会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

语言文化论文-浅谈英语委婉语及其社会影响.doc语言文化论文-浅谈英语委婉语及其社会影响.doc -- 2 元

宽屏显示 收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

语言文化论文浅谈英语委婉语及其社会影响AbstractLanguagecommunicationisanimportantmethodtomaintainsocialrelationship,sopeopleoftenusetheindirectorpleasantexpressionsintheplaceofthoseconsideredunpleasant,rudeoroffensiveincommunication.Itisnotonlyalinguisticphenomenon,butalsoakindofsocialphenomenonandculturalphenomenon.Itreflectssomekindsofcorrespondingculturaltraditions.Thispapermainlyfocusesonthewaysofexpression,themajorfunctionandthesocialinfluenceofeuphemisminEnglish.AndthefirstpartelaboratesuponthedifferentexpressionsofeuphemisminEnglish,dividedintofourpartsfigureofspeech,semanticmethod,thevarietyofpronunciationandspellingformandgrammar.Andthenitmakesstudytheapplianceofeuphemismonthreefunctionsavoidance,courtesy,disguiseinsociallife,anddiscussesthepositiveandnegativeinfluencesofeuphemism.Toknowthesecouldhelpustounderstandthemodeofthinking,socialvalues,moralconcepts,andculturaltraditionsinEnglishspeakingcountry,andcouldimproveourlanguagecommunicativeability.KeywordsEuphemism,application,socialinfluence,positive,negative【摘要】语言交际是人类以维系社会关系的重要手段,因而人们在交际中通常避免使用引起双方不快从而损害双方关系的语言,而是采取迂回曲折的方法来表达思想,交流信息,它不仅是种语言现象,而且是社会现象和文化现象。委婉语言体现了相应的社会文化传统。本文主要阐述了英语委婉语的构成方法以及它的社会影响,并着重从修辞手段,语义手段,构词手段及语法手段对委婉语言作了较全面的分析,并对委婉语在交际中的语用功能和表达方式做了一些探讨,从委婉语的避讳功能,礼貌功能和掩饰功能三个方面探讨了委婉语在社会生活中的运用,了解委婉语在运用中的积极作用和消极作用,有助于我们更深入的了解英语国家人们的思维方式、社会价值观、道德观以及文化风俗,对于提高自身言语交际功能是十分必要的。【关键词】委婉语运用社会影响积极消极1.IntroductionEuphemismisoriginallyfromGreek,meaning,speakwithgookwords.eumeanswellorsoundingwellphememeansspeech.ItsdefinitioninOxfordEnglishDictionaryisexampleoftheuseofpleasant,mild,orindirectwordsorphrasesinplaceofmoreaccurateordirectones.1Theappearanceofeuphemismisbasedontworeasonsoneaimstotaketheplaceoftaboo.Whengivingupatabooword,peoplewillfindanothernewonetotaketheplaceofit,whichcreatesaeuphemism.Theotheraimstoavoidoffensivenessduringthecommunication.Itisafigureofrhetoricbywhichanunpleasantoroffensivethingisdescribedorreferredtobyamilderterm.InEnglishlanguage,euphemismiswidelyusedinthedailycommunications.Inordertoachievetheaimoftaboo,itisusedtoavoidtheunpleasantthinginordertoachievetheaimofpoliteness,itisusedtoavoidtheinelegantthings2,whicharethetwosocialpsychologicalbasisoftheemergenceofeuphemism.Euphemismisoneoftheimportantpartsoffigureofspeech.Itisnotonlyalinguisticphenomenon,butalsoakindofsocialphenomenonandculturalphenomenon.Euphemisminusediffersfrompersontoperson,fromprofessiontoprofession,evenfromclasstoclass3,ThatswhysometimesthemeaningofsomeeuphemismswillpuzzleyouifyoudonotknowthebackgroundofEnglishculture.TograsptheEnglisheuphemismcannotonlyhelpusopenoureyes,butstrengthenourabilityofreadingcomprehension.ThispaperaimstodiscusstheapplicationofeuphemisminEnglishandtomakeacknowledgeofitssocialinfluence,whichcouldhelpususeeuphemisminacorrectway.2.Waystoexpresseuphemism2.1.Figureofspeech2.1.1.Metonymy.Thatistousethegeneralwordstotaketheplaceoftheconcretewords.Passedawaywhichreferstodeadbelongstometonymy.Itcanbedividedintothefollowingforms1tousethecontainertotaketheplaceofthethingsinthecontainer.Forexampletobefondofthebottleisaeuphemismforlikingtodrink.2Tousetheentiretyinsteadofthepart.Forexampleabdomenisusedtorefertobellylimbreferstoleg.Forsomespecialoccasions,thepartcanbeusedinsteadoftheentirety.InAustralianEnglishanoldhandisaeuphemismforanoldprisoner.3Tousethetoolstotaketheplaceoftheobjects.Forexample,pickisatoolofpryingthelock.Itcanrefertothief.4Touserawmaterialstotaketheplaceoffinishedproducts.Forinstance,poppyisakindofflower,butitalsoreferstoopium.5Tousecharacteristicstotaketheplaceofobjects.Forexample,hellowisagreetingword,anditisalsoaeuphemismforprostitutebecauseprostitutesoftenusethiswordtosolicitthewhoremastersbloodandironisaeuphemismforviolence.6Touseproperwordstoreplacetheobjects.Forexample,napoleonisaFrenchgoldencoinonwhichthereisNapoleonsheadportrait.BorstalisanameofcountrysideinKentinBritain.Itcanalsorefertojuveniledelinquency.Sometimes,someeuphemismsarefrequentlyusedinsteadoftheoriginalwordspeoplegraduallyforgettheireuphemisticidentities.Theyarenotusedintermsofeuphemismsbuthavetheirownindependentmeanings.Forinstance,takeabovementionedpoppy,nowifyoulookupthiswordinthedictionary,youcanfindthemeaningofopium,ithaslostitseuphemisticfunction.And,ifyoudonotknowthebackground,youcannotknowthemeaningofNapoleonandBorstal.Therefore,wecanseetheimportanceofknowingthebackgroundofEnglishculture.Itcanhelpyoualottorecognizeandunderstandtherealmeaningofeuphemismandmakegooduseofit.2.1.2.MetaphorTousemetaphorcaneasilyavoidtheoffensivethings.Forexample,whereforeitisbettertobeaguestofthelaw,which,thoughconductedbyrules,doesnotmeddleundulywithagentlemansprivateaffairs.O.Henry,TheCopandtheAnthemtobeaguestofthelawisaeuphemismfortobeinprison4,Manyeuphemismsfordeathwerecreatedbywayofmetaphor,suchasgoingtohislonghome,tobehomeandfree,togotosleep,tosleepthelongoreternal,neverendingsleep,torestinpeace,tobeatrest,togotoHeavenorParadise,tojoinonesancestors,tobegatheredtoonesfathers,tojointheimmortals.Moreexamplesareaged→sunsetyears,tobepoor→tobepinched,tohaveimpropersexualintercoursewithgirlsespeciallymaiden→todeflowertodegenerate→togoastraybreast→milkbottlescatamenia→theredflagtobepregnant→tobeonthenestthemoneyofbribery→greasetobribe→togreasesomebodyspalmhandcuffs→bracelets.2.1.3PersonificationPeoplesnamesareoftenusedtoreplacetaboowords.Forexample,BigHarryreferstoheroinbecauseHarryandheroinhavethesameinitials.Lavatoryalsohasmanyeuphemisticalexpressions.In19thcentury,itwascalledmyauntJones,Mrs.Jones,SirJohn,SirHarry,theHenry,whilein20thcentury,itwascalledjakes,johnetc.Butthelattercolorofpersonificationbecomesweak.Thefirstlettercanbewritteninsmallletter.Peoplejustuseitasacommonnoun.Infact,theyhavelosttheeuphemisticfunction.Therearemanyhumorouswaystoexpresscatameniaintermsofpersonification1Myfriendhascome.2Ihaveavisitor.3Mycousins/countrycousinshavecome.4Myauntie/grandmotherhascometostay.5Littlesisterishere.6Ivegotpaintersin.7thecardinalhascome.2.1.4.AnalogyIntheeuphemismsforoccupationpeopleoftenuseanalogy,whichmakesthehumblenamemoreelegant5,Forexample,chefisaeuphemismforcook.ItisborrowedfromFrenchwordchefdecuisine.Beauticianreferstohairdressergarbologistreferstogarbagecollectormorticianreferstoundertaker.Therealsoappearedsomebeautifulnamesforbarbershophairsalon,beautyparlour,andstylistparlour.2.1.5.EllipsisThatistoomittheoffensivewordswhilespeaking,suchastobeexpectingababy,tohavesexualrelationswithsomebody,totakeprecautionsagainstpregnancy,todepartfromthisworld.Ofcourse,suchphrasesshouldbeputintoacertaincontext,whichcanexpressthemeaningofeuphemisms.2.1.6.PeriphrasisItisanexpressionofbeatingaroundthebush.Thoughitisamuddledacting,itsaimistoavoidoffendingothers,andtobemorepolite6.Ifsomeoneaskedawomanwhethershewasknittingatinygarment,hemeantthathewonderedwhethershewaspregnant.Suchwayofspeakingishumorous,sweetandagreeable,suchastodie→tocloseoneseyes,toexpire,tobreatheoneslasttodefecateandtourinate→towashoneshands,toeaseorrelieveoneself,todoonesbusinesstocourt→togowalkingtobepregnant→toeatfortwolavatory→washroom,cloakroomfart→windfrombehindwomensunderclothes→unmentionablestrousers→nethergarmentsaskyoutogoaway→callyourcarriageforyoutodismiss→togivesomebodythesacktobeinprison→toliveatthegovernmentsexpense.Teachersoftenusethisexpressiontoavoidthestudentsandtheirparentsawkwardness.Forexample,lazinessiscalledneedingamplesupervisioninordertoworkwellcheatisdescribedasneedinghelpinlearningtoadheretorulesandstandardsoffairplayliesiscalledshowingdifficultyindistinguishingbetweenimaginaryandfactualmaterialstealiscalledneedinghelpinlearningtorespectthepropertyrightsofothersbeabullyreferstohavingqualitiesofleadershipbutneedshelpinlearningtousethemdemocraticallydirtyiscalledbelackofproperhealthhabits.72.2.Semanticmethod2.2.1.SynonymForexample,tightisusedinsteadofstingythriftisusedinsteadofeconomical,defecatereplacesshiftandurinereplacespiss.Andmadisreplacedbycrazy,insane,andlunatic.Sucheuphemismaimstousetheappreciativetermtotaketheplaceofthederogatoryterm.2.2.2.NegationSucheuphemismusesthecontrarytermtoexpressthesamemeaning,anditcouldbemoreusefulthansynonyminreplacingthetabooandmakepeoplemoreunderstandableandcomfortable.Wecouldcallstupidpeopleunwisepeople.Afatchancemeansaslimchanceandfindwordsstandsforbadwords2.2.3.VaguewordsandexpressionsThatistomaketheharsheroroffensivewordsmoregeneral.Forexample,ifsomebodyhassomementalproblems,wecanexpressitlikethisHisroofleaksalittlehehasascrewloose/missingheisnotathome.Thereareotherexampleswhichusevagueexpressions,suchasdisease→trouble,problemtocomeacrossanunfortunatething→tohaveanaccidentV.D.venerealdisease→secretdiseasetolivetogetherillegally→tocohabitintrauterinedevice→ringtorapesomebody→todoviolencetosomebodyprostitute→awomanofthestreets,awomanofacertainclass,apaintedwoman,aladyofthenightgirltoentertainwhorehousevisitors→toseecompanywhorehouse→houseasquint→anobliquityofvisionamanofbadtaste→amanofdoubtfultastestrike→industrialactionthepoor→theunderprivileged,thedisadvantagedindebt→indifficultiesbuttocks→behind,bottom,backsideshomosexual→queersexualintercourse→intimacytobekilled→tobeputtosleep.2.2.4.LoanwordsBecausefromtheperiodofRenaissance,Latin,Greek,andFrenchareconsideredasculturedwords8.Peopleconsiderthatthoselanguagesaremoreelegant,tactfulandambiguous.Intheearly19thcentury,nomatterinBritainorAmerica,peopleusedFrenchwordenceinteinsteadofEnglishwordpregnant.Itispopulartillnowbecausetheformerismoreelegant,tactfulandambiguous.EnglishborrowswordsnotonlyfromFrenchbutalsofromotherlanguagesinmanykindsofwaystocreateitsowneuphemism.Forexample,lavatorywasborrowedfromLatinwordlavatorium,butitlostitsmeaningofeuphemismbecauseoflongtimeusing.Therefore,peopleborrowedanothereuphemismfromFrench
编号:201312161528426065    大小:43.75KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-12-16
  【编辑】
2
关 键 词:
行业资料 商业贸易 精品文档 语言文化
温馨提示:
1: 本站所有资源如无特殊说明,都需要本地电脑安装OFFICE2007和PDF阅读器。图纸软件为CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.压缩文件请下载最新的WinRAR软件解压。
2: 本站的文档不包含任何第三方提供的附件图纸等,如果需要附件,请联系上传者。文件的所有权益归上传用户所有。
3.本站RAR压缩包中若带图纸,网页内容里面会有图纸预览,若没有图纸预览就没有图纸。
4. 未经权益所有人同意不得将文件中的内容挪作商业或盈利用途。
5. 人人文库网仅提供交流平台,并不能对任何下载内容负责。
6. 下载文件中如有侵权或不适当内容,请与我们联系,我们立即纠正。
7. 本站不保证下载资源的准确性、安全性和完整性, 同时也不承担用户因使用这些下载资源对自己和他人造成任何形式的伤害或损失。
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:7次
docin上传于2013-12-16

官方联系方式

客服手机:13961746681   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

相关资源

相关资源

相关搜索

行业资料   商业贸易   精品文档   语言文化  
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5