语言文化论文-浅谈非言语交际及其在交际中的影响.doc语言文化论文-浅谈非言语交际及其在交际中的影响.doc

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语言文化论文浅谈非言语交际及其在交际中的影响ABSTRACTSINCELANGUAGEHASBEENCOMEINTOBEING,ITPLAYSACOMMANDINGROLEASAMEANSOFCOMMUNICATION,BUTNOTTHEONLYMEANSOFITNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTAKESPLACEWITHVERBALONEATTHESAMETIMEINTHECOMMUNICATIONHOWEVER,VERBALCOMMUNICATIONCONVEYSTHEMESSAGEINACONVENIENTANDDIRECTWAYWHICHMAKESPEOPLEDEPENDMOREONSUCHCOMMUNICATIVEMEANSWHILENEGLECTTHENONVERBALONESOITISNOTSURPRISINGTHATTRADITIONALLYLANGUAGESTUDIESHAVEEMPHASIZEDVERBALANDWRITTENFORMS,BUTRECENTLYNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONHASRECEIVEDMOREANDMOREATTENTIONANDBECOMEAYOUNGSCIENCEWHICHISRELATEDTOMANYOTHERSUBJECTSAFTERBRIEFLYREVIEWINGACHIEVEMENTSMADEINTHESTUDYOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION,THISTHESISINTRODUCESTHEDEFINITION,CLASSIFICATION,FUNCTION,ANDCULTURALDIFFERENCESONCROSSCULTURALNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONAIMINGTOPOINTTHESIGNIFICANCEOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION,ITFOCUSESONTHEINFLUENCEOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIVEAPPROACHINCOMMUNICATION,ESPECIALLYINTEACHINGWITHTHEIMPLICATIONTOITINREALITY,NONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONHASBEENWIDELYUSEDINMANYFIELDS,SOITISNECESSARYTOLEARNSOMETHINGABOUTITINORDERTOIMPROVEOURCOMMUNICATIVEQUALITYKEYWORDSNONVERBALCOMMUNICATION;CULTURALDIFFERENCE;FUNCTION;INFLUENCE;TEACHING【摘要】自从语言产生以来,言语交际便在人类交际中扮演最主要的角色,但并非是交际的唯一手段。在传播过程中,非言语交际与言语交际是同时进行的,然而言语交际较为快捷地传递信息,因此人们较多依赖于此种交际手段而忽视非言语表达。难怪对于语言的研究,传统上较重视口语及书面语这两种言语交际形式,而很少顾及非言语交际形式;然而近年来,非言语交际手段越来越受到语言学家们的关注,成为一门跨学科的新兴科学。本文简述了非言语交际的研究成果,从定义、基本分类、功能、跨文化非言语交际的文化差异这几方面对其作了简要介绍。为了指出非言语交际的重要性,着重论述非言语交际在交际中的影响尤其对教学产生的影响,从而得出对教学的启示。在现实生活,非言语交际被广泛应用于许多领域,因此为提高交际质量有必要对非言语交际作一些了解。【关键词】非言语交际;文化差异;功能;影响;教学INTRODUCTIONSINCELANGUAGEHASBEENCOMEINTOBEING,ITBECOMESTHEMOSTIMPORTANTCOMMUNICATIVETOOLFORHUMANBEING,BUTNOTTHEONLYONEWHENWEAREINVOLVEDINCOMMUNICATING,WENEEDTOMOBILIZEOURFACIALEXPRESSION,BODYMOVEMENT,INTONATION,TEMPERATURE,COLOR,SMELL,CLOTHINGANDBODYDECORATION,TIME,SPACEANDMANYOTHERWAYSTOCOMMUNICATEWITHEACHOTHER,BESIDESUSINGLANGUAGETOTRANSMITINFORMATIONTHESEMEANSFORCOMMUNICATIONWITHOUTWORDSARESOCALLEDNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTRADITIONALLYLANGUAGESTUDIESHAVEEMPHASIZEDVERBALANDWRITTENFORMS,ANDRECENTLYNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONHASRECEIVEDMOREANDMOREATTENTIONINMYPAPERI’LLPRESENTSOMEBASICCONCEPTIONS,FUNCTIONS,CULTURALDIFFERENCE,ANDINFLUENCEONTEACHINGESPECIALLY1ABRIEFREVIEWOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONSTUDIESTHEEARLIESTSTUDYOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONCOULDBETRACEDBACKTOTHATOFVARIOUSSCHOOLSOFTHINKERSINPREQINDYNASTYANDGREEKPHILOSOPHERARISTOTLECONFUCIUSPAIDMOREATTENTIONTOAPPEARANCEANDPOSTUREINDIFFERENTOCCASIONSANDARISTOTLEANALYZEDEXPRESSIVEWAYSOFBEHAVIORSINHISWORKS1P10THESCIENTIFICSTUDYOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONPRIMARILYSTARTEDAFTERWORLDWARIIONEOFTHEMOSTINFLUENTIALPRETWENTIETHCENTURYWORKSWASDARWIN’SEXPRESSIONOFTHEEMOTIONSINMANANDANIMALSIN1872THISWORKSPAWNEDTHEMODERNSTUDYOFFACIALEXPRESSION,ANDMANYOFHISOBSERVATIONSANDIDEASHAVEBEENVALIDATEDBYOTHERRESEARCHERSINTHEFIRSTHALFOFTHETWENTIETHCENTURY,THESTUDYOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONSTILLREMAINEDUNSYSTEMATICFORTHEREWEREONLYISOLATEDSTUDIESOFVOICE,PHYSICALAPPEARANCE,DRESSANDFACIALEXPRESSIONSTHETHREEINFLUENTIALWORKSDURINGTHISPERIODWEREKRETSCHMER’SBOOKPHYSIQUEANDCHARACTERIN1925,SHELDON’SBOOKTHEVARIATIONSOFHUMANPHYSIQUEIN1940,ANDEFRON’SBOOKGESTUREANDENVIRONMENTIN1941IN1950S,THEREWASASIGNIFICANTINCREASEINTHENUMBEROFNONVERBALRESEARCHEFFORTSBIRDWHISTELL’SINTRODUCTIONTOKINESICSIN1952ANDHALL’SSILENTLANGUAGEIN1959WERETWOMILESTONESOFTHISDECADEIN1956,RUESCHANDKEESPRODUCEDABOOKENTITLEDNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONNOTESONTHEVISUALPERCEPTIONOFHUMANRELATIONSTHISWASTHEFIRSTBOOKTOUSETHETERMNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONINITSTITLE1960SPRODUCEDA“NUCLEAREXPLOSION”OFNONVERBALSTUDIESDURINGTHISTIME,THECLASSICTHEORETICALPIECEWASEKMAN’SANDFRIESEN’SARTICLEONTHEORIGINS,USAGE,ANDCODINGOFNONVERBALBEHAVIORTHE1970SPROVEDTOBEATIMEOFSUMMARIZINGANDSYNTHESIZINGONNONVERBALSTUDIESITBEGANWITHJULIUSFAST’SBODYLANGUAGEIN1970THISBOOKWASTHEBESTSELLINGVOLUMEATTHATTIMEANDITHASNOWBEENTRANSLATEDINTOSEVERALCHINESEVERSIONSTHE1980SWEREATIMEOFFURTHERDEVELOPMENTOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONSTUDIESSOMENONVERBALRESEARCHESOFTHISDECADEFOCUSEDONIDENTIFYINGTHEWAYSAVARIETYOFNONVERBALSIGNALSWORKTOGETHERTOACCOMPLISHCOMMONCOMMUNICATIVEGOALSTHERESEARCHONNONVERBALBEHAVIORINOURCOUNTRYBEGANFROM1980SSCHOLARSSUCHASHUWENZHONG,BIJIWAN,DENGYIANCHANGANDLIURUNQINGHAVEDONESOMERESEARCHWORK2P4041WHYWEBEGANTHERESEARCHONNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONLATERTHANWESTERNCOUNTRIES,SOFARASIKNOW,THERE’RESOMEREASONSFORITSINCEJOSEPHSTALINHADCRITICIZEDTHE“GESTURE”OFMARIN1950,THESCHOLARSINOURCOUNTRYWHOSTUDIEDLINGUISTICTHEORYCONSIDEREDITASGUIDINGPRINCIPLETOCONFIRMTHEFUNCTIONOFLANGUAGECOMMUNICATIONABSOLUTELYWITHOUTCONSIDERINGTHEPOSITIONANDFUNCTIONOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONINCOMMUNICATIONASARESULT,THERANGEOFSTUDYISONLYLIMITEDTOLANGUAGEANDCOMMUNICATIVETOOLBASEDONLANGUAGE1P1ANDDURING1960S1970SCULTURALREVOLUTIONHAPPENEDINOURCOUNTRYBRINGINGADISASTERTOTHESTUDYOFTHISFIELD2DEFINITIONANDCLASSIFICATIONOFNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONTHEREAREVARIOUSDEFINITIONSFORNONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONAMONGDIFFERENTSCHOLARSACCORDINGTOKNAPP2P41THEPHRASENONVERBALCOMMUNICATIONREFERSTOCOMMUNICATIONEFFECTBYMEANSOTHERTHANWORDSASSUMINGWORDSARETHEVERBALELEMENTWHENDEFININGNONVERBALCOMMUNIC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