语言文化论文-浅谈英语谚语的来源、功能及其修辞.doc语言文化论文-浅谈英语谚语的来源、功能及其修辞.doc

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语言文化论文浅谈英语谚语的来源、功能及其修辞[ABSTRACT]PROVERBS,INCOLORFULANDVIVIDLANGUAGE,REFLECTIMPORTANTTYPICALCULTURALVALUESOFEVERYCULTURESIMPLEANDPOPULAR,CONCISEANDPITHY,THEYAREPASSEDONFROMGENGERATIONTOGENERATIONINTHEREADABLEORALFORMANDHAVEGRADUALLYBECOMEACOMPONENTINDISPENSABLETOTHEDOMINANTCULTUREOFTHATNATIONTHISPAPERCONTAINSTHREEPARTSTHESOURCESOFENGLISHPROVERBS、THEFUNCTIONSOFENGLISHPROVERBSANDTHERHETORICALDEVICESOFENGLISHPROVERBSFIRSTLY,ITINTRODUCESTHESOURCESOFENGLISHPROVERBSPROVERBSHAVEALONGHISTORYTHEYAREBRIEFANDWELLPOLISHEDEXPRESSIONSEMBEDDEDINPHILOSOPHICALIDEASCONCERNINGDIFFERENTASPECTSOFLIFETHEYARETHESUMMARYOFPEOPLEEXPERIENCEINEVERYDAYLIFE,SOTHEYORIGINATEDFROMPEOPLE’SDAILYLIFEANDEXPERIENCETOBESPECIFIC,THEYCOMEFROMFOLKLIFE,RELIGION,MYTHOLOGY,LITERARYWORKS,OTHERLANGUAGES,FAMOUSWRITERS’WISDOM,ANATION’SHISTORYANDSOONSECONDLY,ITMENTIONSTHEFUNCTIONOFENGLISHPROVERBSITSFUNCTIONISTOTEACHANDADVISEPEOPLEWHATTHEYSEEINTHEIRLIVESMANYENGLISHPROVERBSGUIDEPEOPLETOADOPTACORRECTATTITUDETOWARDSLIFEANDTOTAKEAPROPERWAYTOGETALONGWELLWITHOTHERSSOMEOTHERPROVERBSTELLPEOPLEWHATTODOANDHOWTODOIT,SOTHEPROVERBSGUIDEPEOPLE’SDAILYLIFEFROMTHEM,PEOPLEMAYBROADENTHEIRKNOWLEDGEANDOUTLOOKTHIRDLY,ITDESCRIBESTHEIRRHETORICALDEVICESENGLISHPROVERBSARERICHANDCOLORFULWITHREGARDTOTHEEVERLASTINGCHARMOFTHEENGLISHPROVERBS,THEREAREMANYDIFFERENTREASONSTHEMOSTIMPORTANTONEISTHEEXTENSIVEUSEOFRHETORICALDEVICESANDRHYTHMATICALWAYS,SOTHEIRLANGUAGEISFULLOFIMAGEANDVIVIDNESSANDHASASTRONGARTISTICBEAUTYANDPOWER[KEYWORDS]ENGLISHPROVERBS;SOURCES;FUNCTIONS;RHETORICALDEVICES【摘要】谚语丰富多彩,生动隽永,反映了每个民族追崇的重要而独特的文化价值观。谚语简单通俗,精辟凝练,尤其以朗朗的口语形态承传沿用,渐渐成为民族主流文化不可缺少的一部分。这篇论文包含三个部分英语谚语的来源,英语谚语的功能及其修辞。第一部分是介绍英语谚语的来源,英语谚语源远流长,是人类日常生活经验的结晶。它来源于日常生活与经验,确切地说,来源于民间生活,宗教,神话,文学著作,其他语言,名人名言以及国家历史等。第二部分是介绍英语谚语的功能,谚语的功能是教育和指导人们在日常生活中所遇到的情况,同时它们引导人们采取正确的态度对待生活。从谚语中,人们可以拓宽自己的知识面,避免出错,具有敏锐的观察力的人从中受益非浅。第三部分是介绍英语谚语的修辞英语谚语丰富多彩,具有永恒的魅力,其原因之一就是应用了大量的修辞格和押韵方法,这就使谚语更形象,生动并具有强烈的艺术美和感染力。