会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

语言文化论文-美国文学史.doc语言文化论文-美国文学史.doc -- 2 元

宽屏显示 收藏 分享

资源预览需要最新版本的Flash Player支持。
您尚未安装或版本过低,建议您

语言文化论文美国文学史AbstractAmericashistoryofliteraturebeganwiththeswarminginofimmigrantswithdifferentbackgroundandcultures.Afterthat,AmericanliteraturehadbeengreatlyinfluencedbytheEuropeancultureforalongperiod.ItwasnotuntilAmericasindependence,didAmericansrealizedthattheyneednationalliteraturestrongly,andAmericanliteraturebegantodeveloped.TheCivilWarwasawatershedinthehistory,afterwhichAmericanliteratureenteredaperiodoffullblooming.Romantics,whichemphasizedindividualismandintuitionandTnscendentalismrepresentedbyEmersoncameoutintobeing.ThiswasanexcitingperiodinthehistoryofAmericanliterature.Liketheflowersofspring,thereweresuddenlymanydifferentkindsofwritingatthesametime.TheyhavegivendepthandstrengthtoAmericanliterature,andacceleratedtheformingofHighRomantics.ButduetotheinfluenceofCivilWar,theAmericansocietywasinaturbulentsituation.Thewritingsaboutlocallife,criticalrealismandunveilingthedarksideofthesocietywereincreased.AfterTheFirstWorldWar,Americanswereatalosspostwar,andtheModernAmericanliteraturebegan.Mypieceofpaperiswritteninchronologicalorderastheseperiodsdevelopedinordertohaveaclearoutlineofitsprogress.KeywordsNationalLiterature,Romanism,Transcendentalism,LocalColor,Realism,Modernliterature摘要从殖民地时期起,欧洲殖民者和清教徒翻开了美国文学史的第一页。这往后很长一段时期,美国文学一直都受到欧洲文化的很大影响。一直到美国独立后,美国人强烈地感觉到了民族文学的需要,美国的民族文学开始发展。南北战争是美国文学史上一个分水岭,战后美国文学进入了一个全盛时期,产生了强调个性主义和直觉的早期浪漫主义,和以爱默生为代表的超验主义文学。爱默生的时代是美国前所未有的文学变动时代,产生了一大批优秀的作家和作品。他们突出地给予了当时美国文学以深度和力量,也促进了罗曼主义高潮的来临。但是由于战争的影响,社会动荡不安,这时的作品更注重于揭示社会的阴暗面,同时美国的民族文学进一步发展,创作出许多带有本土色彩和批判现实主义的作品。一战后,美国人陷入战后的茫然,美国也开始进入了现代文学阶段。我的论文随着这些时代的发展以时间顺序展开,以便对于美国文学史的产生和发展纲要能有一个清晰的条理。关键词民族文学,浪漫主义,超验主义,本土色彩,现实主义,现代文学Americanisamultinationalcountry.Justlikeabigcontainer,whichputinvariouskindsofelements.Differentcultures,thatcannotonlybecoexistedbutalsoformasharpcontrast,mixedtogether,ItmakesAmericanliteraturestylehasaflavorofdistinctandvariousaestheticfeeling.Manywriterscomefromlowerlevel,whichmakesAmericanliteraturehastherichflavoroflifeandlocalcolor.Furthermore,manynewstylesofliteratureintheworldareorientedinAmericasince20thcentury.TheprocessofAmericanliteraturecanbedividedintofollowingmainperiodsColonyandPuritanliteratureearlynationalliteraturelatternationalliteratureandModernliterature.Americashistoryofliteraturebeganwiththeswarminginofimmigrantswithdifferentbackgroundandcultures.Afterthat,AmericanliteraturehadbeengreatlyinfluencedbytheEuropeancultureforalongperiod.ItwasnotuntilAmericasindependence,didAmericansrealizethattheyneednationalliteraturestrongly,andAmericanliteraturebegantodevelop.TheCivilWarwasawatershedinthehistory,afterwhichAmericanliteratureenteredaperiodoffullblooming.Romantics,whichemphasizedindividualismandintuition,andTnscendentalismrepresentedbyEmersoncameoutintobeing.ThiswasanexcitingperiodinthehistoryofAmericanliterature.Liketheflowersofspring,thereweresuddenlymanydifferentkindsofwritingatthesametime.TheyhavegivendepthandstrengthtoAmericanliterature,andacceleratedtheformingofHighRomantics.ButduetotheinfluenceifCivilWar,theAmericansocietywasinaturbulentsituation.Thewritingsaboutlocallife,criticalrealismandunveilingthedarksideofthesocietywereincreased.AfterTheFirstWorldWar,Americanswereatalosspostwar,andtheModernAmericanliteraturebegan.1.ColonialandearlyAmericanliterature1.TravelersandExplorersWhentheEuropeanexplorersfirstcametothisnewcontinent,thenativeIndianswhoprobablygotherefromAsiaaboutfifteenthousandyearsagowerestillinorigin,andtheyevenhadnowrittenlanguage