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语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc语言文化论文-从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语.doc -- 2 元

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语言文化论文从语用学的礼貌原则看英语中的委婉语【Abstract】Euphemism,cosmeticwords,isnotonlyalingualphenomenon,butalsoaculturalandsocialphenomenon.Itislikeamirror,reflectingthevalues,aestheticconceptionsandmoralconceptsinsomeextent.Euphemismplaysanimportantpartinsocialcommunication.Itislikelubethatavoidshurtingtheotherpartysfeeling.Itoilsthehumanrelationshipincommunicationandhelpstosavefaceofcommunicators.Ifpeoplemakefulluseofeuphemism,itcanaccelerateandfacilitatehumancommunication.Thispaperelaboratesonthefeaturesandsocialfunctionsofeuphemism.AnditfocusesontherelationshipsbetweenitspolitefunctionsandPolitenessPrinciple.ThisthesisiscomposedofsixpartswithChapterFourandFiveasitscoreThefirstchapterfocusesontheoriginanddefinitionsofeuphemism.Thesecondchapterdiscussesthefeaturesofeuphemisminmanyways.Thethirdchaptertalksaboutthesocialfunctionsofeuphemismfromtheangleofpragmatics.Thefourthchapterformsthebasisofthewholeresearchbyconnectingeuphemismwithpolitenessandfacesavingtheory.ThefifthchaptercentersoneuphemismandPolitenessPrinciple.Thelastchapterconcludesthewholethesis.AppropriateuseofEnglisheuphemismcancontributealottosuccessfulmessageexchange.【KeyWords】euphemismsocialfunctionsPolitenessPrinciplefacewant【摘要】委婉语是一种语言现象,一种文化现象,更是一种社会现象,在一定程度上,它反映了社会的价值观,审美观和美德观。委婉语在社会交际中发挥着重要作用。日常的约定俗成的委婉语能起润滑剂的作用,通过委婉语,可以避免语言过于直露而给对方造成伤害。它是语言使用中人们用来协调人际关系的有效润滑剂,是保全交际各方面子的重要手段。很多中外学者曾从不同的角度对英语委婉语进行了长期的研究并取得了可喜的成果。本文主要研讨了委婉语的特点,社会功用,并从语用学的角度分析了委婉语的社会功用,礼貌原则及面子问题。本文分为六个部分。第四和第五章是文章的重点。第一章主要探讨了委婉语的定义及起源。第二章从很多方面概括了委婉语的特点。第三章从语用的角度分析了委婉语的社会功用。第四章把委婉语与礼貌,面子保全论联系在一起,是本文的核心。第五章侧重于委婉语貌与礼貌原则的关系。本文的实践意义在于其分析结论有助于保证信息传递的顺利进行并促进人们的日常交流。【关键词】委婉语社会功用礼貌原则面子1.IntroductionThereisahumorOnceaParistouristresidedinUK.Alandladytoldhimsadlythat,Myhusbandhasjustpassedtotheotherside.Theguestlookedfromthefenceofthegardenbutsawnoone,feelingconfused.ThelandladyexplainedImeanheskickedthebucket.TheguestcomfortedherthatIhopehisfootwillbebettersoon.ThelandladyfeltunintelligiblyandsaidNo,hewasnthere,hesnuffedityouknow.TheguestwonderedandsaidButyouvegotelectricityhere.Thereasonswhytheguestdidntanswerproperlyarethathedidntrealizethatthelandladyusedeuphemism,nordidheunderstandtheconversationalimplicatureofeuphemism.Whatthelandladywantedtosayisthatherhusbanddied.ThewordeuphemismcomesfromtheGreekwordeuphemos,meaningauspicious/good/fortunatespeechwhichinturnisderivedfromtheGreekrootwordseu,good/wellpheme,speech/speaking.TheeuphemewasoriginallyawordorphraseusedinplaceofareligiouswordorphrasethatshouldnotbespokenaloudSuchastaboo.Theprimaryexamplesoftaboowordsrequiringtheuseofaeuphemismaretheunspeakablenamesforadeity,suchasPersephone,Hecate,NemesisorYahweh.Byspeakingonlywordsfavorabletothegodsorspirits,thespeakerattemptedtoproducegoodfortunebyremainingingoodfavorwiththem.EuphemismisdefinedintheNewEditionoftheOxfordConciseDictionary1976asSubstitutionofmildorvagueorroundaboutexpressionforharshordirectoneexpressionthussubstituted.INWebstersNewCollegiateDictionary1973thedefinitionreads,Substitutionofanagreeableorinoffensiveexpressionforonethatmayoffendorsuggestsomethingunpleasant.1EuphemismisanimportantrhetoricalmeansinEnglish.Itplaysanimportantroleinpeoplesdailycommunication.Itisnotonlyaculturalphenomenon,butalsoasocialphenomenon.Itjustlikesamirror,whichreflectssomesocialandpsychologicalphenomena.2.Featuresofeuphemism2.1IndirectandimplicitThemostimportantcharacterofeuphemismisindirectandimplicit.Euphemismalwaysgivespeoplehintsinaroundaboutway.Wecaninferthedeepermeaningandintentionfromthecontext.Forexample,whensomeoneisill,wealwayssayheisundertheweather.Ifsomeoneismad,wesayheissoftinmind.2.2UniversalityUniversalityissomethingthatiswellknownandacceptedbyallofthepeople.Thougheuphemismisindirectanditdoesntcomestraighttothepoint,peoplecaneasilyinferitsdeeperimplication.Sometaboosconnectedwithsex,death,orbodyfunctionsarereplacedbyeuphemisms.Andthepublichasacceptedthiskindofuse.Forexample,whenwerefertodeath,weseldomsaydie.Weusetheexpressionpassaway.2.3ThefeatureoftimesThechangesoflanguagedependontheneedandchangesofthesociety.Andeuphemismundergoesaprocessofmetabolism.Itbearsamarkedbrandoftimes.Forexample,Sheispregnanthasmanydifferenteuphemisticexpressionsindifferenteras.1Shehascanceledallhersocialengagements.18562Sheisinaninterestingcondition.18803Sheisinadelicatecondition.18954Sheisknittinglittlebootees.19105Sheisinafamilyway.19206Sheisexpecting.19357Sheispregnant.19562Butafter1960s,euphemismsofpregnantdevelopslowlybecauseinmoderntimes,peoplearenotsoimplicit.Theyalwaysmentionthingsdirectly.Andnow,thephenomenonofpregnantisacheerfulthing.Peoplewillnotbeshywhenmentioningit.Thewordgay,atfirst,itmeanshappyandhomosexuality.Butaseuphemismdevelops,thewordgayonlyremindsusthemeaningofhomosexuality.Thus,peopledontusetheexpressionWeareyoungandgay.32.4RegionalfeatureIneuphemism,therearesomeregionaldifferences.AnAustralianwomanmarriedtoanAmericanman.TheyspenttheirhoneymooninAmerica.Andoneday,thecoupleintendedtogotoapartytogether.Butthebridegroomcouldntfindasuitablefulldress.ThebridetookoutabirthdaysuitthatshegavehimasapresentfewdaysagoandsaidWhynotwearyourbirthdaysuitHowever,thewholefamilyallastonishedbecauseinAmericanEnglish,inonesbirthdaysuit4istheeuphemisticexpressionofnaked.Sothisembarrassingsituationresultedfromtheregionaldifferencesineuphemism.Therearetwocausesofregionaldifferences.Firstisaregionalculturaldifference.Indifferentregions,theculturetherewilleffectthedevelopmentofeuphemism.Forexample,gotow.c..IntheBalliolcollegeofOxfordUniversity,studentscallgototoiletastovisitLadyPeriam5becausethetoiletsofthatcollegewerebuiltonthelanddonatedbyLadyPeriam.Ofcourse,Americanswillnotagreewiththisexpression.Secondisthedifferenceofgeographicenvironment.Forexample,inseaside,deathwouldbeconnectedwithseaandtide.Theymayusegowiththetidetoexpressdie.Onthecontrary,inAmericanwestmountainareas,theeuphemismfordieisgoneovertherangeortocrosstheGreatDivide.Thesearethetypicalregionaleuphemisms.62.5DiversityoflingualregionSomeonethinksthatonlyupperandmiddleclassuseeuphemism.Butthisconclusionistooabsolute.Wecananalyzethisinthreeaspects.2.5.1DifferencesofgenderorageAstudyshowsthatfemaleusemoreeuphemismsthanmaledo.ThereisasayinginEnglishhorsesweatmenperspireyoungladiesglow.Brock,197373Womenuseobscurewordtoexpresstheactionofsweat.Andthedifferenceofgenderandageusuallyinfluencethechoiceofthesynonymsofeuphemism.Forinstance,thereareavarietyofexpressionsaboutgototoilet.Menusetheexpressiontoshootalion.Adultsmaysaytogotow.c..Andchildrensaytogotothepot.72.5.2DifferenceofprofessionoridentityEuphemismchangeswhiletheprofessionandidentitychange.Thisisasynchronyvariation.Theworddiecanbeusedinmanydifferentways.Inmilitary,peopleusetheexpressiontolosenumberofonesmess.ThisexpressionorientsfromthemesssystemofUKnavy.However,inthepress,peopleoftenusethewordthirtybecausetheyusuallymark30intheendofanewsarticle,whichmeansending.82.5.3DifferenceofstyleorcontextStylistically,theworddiehashundredsofeuphemisms.Butindailycommunication,peoplemayusetobegoneortobenomore.Inobituary,peopleusetopassawayortodepart.Italsohassomewittyexpressions,forinstance,topopoffortokickthebucket.Euphemismisrestrictedbythecontext.Forexample,Onthe14thofMarch,ataquartertothreeintheafternoon,thegreatestlivingthinkerceasedtothink.F.Engels,SpeechattheGravesideofKarlMarx9Thisexampleinvolvesthepassingawayofagreatman.Andthephraseceasedtothinkechoesthinker.Thiseuphemismproducesagoodeffect.3.Pragmaticfunctionsofeuphemism3.1TaboofunctionTabooisthemainpsychologicalbasisoftheemergenceofeuphemism.Euphemismistheavoidanceoftheunpleasant,inelegantthings.AfamoussociolinguistMr.ChenYuanoncesaidGenerallyspeaking,thecomingintobeingofeuphemismallbeginsfromtaboo.Fromtheoriginofeuphemism,wecanseethattabooisthefirstfunctionofeuphemism.Euphemismhasbeenusingforalongtime,anditiscloselyrelatedtotaboo.Infact,euphemismdatesbacktothelanguagetaboointheearlyperiodofhumancivilization.Whenpeopletrytoavoidandgiveuptaboowords,theyhavetofindanotherwordtoreplacethisvacancyatthesametime.Hence,peoplecreatedeuphemism.10Therearesometaboothings,suchasbirth,death,funeral,sex,nakedness,defecation,andurinate.Iftheyareexpresseddirectly,theyarecalledtaboowordsandthefeelingstheygiveusarevulgar,crudeandharsh,whereasiftheyareexpressedindirectly,theyarecalledeuphemism,andtheimpressionstheymadeonusareelegant,implicitandpolite.Theevadingfunctionofeuphemismalsoworkstoday.Sometaboonotionscannotbeeasilyremovedfrompeoplesmind.Thoughscienceandtechnologyarehighlydevelopedtoday,theworddeathisthetaboowordstoallnations.Thustherearealotofeuphemismsrelatedwithit.Suchaspassaway,answerthefinalcall,beasleepinJesus,besafeinthearmsofJesus,beatrest,becalledtoGod,behomeandfree,beinAbrahamsbosom,crosstheRiverJordan,finalsleep,gohome,gotomeetonesmaker,gotoonesownplace,joinonesancestors,jointhegreatmajority,returntodust,withGod,benolongerwithus,paythedebtofnature,tickthebucket,etc.11Amongthose,onewayticketisthesynonymofdie.Itreflectsthespeakersexperienceoflife.Lifeisjustliketravel.Peoplesetouttotravel,butwhentheyarrivetothetermination,theycannotgoback.Inthepast,peopleoftenusedgraveyardtoexpresstheplacewherethedeadsleeppeacefully.Buttheassociationsitgivesusarehorrifiedandgloomy.Sonow,peopleusefuneralhomeandmemorialparktoreplacethem.Insuchaway,itcomfortspeople.123.2PolitefunctionPolitefunctionofeuphemismistoavoidinelegantthingsandmakepeoplefeelpleasant.AsJoannaChannellputinherbookVagueLanguageVaguenessisusedasonewayofadheringtothepolitenessrulesforaparticularculture,andofnotthreateningface.13Itmeansthatinreallife,whenpeoplemeetwithsomeunpleasantthingsorbehaviors,theyusuallychoosesomevagueexpressionstoavoidmakingboldorhurtingothersfeelingtouseeuphemism.Itisharshtosaysomeoneisdeaf,sopeopleuseauditoryimpairedtoreplaceit.Theysoundmoregracefully.WhenEnglishspeakersrefertotheappearance,theydontusetheworduglyorawful,whichhasstrongderogatorysense.Instead,theyusethewordplainlookingornotpretty.14Westernersaresensitivetoage.Intheiropinion,oldequalstouselessinsomeextent.Inordernottohurtthefeelingandselfesteemoftheold,oldmenarereplacedbyseniorcitizensorseasonedmen.Forthewordseniorhasmanymeanings.Exceptolder,italsomeanshigherinrankorauthority.Andthewordseasonedmeansexperienced.Followingaresomeeuphemismsaboutprofession.15HarshexpressioneuphemismbutcherMeattechnologistChimneyworkerChimneyconsultantfiremanFirefighterGarbagemanSanitationengineerhairdresserHairstylisthousekeeperHouseholdexecutivePressagentPublicrelationcounselorPrisonguardCorrectionalofficer3.3CoveringupfunctionInVaguenessLanguage,Channellstatedcoveringupfunctionasdeliberatelywithholdinginformation.Whatissocalledcoverupmeansnotgivinginformationwhichthespeakerpossessesandwhichcouldbeappropriateinthesituation.16Westernpoliticallifegivesbirthtoeuphemism.Somepoliticiansandnewsmediashavemadegooduseofthevaguenessofeuphemismtocoverupthefactsofsomeeventsforthepurposeofmakingthepolitics,economy,andmilitarymoresteady.Concealingthedarksideofsocietyistoalleviatethesocialcontradictionscausedbysex,violence,poverty,unemployment,andcrime.Therearesomeeuphemismsaboutsocialphenomena.Venerealdiseasehasbeenbeautifiedassocialdisease.Rape,akindofcrime,ismentionedcasuallyasinterferewithprostitutionbecameahighsoundingprofessiontheoldestprofessionintheworld.17Inpoliticiansview,violenceisakindofactionanddismissalisalsolayoff.Peopledontneedtobesurprisedatthesephenomena.Inwesterncountries,politicianscreatesomepoliticaleuphemismstoservetheirpoliticalgoals.Theytrytoconcealthefactsastoeasethetenserelationsbetweenothercountriesandreassureandpacifypublicsantiwaremotions.Forexample,InVietnamWar,Gulfwar,orIraqiwar,anumberofeuphemismsemergedtoglossoverthehorrorandcrueltyofwarandcontemptiblediplomaticmeans.Followingisachartaboutmilitaryeuphemisms.18HorrificexpressionEuphemismairstrikeairoptionbombingandblastingsofteninguptheresistanceciviliancasualtiescollateraldamagedefensecrusheddefenseneutralizedgroundwargroundoperationinvasionpreemptiveactionmissileVehiclenuclearbombnucleardeviceretreatstrategicwithdrawalsuicidalattackonewaymissionwarheadpayloadTherearealsosomeeuphemismsabouteconomy.Peopleusedepressioninsteadofeconomiccrises.ThewordStrikinghasbeenbeautifiedasindustrialaction.19andwhenpeoplementionedslum,theyoftenusesubstandardhousingtoreplaceit.Theeuphemismshereareinthetruesenseofthewordfalse.Theyareusedtocoverupthetruenatureofevents,deceivingthepublicwithnicesoundingandpseudotechnicalwords.203.4InducingfunctionSometimes,peopleuseeuphemismtomaketheirstatementmorepersuasive.Thusthecosmeticwordshaveaspecialcommunicativefunction,whichiscalledinducingfunction.AsChannellhasanalyzedinthediscussionofthecommunicativefunctionsofvaguelanguage
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