语言文化论文-浅谈英语委婉语及其社会影响.doc语言文化论文-浅谈英语委婉语及其社会影响.doc

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语言文化论文浅谈英语委婉语及其社会影响ABSTRACTLANGUAGECOMMUNICATIONISANIMPORTANTMETHODTOMAINTAINSOCIALRELATIONSHIP,SOPEOPLEOFTENUSETHEINDIRECTORPLEASANTEXPRESSIONSINTHEPLACEOFTHOSECONSIDEREDUNPLEASANT,RUDEOROFFENSIVEINCOMMUNICATIONITISNOTONLYALINGUISTICPHENOMENON,BUTALSOAKINDOFSOCIALPHENOMENONANDCULTURALPHENOMENONITREFLECTSSOMEKINDSOFCORRESPONDINGCULTURALTRADITIONSTHISPAPERMAINLYFOCUSESONTHEWAYSOFEXPRESSION,THEMAJORFUNCTIONANDTHESOCIALINFLUENCEOFEUPHEMISMINENGLISHANDTHEFIRSTPARTELABORATESUPONTHEDIFFERENTEXPRESSIONSOFEUPHEMISMINENGLISH,DIVIDEDINTOFOURPARTSFIGUREOFSPEECH,SEMANTICMETHOD,THEVARIETYOFPRONUNCIATIONANDSPELLINGFORMANDGRAMMARANDTHENITMAKESSTUDYTHEAPPLIANCEOFEUPHEMISMONTHREEFUNCTIONSAVOIDANCE,COURTESY,DISGUISEINSOCIALLIFE,ANDDISCUSSESTHEPOSITIVEANDNEGATIVEINFLUENCESOFEUPHEMISMTOKNOWTHESECOULDHELPUSTOUNDERSTANDTHEMODEOFTHINKING,SOCIALVALUES,MORALCONCEPTS,ANDCULTURALTRADITIONSINENGLISHSPEAKINGCOUNTRY,ANDCOULDIMPROVEOURLANGUAGECOMMUNICATIVEABILITYKEYWORDSEUPHEMISM,APPLICATION,SOCIALINFLUENCE,POSITIVE,NEGATIVE【摘要】语言交际是人类以维系社会关系的重要手段,因而人们在交际中通常避免使用引起双方不快从而损害双方关系的语言,而是采取迂回曲折的方法来表达思想,交流信息,它不仅是种语言现象,而且是社会现象和文化现象。委婉语言体现了相应的社会文化传统。本文主要阐述了英语委婉语的构成方法以及它的社会影响,并着重从修辞手段,语义手段,构词手段及语法手段对委婉语言作了较全面的分析,并对委婉语在交际中的语用功能和表达方式做了一些探讨,从委婉语的“避讳”功能,“礼貌”功能和“掩饰”功能三个方面探讨了委婉语在社会生活中的运用,了解委婉语在运用中的积极作用和消极作用,有助于我们更深入的了解英语国家人们的思维方式、社会价值观、道德观以及文化风俗,对于提高自身言语交际功能是十分必要的。【关键词】委婉语;运用;社会影响;积极;消极1INTRODUCTIONEUPHEMISMISORIGINALLYFROMGREEK,MEANING,“SPEAKWITHGOOKWORDS”“EU”MEANS“WELLORSOUNDINGWELL”;“PHEME”MEANS“SPEECH”ITSDEFINITIONINOXFORDENGLISHDICTIONARYIS“EXAMPLEOFTHEUSEOFPLEASANT,MILD,ORINDIRECTWORDSORPHRASESINPLACEOFMOREACCURATEORDIRECTONES”1THEAPPEARANCEOFEUPHEMISMISBASEDONTWOREASONSONEAIMSTOTAKETHEPLACEOF“TABOO”WHENGIVINGUPATABOOWORD,PEOPLEWILLFINDANOTHERNEWONETOTAKETHEPLACEOFIT,WHICHCREATESAEUPHEMISMTHEOTHERAIMSTOAVOIDOFFENSIVENESSDURINGTHECOMMUNICATIONITISAFIGUREOFRHETORICBYWHICHANUNPLEASANTOROFFENSIVETHINGISDESCRIBEDORREFERREDTOBYAMILDERTERMINENGLISHLANGUAGE,EUPHEMISMISWIDELYUSEDINTHEDAILYCOMMUNICATIONSINORDERTOACHIEVETHEAIMOF“TABOO”,ITISUSEDTOAVOIDTHEUNPLEASANTTHING;INORDERTOACHIEVETHEAIMOF“POLITENESS”,ITISUSEDTOAVOIDTHEINELEGANTTHINGS2,WHICHARETHETWOSOCIALPSYCHOLOGICALBASISOFTHEEMERGENCEOFEUPHEMISMEUPHEMISMISONEOFTHEIMPORTANTPARTSOFFIGUREOFSPEECHITISNOTONLYALINGUISTICPHENOMENON,BUTALSOAKINDOFSOCIALPHENOMENONANDCULTURALPHENOMENONEUPHEMISMINUSEDIFFERSFROMPERSONTOPERSON,FROMPROFESSIONTOPROFESSION,EVENFROMCLASSTOCLASS3,THAT’SWHYSOMETIMESTHEMEANINGOFSOMEEUPHEMISMSWILLPUZZLEYOUIFYOUDONOTKNOWTHEBACKGROUNDOFENGLISHCULTURETOGRASPTHEENGLISHEUPHEMISMCANNOTONLYHELPUSOPENOUREYES,BUTSTRENGTHENOURABILITYOFREADINGCOMPREHENSIONTHISPAPERAIMSTODISCUSSTHEAPPLICATIONOFEUPHEMISMINENGLISHANDTOMAKEACKNOWLEDGEOFITSSOCIALINFLUENCE,WHICHCOULDHELPUSUSEEUPHEMISMINACORRECTWAY2WAYSTOEXPRESSEUPHEMISM21FIGUREOFSPEECH211METONYMYTHATISTOUSETHEGENERALWORDSTOTAKETHEPLACEOFTHECONCRETEWORDS“PASSEDAWAY”WHICHREFERSTO“DEAD”BELONGSTOMETONYMYITCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHEFOLLOWINGFORMS1TOUSETHECONTAINERTOTAKETHEPLACEOFTHETHINGSINTHECONTAINERFOREXAMPLE“TOBEFONDOFTHEBOTTLE”ISAEUPHEMISMFOR“LIKINGTODRINK”2TOUSETHEENTIRETYINSTEADOFTHEPARTFOREXAMPLE“ABDOMEN”ISUSEDTOREFERTO“BELLY”;“LIMB”REFERSTO“LEG”FORSOMESPECIALOCCASIONS,THEPARTCANBEUSEDINSTEADOFTHEENTIRETYINAUSTRALIANENGLISH“ANOLDHAND”ISAEUPHEMISMFOR“ANOLDPRISONER”3TOUSETHETOOLSTOTAKETHEPLACEOFTHEOBJECTSFOREXAMPLE,“PICK”ISATOOLOFPRYINGTHELOCKITCANREFERTO“THIEF”4TOUSERAWMATERIALSTOTAKETHEPLACEOFFINISHEDPRODUCTSFORINSTANCE,“POPPY”ISAKINDOFFLOWER,BUTITALSOREFERSTO“OPIUM”5TOUSECHARACTERISTICSTOTAKETHEPLACEOFOBJECTSFOREXAMPLE,“HELLOW”ISAGREETINGWORD,ANDITISALSOAEUPHEMISMFOR“PROSTITUTE”BECAUSEPROSTITUTESOFTENUSETHISWORDTOSOLICITTHEWHOREMASTERS;“BLOODANDIRON”ISAEUPHEMISMFOR“VIOLENCE”6TOUSEPROPERWORDSTOREPLACETHEOBJECTSFOREXAMPLE,“NAPOLEON”ISAFRENCHGOLDENCOINONWHICHTHEREISNAPOLEON’SHEADPORTRAIT“BORSTAL”ISANAMEOFCOUNTRYSIDEINKENTINBRITAINITCANALSOREFERTO“JUVENILEDELINQUENCY”SOMETIMES,SOMEEUPHEMISMSAREFREQUENTLYUSEDINSTEADOFTHEORIGINALWORDS;PEOPLEGRADUALLYFORGETTHEIREUPHEMISTICIDENTITIESTHEYARENOTUSEDINTERMSOFEUPHEMISMSBUTHAVETHEIROWNINDEPENDENTMEANINGSFORINSTANCE,TAKEABOVEMENTIONED“POPPY”,NOWIFYOULOOKUPTHISWORDINTHEDICTIONARY,YOUCANFINDTHEMEANINGOF“OPIUM”,ITHASLOSTITSEUPHEMISTICFUNCTIONAND,IFYOUDONOTKNOWTHEBACKGROUND,YOUCANNOTKNOWTHEMEANINGOF“NAPOLEON”AND“BORSTAL”THEREFORE,WECANSEETHEIMPORTANCEOFKNOWINGTHEBACKGROUNDOFENGLISHCULTUREITCANHELPYOUALOTTORECOGNIZEANDUNDERSTANDTHEREALMEANINGOFEUPHEMISMANDMAKEGOODUSEOFIT212METAPHORTOUSEMETAPHORCANEASILYAVOIDTHEOFFENSIVETHINGSFOREXAMPLE,WHEREFOREITISBETTERTOBEAGUESTOFTHELAW,WHICH,THOUGHCONDUCTEDBYRULES,DOESNOTMEDDLEUNDULYWITHAGENTLEMAN’SPRIVATEAFFAIRSOHENRY,THECOPANDTHEANTHEM“TOBEAGUESTOFTHELAW”ISAEUPHEMISMFOR“TOBEINPRISON”4,MANYEUPHEMISMSFOR“DEATH”WERECREATEDBYWAYOFMETAPHOR,SUCHASGOINGTOHISLONGHOME,TOBEHOMEANDFREE,TOGOTOSLEEP,TOSLEEPTHELONGORETERNAL,NEVERENDINGSLEEP,TORESTINPEACE,TOBEATREST,TOGOTOHEAVENORPARADISE,TOJOINONE’SANCESTORS,TOBEGATHEREDTOONE’SFATHERS,TOJOINTHEIMMORTALSMOREEXAMPLESAREAGED→SUNSETYEARS,TOBEPOOR→TOBEPINCH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