSIXPARTSWITHCHAPTERFOURANDFIVEASITSCORETHEFIRSTCHAPTERFOCUSESONTHEORIGINANDDEFINITIONSOFEUPHEMISMTHESECONDCHAPTERDISCUSSESTHEFEATURESOFEUPHEMISMINMANYWAYSTHETHIRDCHAPTERTALKSABOUTTHESOCIALFUNCTIONSOFEUPHEMISMFROMTHEANGLEOFPRAGMATICSTHEFOURTHCHAPTERFORMSTHEBASISOFTHEWHOLERESEARCHBYCONNECTINGEUPHEMISMWITHPOLITENESSANDFACESAVINGTHEORYTHEFIFTHCHAPTERCENTERSONEUPHEMISMANDPOLITENESSPRINCIPLETHELASTCHAPTERCONCLUDESTHEWHOLETHESISAPPROPRIATEUSEOFENGLISHEUPHEMISMCANCONTRIBUTEALOTTOSUCCESSFULMESSAGEEXCHANGE【KEYWORDS】EUPHEMISM;SOCIALFUNCTIONS;POLITENESSPRINCIPLE;FACEWANT【摘要】委婉语是一种语言现象,一种文化现象,更是一种社会现象,在一定程度上,它反映了社会的价值观,审美观和美德观。委婉语在社会交际中发挥着重要作用。日常的约定俗成的委婉语能起润滑剂的作用,通过委婉语,可以避免语言过于直露而给对方造成伤害。它是语言使用中人们用来协调人际关系的有效润滑剂,是保全交际各方面子的重要手段。很多中外学者曾从不同的角度对英语委婉语进行了长期的研究并取得了可喜的成果。本文主要研讨了委婉语的特点,社会功用,并从语用学的角度分析了委婉语的社会功用,礼貌原则及面子问题。本文分为六个部分。第四和第五章是文章的重点。第一章主要探讨了委婉语的定义及起源。第二章从很多方面概括了委婉语的特点。第三章从语用的角度分析了委婉语的社会功用。第四章把委婉语与礼貌,面子保全论联系在一起,是本文的核心。第五章侧重于委婉语貌与礼貌原则的关系。本文的实践意义在于其分析结论有助于保证信息传递的顺利进行并促进人们的日常交流。【关键词】委婉语;社会功用;礼貌原则;面子1INTRODUCTIONTHEREISAHUMORONCEAPARISTOURISTRESIDEDINUKALANDLADYTOLDHIMSADLYTHAT,“MYHUSBANDHASJUSTPASSEDTOTHEOTHERSIDE”THEGUESTLOOKEDFROMTHEFENCEOFTHEGARDENBUTSAWNOONE,FEELINGCONFUSEDTHELANDLADYEXPLAINED“IMEANHE’SKICKEDTHEBUCKET”THEGUESTCOMFORTEDHERTHAT“IHOPEHISFOOTWILLBEBETTERSOON”THELANDLADYFELTUNINTELLIGIBLYANDSAID“NO,HEWASN’THERE,HESNUFFEDITYOUKNOW”THEGUESTWONDEREDANDSAID“BUTYOU’VEGOTELECTRICITYHERE”THEREASONSWHYTHEGUESTDIDN’TANSWERPROPERLYARETHATHEDIDN’TREALIZETHATTHELANDLADYUSEDEUPHEMISM,NORDIDHEUNDERSTANDTHE“CONVERSATIONALIMPLICATURE”OFEUPHEMISMWHATTHELANDLADYWANTEDTOSAYISTHATHERHUSBANDDIEDTHEWORDEUPHEMISMCOMESFROMTHEGREEKWORD“EUPHEMOS”,MEANINGAUSPICIOUS/GOOD/FORTUNATESPEECHWHICHINTURNISDERIVEDFROMTHEGREEKROOTWORDSEU,GOOD/WELLPHEME,SPEECH/SPEAKINGTHEEUPHEMEWASORIGINALLYAWORDORPHRASEUSEDINPLACEOFARELIGIOUSWORDORPHRASETHATSHOULDNOTBESPOKENALOUDSUCHASTABOOTHEPRIMARYEXAMPLESOFTABOOWORDSREQUIRINGTHEUSEOFAEUPHEMISMARETHEUNSPEAKABLENAMESFORADEITY,SUCHASPERSEPHONE,HECATE,NEMESISORYAHWEHBYSPEAKINGONLYWORDSFAVORABLETOTHEGODSORSPIRITS,THESPEAKERATTEMPTEDTOPRODUCEGOODFORTUNEBYREMAININGINGOODFAVORWITHTHEM“EUPHEMISMISDEFINEDINTHENEWEDITIONOFTHEOXFORDCONCISEDICTIONARY1976AS‘SUBSTITUTIONOFMILDORVAGUEORROUNDABOUTEXPRESSIONFORHARSHORDIRECTONE;EXPRESSIONTHUSSUBSTITUTED’INWEBSTER’SNEWCOLLEGIATEDICTIONARY1973THEDEFINITIONREADS,‘SUBSTITUTIONOFANAGREEABLEORINOFFENSIVEEXPRESSIONFORONETHATMAYOFFENDORSUGGESTSOMETHINGUNPLEASANT’”1EUPHEMISMISANIMPORTANTRHETORICALMEANSINENGLISHITPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINPEOPLE’SDAILYCOMMUNICATIONITISNOTONLYACULTURALPHENOMENON,BUTALSOASOCIALPHENOMENONITJUSTLIKESAMIRROR,WHICHREFLECTSSOMESOCIALANDPSYCHOLOGICALPHENOMENA2FEATURESOFEUPHEMISM21INDIRECTANDIMPLICITTHEMOSTIMPORTANTCHARACTEROFEUPHEMISMISINDIRECTANDIMPLICITEUPHEMISMALWAYSGIVESPEOPLEHINTSINAROUNDABOUTWAYWECANINFERTHEDEEPERMEANINGANDINTENTIONFROMTHECONTEXTFOREXAMPLE,WHENSOMEONEISILL,WEALWAYSSAYHEISUNDERTHEWEATHERIFSOMEONEISMAD,WESAYHEISSOFTINMIND22UNIVERSALITYUNIVERSALITYISSOMETHINGTHATISWELLKNOWNANDACCEPTEDBYALLOFTHEPEOPLETHOUGHEUPHEMISMISINDIRECTANDITDOESN’TCOMESTRAIGHTTOTHEPOINT,PEOPLECANEASILYINFERITSDEEPERIMPLICATIONSOMETABOOSCONNECTEDWITHSEX,DEATH,ORBODYFUNCTIONSAREREPLACEDBYEUPHEMISMSANDTHEPUBLICHASACCEPTEDTHISKINDOFUSEFOREXAMPLE,WHENWEREFERTODEATH,WESELDOMSAY“DIE”WEUSETHEEXPRESSION“PASSAWAY”23THEFEATUREOFTIMESTHECHANGESOFLANGUAGEDEPENDONTHENEEDANDCHANGESOFTHESOCIETYANDEUPHEMISMUNDERGOESAPROCESSOFMETABOLISMITBEARSAMARKEDBRANDOFTIMESFOREXAMPLE,“‘SHEISPREGNANT’HASMANYDIFFERENTEUPHEMISTICEXPRESSIONSINDIFFERENTERAS1SHEHASCANCELEDALLHERSOCIALENGAGEMENTS18562SHEISINANINTERESTINGCONDITION18803SHEISINADELICATECONDITION18954SHEISKNITTINGLITTLEBOOTEES19105SHEISINAFAMILYWAY19206SHEISEXPECTING19357SHEISPREGNANT1956”2BUTAFTER1960S,EUPHEMISMSOFPREGNANTDEVELOPSLOWLYBECAUSEINMODERNTIMES,PEOPLEARENOTSOIMPLICITTHEYALWAYSMENTIONTHINGSDIRECTLYANDNOW,THEPHENOMENONOFPREGNANTISACHEERFULTHINGPEOPLEWILLNOTBESHYWHENMENTIONINGIT“THEWORD‘GAY’,ATFIRST,ITMEANSHAPPYANDHOMOSEXUALITYBUTASEUPHEMISMDEVELOPS,THEWORD‘GAY’ONLYREMINDSUSTHEMEANINGOFHOMOSEXUALITYTHUS,PEOPLEDON’TUSETHEEXPRESSION‘WEAREYOUNGANDGAY’”324REGIONALFEATUREINEUPHEMISM,THEREARESOMEREGIONALDIFFERENCESANAUSTRALIANWOMANMARRIEDTOANAMERICANMANTHEYSPENTTHEIRHONEYMOONINAMERICAANDONEDAY,THECOUPLEINTENDEDTOGOTOAPARTYTOGETHERBUTTHEBRIDEGROOMCOULDN’TFINDASUITABLEFULLDRESSTHEBRIDETOOKOUTABIRTHDAYSUITTHATSHEGAVEHIMASAPRESENTFEWDAYSAGOANDSA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