会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

语言文化论文-浅谈非言语交际及其在交际中的影响.doc语言文化论文-浅谈非言语交际及其在交际中的影响.doc -- 2 元

宽屏显示 收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

语言文化论文浅谈非言语交际及其在交际中的影响AbstractSincelanguagehasbeencomeintobeing,itplaysacommandingroleasameansofcommunication,butnottheonlymeansofit.Nonverbalcommunicationtakesplacewithverbaloneatthesametimeinthecommunication.However,verbalcommunicationconveysthemessageinaconvenientanddirectwaywhichmakespeopledependmoreonsuchcommunicativemeanswhileneglectthenonverbalone.Soitisnotsurprisingthattraditionallylanguagestudieshaveemphasizedverbalandwrittenforms,butrecentlynonverbalcommunicationhasreceivedmoreandmoreattentionandbecomeayoungsciencewhichisrelatedtomanyothersubjects.Afterbrieflyreviewingachievementsmadeinthestudyofnonverbalcommunication,thisthesisintroducesthedefinition,classification,function,andculturaldifferencesoncrossculturalnonverbalcommunication.Aimingtopointthesignificanceofnonverbalcommunication,itfocusesontheinfluenceofnonverbalcommunicativeapproachincommunication,especiallyinteachingwiththeimplicationtoit.Inreality,nonverbalcommunicationhasbeenwidelyusedinmanyfields,soitisnecessarytolearnsomethingaboutitinordertoimproveourcommunicativequality.KeyWordsnonverbalcommunicationculturaldifferencefunctioninfluenceteaching【摘要】自从语言产生以来,言语交际便在人类交际中扮演最主要的角色,但并非是交际的唯一手段。在传播过程中,非言语交际与言语交际是同时进行的,然而言语交际较为快捷地传递信息,因此人们较多依赖于此种交际手段而忽视非言语表达。难怪对于语言的研究,传统上较重视口语及书面语这两种言语交际形式,而很少顾及非言语交际形式然而近年来,非言语交际手段越来越受到语言学家们的关注,成为一门跨学科的新兴科学。本文简述了非言语交际的研究成果,从定义、基本分类、功能、跨文化非言语交际的文化差异这几方面对其作了简要介绍。为了指出非言语交际的重要性,着重论述非言语交际在交际中的影响尤其对教学产生的影响,从而得出对教学的启示。在现实生活,非言语交际被广泛应用于许多领域,因此为提高交际质量有必要对非言语交际作一些了解。【关键词】非言语交际文化差异功能影响教学IntroductionSincelanguagehasbeencomeintobeing,itbecomesthemostimportantcommunicativetoolforhumanbeing,butnottheonlyone.Whenweareinvolvedincommunicating,weneedtomobilizeourfacialexpression,bodymovement,intonation,temperature,color,smell,clothingandbodydecoration,time,spaceandmanyotherwaystocommunicatewitheachother,besidesusinglanguagetotransmitinformation.Thesemeansforcommunicationwithoutwordsaresocallednonverbalcommunication.TraditionallyLanguagestudieshaveemphasizedverbalandwrittenforms,andrecentlynonverbalcommunicationhasreceivedmoreandmoreattention.InmypaperIllpresentsomebasicconceptions,functions,culturaldifference,andinfluenceonteachingespecially.1.AbriefreviewofnonverbalcommunicationstudiesTheearlieststudyofnonverbalcommunicationcouldbetracedbacktothatofvariousschoolsofthinkersinpreQinDynastyandGreekphilosopherAristotle.ConfuciuspaidmoreattentiontoappearanceandpostureindifferentoccasionsandAristotleanalyzedexpressivewaysofbehaviorsinhisworks.1P10ThescientificstudyofnonverbalcommunicationprimarilystartedafterWorldWarII.OneofthemostinfluentialpretwentiethcenturyworkswasDarwinsExpressionoftheEmotionsinManandAnimalsin1872.Thisworkspawnedthemodernstudyoffacialexpression,andmanyofhisobservationsandideashavebeenvalidatedbyotherresearchers.Inthefirsthalfofthetwentiethcentury,thestudyofnonverbalcommunicationstillremainedunsystematicfortherewereonlyisolatedstudiesofvoice,physicalappearance,dressandfacialexpressions.ThethreeinfluentialworksduringthisperiodwereKretschmersbookPhysiqueandCharacterin1925,SheldonsbookTheVariationsofHumanPhysiquein1940,andEfronsbookGestureandEnvironmentin1941.In1950s,therewasasignificantincreaseinthenumberofnonverbalresearchefforts.BirdwhistellsIntroductiontoKinesicsin1952andHallsSilentLanguagein1959weretwomilestonesofthisdecade.In1956,RueschandKeesproducedabookentitledNonverbalCommunicationNotesontheVisualPerceptionofHumanRelations.Thiswasthefirstbooktousethetermnonverbalcommunicationinitstitle.1960sproducedanuclearexplosionofnonverbalstudies.Duringthistime,theclassictheoreticalpiecewasEkmansandFriesensarticleontheorigins,usage,andcodingofnonverbalbehavior.The1970sprovedtobeatimeofsummarizingandsynthesizingonnonverbalstudies.ItbeganwithJuliusFastsBodyLanguagein1970.ThisbookwasthebestsellingvolumeatthattimeandithasnowbeentranslatedintoseveralChineseversions.The1980swereatimeoffurtherdevelopmentofnonverbalcommunicationstudies.Somenonverbalresearchesofthisdecadefocusedonidentifyingthewaysavarietyofnonverbalsignalsworktogethertoaccomplishcommoncommunicativegoals.Theresearchonnonverbalbehaviorinourcountrybeganfrom1980s.ScholarssuchasHuWenzhong,BiJiwan,DengYianchangandLiuRunqinghavedonesomeresearchwork.2P4041Whywebegantheresearchonnonverbalcommunicationlaterthanwesterncountries,sofarasIknow,thereresomereasonsforit.SinceJosephStalinhadcriticizedthegestureofMarin1950,thescholarsinourcountrywhostudiedlinguistictheoryconsidereditasguidingprincipletoconfirmthefunctionoflanguagecommunicationabsolutelywithoutconsideringthepositionandfunctionofnonverbalcommunicationincommunication.Asaresult,therangeofstudyisonlylimitedtolanguageandcommunicativetoolbasedonlanguage.1P1Andduring1960s1970sCulturalRevolutionhappenedinourcountrybringingadisastertothestudyofthisfield.2.DefinitionandclassificationofnonverbalcommunicationTherearevariousdefinitionsfornonverbalcommunicationamongdifferentscholars.AccordingtoKnapp2P41thephrasenonverbalcommunicationreferstocommunicationeffectbymeansotherthanwordsassumingwordsaretheverbalelement.Whendefiningnonverbalcommunication,SamovarandPorterproposethatnonverbalcommunicationinvolvesallthosenonverbalstimuliinacommunicationsettingthataregeneratedbyboththesourceandhisorheruseoftheenvironmentandthathavepotentialmessagevalueforthesourceorreceiver.Inthisdefinition,theroleoftheenvironment,themessagevalueofnonverbalstimuliandthecommunicationsettingareemphasizedasthreeimportantfactorsinnonverbalcommunication.2P41Inshort,nonverbalmeansforcommunication,whichisconsideredassilentlanguage,expressesmeaningsorfeelingswithoutusingwords.Asdifferentlinguistsdescribenonverbalcommunicationindifferentdimensions,thereisnogeneralagreementinclassificationasyet.HereweonlyproposesomeofthecommontopicsmostcommunicationtheoristsaddressthemselvestoNonverbalcommunicationconsistsofallsignalingsystemsthatdonotusewords.3P1811bodymodesofnonverbalcommunicationkinesicsposture,gestures,eyecontact,facialexpressions,appearance,smell,shiftsinskincolor,usesofclothingandbodydecoration,bodyorientation,anyothermovementofanyotherpartofthebody2spacelanguagebodydistanceorproxemicsbodytouchandbodydistance3paralanguagevoicemodulationspeed,pitch,volume,pause,intonation,etc4timelanguagetimeorientationpast,present,andfuture,monochromicMtimeandpolychromicPtime5environmentalcommunicationinterrelationshipbetweenpeopleandtheirenvironmentsarchitecture,object,color,lighting,odorsetc6communicationofgeneticcharacteristics,whichareconsideredbysomescholarsasnonverbalcommunication7variousartformsandmediasuchaspainting,architecture,music,film,ballet,andmime3.FunctionsofnonverbalbehaviorincommunicationInsometypesofcommunicationpeopleexpressmorenonverballythanverbally.OnestudydoneintheUnitedStatesshowedthatinthecommunicationofattitudes,93ofthemessagewastransmittedbythetoneofthevoiceandbyfacialexpressions,whereasonly7ofthespeakersattitudewastransmittedbywords.4P122Nonverbalcommunicationissignificantinhumaninteractionbecauseitisusuallyresponsibleforfirstimpression.Thinkforamomentforhowoftenyourfirstjudgmentsarebasedonthecolorofapersonsskinorthemannerinwhichheorsheisdressed.Moreimportant,thoseinitialmessagesusuallyinfluencetheperceptionofeverythingelsethatfollows.Nonverbalbehaviorsandverbalcommunicationinteractincommunicationprocess.Forsimplicity,nonverbalcommunicationservestorepeat,complement,reinforce,substitute,regulateorevencontradictourverbalbehavior.4P1371393.1RepeatingNonverbalcommunicationcansimplyrepeatwhatwassaidverbally.Forinstance,verbalstatementsofagreementordisagreementareoftenaccompaniedbyanodorshakeoftheheadtoconveypositiveornegativefeelings.Wemightholdupourhandinthegesturethatsignifiesapersontostopatthesametimeweactuallyusethewordstop.Orwemightpointinacertaindirectionafterwehavejustsaidwhentellapersonthewaytotherailwaystation,yougenerallyaddalittleinformationbypointingintheproperdirection..Thesecouldbeconsideredrepetitionbecausetheyindicatethesamemeaningastheverbalmessages.3.2ComplementingCloselyrelatedtorepeatingiscomplementing.Althoughmessagesthatrepeatcanstandalone,complementinggenerallyaddsmoreinformationtomessages.Nonverbalsignalscanmodifyorelaborateonverbalmessages.Theactorsoractressesofcomedyorskitorshortcrosstalkaregoodatperformingbodylanguagetomaketheirperformancelivelyandmoreeasilyattracttheattentionofaudiences.Ifyoutellyourfriendthatyouhavenomoneytolendhim,youmayturnoutyourpocketstoshowyoursincereregret.Youcantellsomeonethatyouarepleasedwithhisorherperformance,butthismessagetakesonextrameaningifyoupatthepersonontheshoulderatthesametime.Theseimportantactionshelpustocomplement,completeourverbalbehavior.Youcanseehowanapologybecomesmoreforcefulifyourface,aswellasyourwords,issaying,Imsorry.Thisfunctionofnonverbalcommunicationindicatesthatnonverbalcommunicationissupplementarytoverbalbehaviorincommunication.Ifitseparatesfromverballanguage,themessageconveyedbynonverbalsymbolswillfailtobeunderstoodwhichresultsinfailureofperformingnormalhumancommunication.BritishPrimeMinisterWinstonChurchillstressedtheartofspeech.Onceinhisspeech,hesaid,Thelevelofourlifenowhasexceededanytimeinhistory,forweeatsomuch.Tothispoint,hestoppedonpurposelookingattheaudiencesforawhile.Thenhecontinuedwiththefingerpointingtohishugestomach,thisispowerfulevidence.Churchillusednonverbalapproachtwicetoassistverballanguage.Atfirst,heintentionallyusedpausetoattracttheattentionofthemassthenheskillfullyusedthebodylanguagepointinghisbeerbellytoreceivevivideffect.5P17Soonlywhenlinguisticcommunicationsystemmixeswithnonverbalcommunicationcanitformacompletecommunicativesystem.Ifitbreaksawayfromthecooperationandassistanceofnonverbalbehavior,itishardtoattaineffectivegoalofcommunication.3.3ReinforcingNonverbalsignalsmaybeusedtoemphasizeaportionoftheverbalmessage.Peoplefrequentlyusemovementsoftheheadandhandssuchasnods,blinks,squints,andshrugs,tohelpaccentorpunctuatetheverbalmessage.IfyousayIloveyoutosomeoneyoucareabout,ahugorkissisusuallyfollowed.Reinforcingcanalsobeachievedbychangingthepitchorstressonawordorgroupofwords.Ourentiremeaningreliesmoreheavilyonwordsthatareaccented.Forinstance1Iwanttotalkwithhim.Thesentencemeaninglaysemphasisonthepersonwhowantstotalk.2Iwanttotalkwithhim.Thesentencemeaningreliesontheactionthatthepersonwantstoperform.3Iwanttotalkwithhim.Thesentencemeaningputsstressontheconversationalpartnerwithwhomthepersonwantstocommunicate.3.4SubstitutingWeusesubstitutioninnonverbalcommunicationwhenweperformsomeactioninsteadofspeaking.Quiteafewnonverbalmessagesarecommonlyusetotaketheplaceofwords.Ifyouseeaveryspecialfriend,youareapttoenlargethesizeofyoursmileandthrowopenyourarmstogreethimorher,whichisasubstituteforallthewordsitwouldtaketoconveythesamefeeling.Ifagroupofpeopleisboisterous,youmightplaceyourindexfingertoyourlipsasanalternativetosaying,PleasecalmdownsothatIcanspeak.Sometimes,whenwearetoosadorexcitedtosayanything,wejustkeepsilent.Oursilencemayreplaceanyverbalmessages.Insomesituationverbalwordsareunnecessaryforsilenceatthemomentsurpasseswords.6P12BeforeIraqwasintrudedbytheUS,IraqiexpresidentSaddamHusseinfiredtowardtheskyinthepresenceofthemasstoshowtheangerandthedecisionoffightingagainsttheUS.fromTVreportTheactionthepresidentshowedwouldbemorepowerfulthanwordsthatcalledontheIraqipeopletocounterattackAmericantroops.Fordeafmutes,borntobeunabletocommunicateverballylikenormalpeople,thesignlanguageorgestureprovidesopportunityforthemtocommunicatewithothersinthesilentworld.Inthiscase,nonverbalcommunicationreplacesthefunctionofverbalone.Fornonverbalcommunicationtoactassubstitution,itmustbeinterpretedinspecificculture.HerearesomeexamplesIfwetrytouseourculturesnonverbalsubstitutesinanotherculture,misunderstandingsmayoccur.Arabmenoftengreetbykissingonbothcheeks.InBuddhismcountriesofSoutheastAsialikeThailand,peoplegreetwithbothhandsclosedinfrontofchest.InJapan,mengreetbybowing,andintheUnitedStates,peopleshakehands.AmericanswhosayIbypointingtotheirchestswouldnotbeunderstoodinJapan,whereIissymbolizedbypointingtoonesnose.3.5RegulatingWeoftenregulateandmanagecommunicationbyusingsomeformofnonverbalbehaviorwenodourheadinagreementtoindicatetoourcommunicationpartnerthatweagreeandthatheorsheshouldcontinuetalkingorweremainsilentforamomentandletthesilencesendthemessagethatwearereadytobeginourspeech.Nonverbalbehaviorsusuallyrepresentthemostefficientandleastoffensivemeansofregulatinginteraction.Tosay,Shutup,Tommaytriggerahostileanddefensivereactiontopresentthesamemessagebyeyecontactorgestureisamoredesirableway.NoddingandeyecontactaretwotypicalnonverbalhintsthatmeanIwanttotalkandItsyourturntotalk.Whenwewanttoindicatewehavefinishedspeakingandtheotherpersoncanstartinaconversation,wemayincreaseoureyecontactwiththeotherperson.Conversely,ifwewanttokeeptheotherfromspeaking,wemaydecreaseeyecontactandperhapsraisethevolume.Whenwedonotwanttotakeaspeakingturn,wemightreinforceourheadnodsandmaintainattentiveeyecontact.Rapidnodsmaysignalthespeakertohurryupandfinishwhileslowandsilentnodsusuallyindicatethespeakerstalkingwillcontinue.3.6ContradictingThetermcontradictingincludesavarietyofwaysverbalandnonverbalsignalsarenotinagreementwitheachother.Ayoungwomantoldherpsychologicaldoctorthatshewasdeeplyinlovewithherboyfriendwithshakingherheadatthesametimethatunconsciouslydisapprovedwhatshesaid.7P3Hethathaseyestoseeandearstohearmayconvincehimselfthatnomortalcankeepasecret.SigmundFreud3P181Thatistosay,ournonverbalactionswouldtellthetruthsthataretriedtocoverbyverbalmessages.Youtellsomeoneyouarerelaxedandatease,yetyourvoicequaversandyourhandsshake.Thecontradictorymessageoccursbecausepeopledonotwanttotellthetruthandtheydonotwanttolie.Inmostcases,wedontliketocontradictothers,hurttheirfeelingorletthemloseface.Whenafriendgaveaterriblepresentation,wemaysayYoudiditquitewell.butourvoice,faceandbodymaynotsupportthewords.Onotheroccasions,peopleevenusecontradictorymessagestocommunicatesarcasmorirony,sayingonethingwithwordsbutmeaningtheoppositewithvocaltoneorfacialexpressions.Becausepeoplerelymostlyonnonverbalmessageswhentheyreceiveconflictingdata,weneedtobeawareofthedangersinherentinsendingopposingmessages.4.SomenonverbalbehaviorsindifferentculturesMuchofourdifficultywithpeopleinothercountriesstemsfromthefactthatsolittleisknownaboutnonverbalcommunication.Formaltraininginthelanguage,history,government,andcustomsofanothernationisonlythefirststepinacomprehensiveprogram.Ofequalimportanceisanintroductiontothenonverballanguagewhichexistsineverycountryoftheworldandamongthevariousgroupswithineachcountry.Cultureisallpersuasive,multidimensional,andboundlessitiseverywhereandineverything.Thesameisalsotrueofnonverbalbehavior.Ourclothesandjewelry,thecountlessexpressionswecanreflectwithourface,thehundredsofmovementswecanmakewithourbodies,whereandhowwetouchpeople,ourgazeandeyecontact,vocalbehaviorssuchaslaughter,andouruseoftime,space,andsilencearejustsomeofthebehaviorsinwhichweengagethatserveasmessage.4.1GeneralappearanceanddressIninterculturalcommunication,appearanceandobjectsareimportantbecausethestandardsweapplyandthejudgmentswemakearesubjecttoculturalinterpretations.IntheUnitedStates,peopletendtovaluetheappearanceoftall,slenderwomen.InJapan,diminutivefemalesaredeemedthemostattractive.Clothinghowmuch,howlittle,andwhatkindisalsoareflectionofaculturesvalueorientation.Forexample,modestyishighlyvaluedamongArabs.Muslimgirlsusuallywearscarvestocovertheirheads,andinmostinstances,girlsarenotallowedtoparticipateinswimmingclassesbecauseoftheprohibitionsagainstexposingtheirbodies.4.2GesturesGesturesrefertospecificbodymovementsthatcarrymeaning.Handscanformshapesthatconveymanymeaningsthatmaydifferamongcultures.Whatisacceptableinoneculturemaybecompletelyunacceptableinanother.Oneculturemaydeterminethatsnappingfingerstocallwaiterisappropriateanothermayconsiderthisgesturerude.Forinstance,theOKgestureintheAmericancultureisasymbolformoneyinJapan.ThesamegestureisobsceneinsomeLatinAmericancountrieswhileforChineseorpeopleintheSouthofFranceiszeroornothing.6P13Thesamemovementwithdifferentmeaningincrossculturalcommunicationwillleadtomisunderstandinginminordegreeotherwisetocourtdisaster.ThegestureforapplaudingovertheheadinAmericausuallymeansarrogancetodefeatthecounterpart,whileinRussiaitisasymboloffriendship.WhentheSovietPremierKhrushchevvisitedAmerica,heperformedsuchgesturetoindicatefriendship,butthismademanyAmericansfeeluncomfortable.6P134.3PosturePostureandsittinghabitsofferinsightintoaculturesdeepstructure.InmanyAsiancultures,thebowismuchmorethanagreeting.Itsignifiestheculturesconcernwithstatusandrank.InJapan,forexample,lowpostureisanindicatorofrespect.Althoughitappearssimpletotheoutsider,thebowingritualisactuallyrathercomplicated.Thepersonwhooccupiesthelowerstatusbeginsthebow,andhisorherbowmustbedeeperthantheotherpersons.The
编号:201312161529376080    大小:46.66KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-12-16
  【编辑】
2
关 键 词:
行业资料 商业贸易 精品文档 语言文化
温馨提示:
1: 本站所有资源如无特殊说明,都需要本地电脑安装OFFICE2007和PDF阅读器。图纸软件为CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.压缩文件请下载最新的WinRAR软件解压。
2: 本站的文档不包含任何第三方提供的附件图纸等,如果需要附件,请联系上传者。文件的所有权益归上传用户所有。
3.本站RAR压缩包中若带图纸,网页内容里面会有图纸预览,若没有图纸预览就没有图纸。
4. 未经权益所有人同意不得将文件中的内容挪作商业或盈利用途。
5. 人人文库网仅提供交流平台,并不能对任何下载内容负责。
6. 下载文件中如有侵权或不适当内容,请与我们联系,我们立即纠正。
7. 本站不保证下载资源的准确性、安全性和完整性, 同时也不承担用户因使用这些下载资源对自己和他人造成任何形式的伤害或损失。
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:13次
docin上传于2013-12-16

官方联系方式

客服手机:17625900360   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

相关资源

相关资源

相关搜索

行业资料   商业贸易   精品文档   语言文化  
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5