【关键词】英语谚语;来源;功能;修辞格1INTRODUCTIONPROVERBSARESHORTSAYINGSOFFOLKWISDOMOFWELLKNOWNFACTSORTRUTHSCOMPENDIOUSEXPRESSEDANDINAWAYTHATMAKESTHEMEASYTOREMEMBERBECAUSETHEPROVERBSARESOBRIEF,THEYHAVEUNIVERSALAPPEALMANYPEOPLELOVETOPICKUPPROVERBSTHEUSEOFONEORTWOINTHEORIGINALLANGUAGEISOFTENAMINORVICTORYFORTHEBEGINNINGFOREIGNLANGUAGELEARNERSPROVERBSMAYPROVIDEINTERESTINGLITTLEGLIMPSESORCLUESTOAPEOPLE’SGEOGRAPHY,HISTORY,SOCIALORGANIZATION,SOCIALVIEWS,ANDATTITUDESPEOPLEWHOLIVEALONGSEACOASTSANDWHOSELIVELIHOODISDEPENDENTONTHESEAWILLHAVEPROVERBSABOUTSAILING,ABOUTBRAVINGTHEWEATHER,ABOUTFISHANDFISHINGINCULTURESWHEREOLDAGEISREVERED,THEREWILLBEPROVERBSABOUTTHEWISDOMOFTHEELDERSANDINSOCIETIESWHEREWOMEN’SSTATUSISLOW,THEREWILLBEANUMBEROFSAYINGSDEMEANINGTHEMPROVERBSTELLMUCHABOUTAPEOPLESTRADITIONALWAYSOFEXPERIENCINGREALITY,ABOUTTHEPROPEROREXPECTEDWAYSOFDOINGTHINGS,ABOUTVALUESANDWARNINGS,ANDRULESANDWISDOMSTHEELDERSWANTTOIMPRESSONTHEMINDSOFTHEIRYOUNGTHEIMPORTANTCHARACTEROFPROVERBS‘THESHORTERTHEBETTER’MAKESITEASYTOCOMMITTHEMTOMEMORYFORREADYRECALLWHENTHEOCCASIONCALLSFORSERIOUSORHUMOROUSCOMMENTORWARNINGCREATEDBYPEOPLEINHIGHANDLOWSTATUS,HUMBLEFOLKANDGREATAUTHORS,BORROWEDFROMANCIENTORNEIGHBORINGCULTURES,PROVERBSHAVEBEENACCUMULATINGOVERMANYCENTURIESSOMEAREONLYLOCALLYKNOWN;MANYARESHAREDAROUNDTHEWORLDIFONEWANTSTOHAVEBETTERKNOWLEDGEOFENGLISHCULTURE,HESHOULDBEFAMILIARWITHTHESOURCESANDFUNCTIONSOFENGLISHPROVERBS2THESOURCESOFENGLISHPROVERBS21ORIGINATINGFROMFOLKLIFEPROVERBSARETHESUMMARYOFPEOPLEEXPERIENCEINTHEIREVERYDAYLIFETHESUMMARIZEDEXPERIENCEANDREASONAREABSTRACTEDFROMTHEPRACTICEOFPEOPLE’SLIFEANDWORKTHEYEXPRESSPEOPLE’SSIMPLEANDHEALTHYTHOUGHTS,FEELINGSANDSENTIMENTSMOREOFTENTHANNOT,ITREVEALSAUNIVERSALTRUTHFROMAPARTICULARPOINTSOASTOENLIGHTENPEOPLEAGREATNUMBEROFPROVERBSWERECREATEDBYWORKINGPEOPLESUCHASSEAMEN,HUNTERS,FARMERS,WORKMEN,HOUSEWIVESANDCOOKSANDSOON,USINGFAMILIARTERMSTHATWEREASSOCIATEDWITHTHEIROWNTRADESANDOCCUPATIONSFOREXAMPLE,LIVINGWITHOUTTHEAIMISLIKESAILINGWITHOUTACOMPASSWASFIRSTUSEDBYSEAMEN;IFYOURUNAFTERTWOHARES,YOUWILLCATCHNEITHERBYHUNTERS;APRILRAINSFORCORN,MAY,FORGRASSBYFARMERS;NEWBROOMSWEEPSCLEANBYHOUSEWIVESANDTOOMANYCOOKSSPOILTHEBROTHBYCOOKS,ETCSUCHEXPRESSIONSWEREALLCOLLOQUIALANDINFORMALANDONCECONFINEDTOALIMITEDGROUPOFPEOPLEENGAGEDINTHESAMETRADEORACTIVITYBUTTHEYWEREPROVEDTOBEVIVID,ANDFORCIBLEANDSTIMULATING,SOLATERTHEYBROKEOUTOFTHEIRBOUNDSANDGRADUALLYGAINEDWIDEACCEPTANCEASARESULT,THEIREARLYSTYLISTICFEATURESFADEDINSOMEWAYANDMANYHAVECOMETOBECOMEPARTOFTHECOMMONCOREOFLANGUAGE,NOWBEINGUSEDINDIFFERENTOCCASIONSSOMEPROVERBSARERELATEDTOSOMEFOLKPRACTICEANDCUSTOMSFOREXAMPLE,GOODWINENEEDSNOBUSH1THISPROVERBISFROMANANCIENTPOPULARENGLISHPRACTICEINTHEPAST,ENGLISHWINEMERCHANTSTENDEDTOHANGSOMEIVYBUSHESORAPICTUREOFIVYBUSHESONTHEIRDOORSASASYMBOLOFWINESELLINGBUTSOMEMERCHANT’SWINEWASSOGOODTHATITCAN’TBEIGNOREDWITHOUTSIGNTHISINFACTSHOWSTHEPASTCOMMONPRACTICETHATMERCHANTSOFDIFFERENTTRADESWOULDHANGDIFFERENTPARTICULARTHINGSASSIGNSFORTHEIRGOODSANOTHEREXAMPLEISINVOLVEDWITHPEOPLE’SWEDDINGPRACTICEENGLISHPEOPLEBELIEVEDTHATIFTHEWEATHERWEREFINEANDSUNNYONAGIRLWEDDINGDAY,THEGIRLWOULDMOSTPROBABLYENJOYAHAPPYMARRIAGELIFEOTHERWISE,ALLSORTSOFMISFORTUNESANDTRAGEDIESWOULDBEFALLONHERBECAUSEOFTHISCUSTOM,ENGLISHPEOPLEHAVEGOTAPROVERBHAPPYISTHEBRIDETHATSUNSHINESON2THISPROVERBORIGINATEDFROMTHECOMMONPRACTICEINANCIENTCHINAINTHEPAST,YOUNGGIRLSDIDN’THAVETHERIGHTTODECIDEWHOMTOMARRYTHEIRPARENTSHADTHEFINALDECISIONINTHEIRMARRIAGEUSUALLY,THEPARENTSWOULDASKAMATCHMAKERFORHELPTHEMATCHMAKERWENTBETWEENTWOFAMILIESANDPASSEDONTHEMESSAGESFINALLY,THEGIRL’SPARENTSMADETHEFINALDECISIONWHETHERTHEGIRLWOULDMARRYTHECHOSENBOYORNOTTHISISKNOWNASARRANGEDMARRIAGESUCHAMARRIAGE,MOREOFTENTHANNOT,WOULDLEADTHECOUPLETOANUNHAPPYLIFEBECAUSETHEYSELDOMOREVENNEVERSAWEACHOTHERBEFORE,THEYKNEWEVENLITTLEABOUTTHEOTHERPARTY’SBEHAVIORORMANNERS,LETALONEHIS/HERPERSONALITYORVIRTUESITWASOFTENBEYONDTHECOUPLE’SHOPESTOENJOYAHAPPYMARRIAGESOMEPROVERBSCAMEFROMANCIENTPEOPLEDEEPLYROOTEDBELIEFSSUCHASTHEIRSUPERSTITIOUSTENDENCYANDBELIEFINTHEPAST,ENGLISHPEOPLEBELIEVEDTHATIFAPERSONSPOILEDSALTFROMTHESALTBOTTLE,MISFORTUNEANDBADLUCKWOULDFOLLOWTHENTHISPERSONMUSTSCATTERTHESPOILEDSALTFROMTHEIRLEFTSHOULDERSSOASTODRIVEOFFTHEIRILLLUCKINTURN,ENGLISHPEOPLEHAVEGOTTHEPROVERBHELPMETOSALTANDYOUHELPMETOSORROW3SOMEPROVERBSCOMEFROMPEOPLE’SDISTINCTIONBETWEENSEXESSUCHASTHEIRDISCRIMINATIONAGAINSTWOMENITCOMESFROMADEEPLYROOTEDTRADITIONALVIEWPOINTSUCHASTHREEWOMENANDAGOOSEMAKEAMARKET;LONGHAIRANDSHORTWIT;THEMOREWOMENLOOKINTHEIRGLASS,THELESSTHEYLOOKTOTHEIRHOUSE22ORIGINATINGFROMRELIGIONBIBLEISESSENTIALFORBRITISHANDAMERICANCULTURESITISSAIDTHATTHEIRCULTURESARENOTINTEGRATEDWITHOUTBIBLEITISSAFETOSAYTHATBIBLEINFLUENCESEVERYASPECTOFITSDISCIPLES’LIFECONSEQUENTLY,MANYSAYINGSANDSENTENCESINBIBLEHAVEBEENPOPULARLYACCEPTEDTHEYHAVEBEENDEEPLYROOTEDAMONGPEOPLEANDPEOPLEFREQUENTLYUSETHEMTOCITEATRUTHOREXPRESSTHEIRIDEASWITHOUTPAYINGANYATTENTIONTOTHEIRORIGINSANYMORETHESESAYINGSARENOLONGERONLYCONFINEDTORELIGIONANDTHEYHAVEBECOMEPROVERBSWHICHREFLECTENGLISHPEOPLERELIGIOUSFAITHSUCHASEVERYMANMUSTCARRYHISOWNCROSSTHISPROVERBISFROMBIBLE,MATTHEW,ONTHEGROUNDSOFMATTHEW,THEMAINIDEAISLIKETHIS“ASTHESOLDIERSWENTOUT,THEYCAMEUPONAMANFROMCYRENENAMEDSIMON;THEYCOMPELLEDTHISMANTOCARRYJESUS’CROSSANDWHENTHEYCAMETOAPLACECALLEDGOLGOTHAWHICHMEANSPLACEOFASKULL,THEYOFFEREDJESUSWINETODRINK,MIXEDWITHGALL;BUTWHENHETASTEDIT,HEWOULDNOTDRINKITANDWHENTHEYHADCRUCIFIEDHIM,THEYDIVIDEDHISCLOTHESAMONGTHEMSELVESBYCASTINGLOTS;THENTHEYSATDOWNTHEREANDKEPTWATCHINGOVERHIMOVERHISHEADTHEYPUTTHECHARGEAGAINST,WHICHREAD,“THISISJESUS,THEKINGOFTHEJEWS””4FROMTHIS,WECANKNOWTHATCROSSMEANSSUFFERINGSTHEPROVERBTENDSTOTELLUSTHATEVERYONESHOULDPUTUPWITHMISERYINDAILYLIFEANDUNDERTAKETHELIFE’SBURDENANOTHERPROVERBISALSOFROMTHEBIBLEONEDOESN’TLIVEONLYBYBREADITISFROMTHEBIBLE,DEUTERONOMY,THEGENERALIDEAIS“REMEMBERTHELONGWAYTHATTHELORDYOURGODHASLEDYOUTHESEFORTYYEARSINTHEWILDERNESS,INORDERTOHUMBLEYOU,TESTINGYOUTOKNOWWHATWASINYOURHEART,WHETHERORNOTYOUWOULDKEEPHISCOMMANDMENTSHEHUMBLEDYOUBYLETTINGYOUHUNGER,THENBYFEEDINGYOUWITHMANNA,WITHWHICHNEITHERYOUNORYOURANCESTORSWEREACQUAINTED,INORDERTOMAKEYOUUNDERSTANDTHATONEDOESNOTLIVEBYBREADALONE,BUTBYEVERYWORDTHATCOMESFROMTHEMOUTHOFTHELORD”5FROMTHIS,WECANKNOWTHATMATERIALISNOTTHEONLYTHINGTHATISINDISPENSABLETOMENSPIRITISALSOVERYIMPORTANTISONEISONLYSEARCHEDFORMATERIAL,HEWILLBECONSIDEREDASANIMALS,FORTHEMOSTDISTINCTIVECHARACTERISTICBETWEENMENANDANIMALSISTHATMENHAVEPURSUITOFSPIRITBUTANIMALSHAVEN’TMANYIMAGESINTHESEPROVERBSHAVEDIDACTICMEANINGSENGLISHPEOPLEBELIEVEINCHRISTIANITY,WHICHISBYFARTHEMOSTINFLUENTIALRELIGIONINTHEWESTEVERYASPECTOFMAN’SLIFEISTOUCHEDBYTHISRELIGION,SOTHATITHASBECOMEPARTOFWESTERNCULTUREANDTHEBIBLE,WHICHINCLUDESTHEOLDTESTAMENTANDTHENEWTESTAMENT,ISREGARDEDASTHESCRIPTURESALMOSTEVERYFAMILYHASAVERSIONOFBIBLE,SOITHASCOMETOBEONEOFTHEMAJORSOURCESOFENGLISHCULTUREMANYENGLISHPROVERBSSHOWTHEDOCTRINESOFTHEIRRELIGIONFOREXAMPLE,LETNOTTHYLEFTHANDKNOWWHATTHYRIGHTHANDDOETH6ACCORDINGTOTHEDOCTRINESOFBIBLEALLHUMANBEINGSAREBROTHERSANDSISTERS,ANDTHEYSHOULDHELPEACHOTHERSOWHENYOUGIVEHANDSTOOTHERS,NEVERKEEPTHEMEMORYTHATYOUHAVEHELPEDTHEMANOTHEREXAMPLE,IFTHEBLINDLEADTHEBLIND,BOTHSHALLFALLINTOTHEDITCH7ITIMPLIESTHATIFONEHASLITTLEKNOWLEDGE,ITISDIFFICULTFORHIMTOTEACHOTHERSSOMEUSEFULTHINGSEVENIFHETRIEDTOHELPOTHERS,HEWOULDDONOTHINGGOODTOTHEM23ORIGINATINGFROMLITERARYWORKSMANYENGLISHPROVERBSINVOLVEEVENTSORCHARACTERSOFENGLISHLITERATURE,ESPECIALLYFROMSHAKESPEARESHAKESPEARE’SINSIGHTINTOHUMANBEINGS,HISSENSITIVITYTOTHEPROBLEMOFSTATE,ANDHISGENIUSWITHWORDSHAVELEFTANEVERLASTINGMARKONTHEENGLISHLANGUAGEANDTHETHINKINGOFENGLISHSPEAKINGPEOPLEALLOVERTHEWORLDNATIVESPEAKERSOFENGLISHQUOTEHISWORKSEVERYDAY,OFTENWITHOUTREALIZINGTHEYAREDOINGSOALTHOUGHHISPLAYSWEREWRITTENOVERTHREEHUNDREDYEARSAGO,MANYENGLISHPROVERBSFROMHISPLAYSARECITEDCOMMONLYINDAILYENGLISHSHAKESPEARE’SWORKSAREPROBABLYTHEMOSTCOLORFULLITERATUREORIGINOFPROVERBSFOREXAMPLE,ALLISNOTGOLDTHATGLITTERSTHISPROVERBISFROMTHEGREATWORKSOFSHAKESPEARETHEMERCHANTSOFVENICEITSHOWSUSTHATTHOSEWHOHAVEAGOODAPPEARANCEARENOTREALLYLEARNEDSOWESHOULDBECAREFULNOTTOBEDECEIVEDBYTHOSEWHOARESUPERFICIALLYFLASHYBUTWITHOUTSUBSTANCEANOTHEREXAMPLE,PATIENCEPERFORCEISMEDICINEFORAMADDOG8ISFROMSHAKESP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