,Thetraditionalliteraturewasoriginallytransmittedalmostentirelybywordofmouth,andthereforebelongstothecategoryoforalliterature,WuDingbo,1Astimepast,moreandmoretravelersandexplorersswarmedin.Theywrotealotofdiaries、letters,andtravelaccountstodescribethenewlandassecondEden.NowandersomebodysaidthattheearliestAmericanliteraturewerethetravelaccountswrittenbyEuropeanadventurers.AmongthemostremainedwereCaptainJohnSmithsTrueRelationofVirginia1608,andDescriptionofNewEngland1616.AlthoughmostoftheIndianhistorywaspreservedintalesandsongs,theyhadthoughtsaboutlifeandnature.Theylovedthenaturalworldaroundthemdeeply,andtheybelievedthatwhenapersonwasdead,hewouldgivebackwhathadborrowedwhilehewasalivetonature.ThiskindofphilosophyhadinfluencedlaterorevenmodernAmericanwriters.ItsinterestingthatwhenwelookattheliteratureofthePuritans,theTranscendentalists,theNaturalists,andeventheModerns,whenwereadAnneBradstreet,EmilyDickinson,StephenCrane,andErnestHemingway,wecanfindsimilarthemes.2PilgrimsettlementsSeveralyearslater,anothergroupofsettlersalsoarrivedintheNewWorld.ThisgroupwaslookingfortheJamestownsettlement.However,becauseofbadnavigation,theylandedinMassachusetts.TheywerealsocomingtotheNewWorldwithdreamsofsuccess,buttheirgoalwasdifferentfromtheJamestownsettlement.TheywantedtostartanewworldgovernedbytheBible.TheywerecalledPuritansbecausetheywantedtoliveabetterlifebymakingthemselvespure.TheyfirstarrivedontheMayflowerandsettledinPlymouth.ThisisthegroupweareusuallythinkingaboutwhenwetalkaboutthefirstAmericans.TheclearesthistoryoftheirjourneytotheNewWorldcanbefoundinHistoryofPlymouthPlantation1608writtenbyWilliamBradford,whowasalsooneoftheMayflowerpassengers.TheHistoryofPlymouthPlantationisaPuritanbookinthebestsense.Itslooselyannalistic,butadirectandsimplestylegivescharm,asasincerefaithinPuritanismgivespurity,totheentirebook.W.P.Trent,1997ThePuritanshadseveralkindsofliterature.ByfarthemostcommonformisthewritingrelatedtoBiblicalteachings,orsermons,thatthechurchleaderswrote.ThePuritansbelievedthattheywereintheNewWorldbecauseGodhadbroughtthemthereforaspecialpurpose.TheythoughtthatbystudyingtheBibletheycouldlearnmoreaboutthiswayoflife.Sotheywereverystricttotheirlife,andtheydidntallowanykindofentertainmenteveninliterature.ThatswayWuDingbosaidinhisbookLiteratureoftheNewEnglandSettlementismainlyaliteraryexpressionofthePuritanidealismandTheliteratureofthecolonialsettlementservedeitherGodorcolonialexpansionorboth.WuDingbo,4Anotherimportantformofwritingfromthisperiodisthehistories.Thesebooks,likeBradfordsHistoryofPlymouthPlantation,areimportantbecausetheytellusaboutlifeatthetimeofthePuritans.Peoplealsowrotemanypoems.ButalotofworkswerehiddenandlostbecausepeopleoftenconsideredpoetrytobeaninferiorformofwritingandnottotallyacceptabletoPuritanthinking.OneofthemostsignificantpoetsfromthisperiodwasAnneBradstreet16121672.HerpoemsinTenthMuseLatelySprungUpInAmerica1650reflectedtheconconcernsofwomenwhocametosettleinthecolonies,andinallherpoems,however,sheshowsherstrongbeliefinGod.2.18thcenturytheAgeofreason1TheAgeofreasonInthe18thcentury,peoplebelievedinmansownnatureandthepowerofhumanreason.WithFranklinasitsspokesman,the18thcenturyAmericaexperiencedanageofreason.Wordshadneverbeensousefulandsoimportantinhumanhistory.Peoplewrotealotofpoliticalwritings.Numerouspamphletsandprintingswerepublished.TheseworksagitatedrevolutionarypeoplenotonlyinAmericabutalsoaroundtheworld.AmongthemostrenownedwastheworkCommonSense1776ofThomasPaine17371809.Itstheringingcallforthedecorationofliberty.HealsowroteCrisis17741783andTheAgeofReason17941796,accordingtoWu,Hethoughtthatreligionshouldbebasedonrational,reasonableground.WuDingbo,12ThepamphletshelpedcompletethedebatethatresultedinAmericasseparationfromEngland.AndofcourseforalltheAmericans,themostimportantdocumentfromthisperiodwasasinglesheetofpapercalledTheDeclarationofIndependence1776,mainlywrittenbyThomasJeffersonandBenjaminFranklin.BenjaminFranklin17061790,themostdistinguishedpersonandgiantinAmericanhistory,hewroteandworkedforAmericanindependencehardlyandhadmadesomanygreateffortstoAmericathathehasbeencalledTheFirstAmerican.aworldrenownedscientist,diplomat,philosopher,andwriter.Heperfectedthesmooth,clear,shortsentencesofthePuritanplainstyle.HisAutobiographyencourageshardworkandemphasizestheimportanceofachievement.AnotherworkthatiswellknownisPoorRichardsAlmanack,andmanyofthesentenceshavebecomepopularquotations.DuringthistimewritersthoughtthatthetruthshouldbereliedonBible,churchmen,authorities,orpracticeandexperience.2EarlyNationalLiteratureDuringtheperiodofAmericanRevolutionWar,Americannationalliteraturecameintobeing.Sincebeforethewar,Americanpeoplehavealreadyhadtheawarenessofnationalindependence,sotheywrotemanypoliticalwritingsrevolutionarypoems.ThewarhelpedthefirstimportantAmericanprosewritersandpoetsgrowupbothculturallyandartistically.Furthermore,theindependenceofnationledtotheindependenceofnationalliterature.Fromthismomenton,AmericanpeoplebegantounderstandofmeaningofbeingarealAmerican.3.TheflourishingofAmericanliteraturein19thcenturyFromthe1820stotheCivilWarbrokeout,Americanliteratureenteredaperiodoffullblooming.Writingsallcharacterizedbyadistinctnationalstyleandflavor.Atthesametime,theworldasawholewasexperiencingachangeinwaysofthinkingtherewasamovefromclassicalideastoromanticones.Thischangewastakingplaceinallareasofculturearoundtheworld.ThiswasanexcitingperiodinthehistoryofAmericanliterature.Liketheflowersofspring,thereweresuddenlymanydifferentkindsofwritingatthesametime.Alltheworkshaveanoptimisticspirit.TheyrepresentedthevariousandquickdevelopmentofAmericannationalliterature.1EarlyRomanticsInearly19thcentury,WashingtonIrving17831859,thepersonbornwiththenewnation,hisTheSketchBookcreatedanewstyleofAmericanliteratureshortnovel.JamesFenimoreCooper17891851HisLeatherStockingnovelstoldusastoryabouthowthebraveimmigrantsfightwithsavageusingwhattheyhavelearntfromnature.AnotherfamouswriterofthistimewasWilliamCullenBryant17941878,hewasregardedoneoftheearliestnaturalistpoetsinAmericanhistory.HisgreatestpoemThanatopsiswaspublishedintheNorthAmericanReviewin1817.Heappreciatesnormalbirdsandflowers,throughwhichappreciatedharmoniousrelationshipbetweenhumanandnature.TheRomanticsemphasizedindividualismandtheythoughtfeelingsandemotionsweremoreimportantthanreasonandcommonsense.2TheTranscendentalismTheNewEnglandTranscendentalismwasromanticidealismonpuritansoilWuDingbo28.Itstressedthepowerofintuitionplacedspiritfirst,andittooknatureassymbolicofspiritorGod.TherewerethreemainfeaturesofTranscendentalismwereUnitarianism,idealisticphilosophy,andorientalmysticism.RalphWaldoEmerson18031882,theleaderofAmericanTranscendentalism.Hecaptainedagroupofenthusiastandformedatranscendentalclubwiththem.HealsohelpedtosetupandeditedthetranscendentalistjournalTheDial.Hehadwrittenmanyfamousessays.AmongthebestareNatureandTheAmericanScholar,whichhasbeencalledAmericasDeclarationofIntellectualIndependence.EmersonwroteinTheAmericanScholar1837,amanmustlearntodetectandwatchthatgleamoflightwhichflashesacrosshismindfromwithin.Themainkeytothisinnerworldistheimagination.Mansimaginationleadstoexpression.Ourexpressionmakeseachofusauniquehuman.Romanticismbecamethewayofthinkingforthisgenerationofwriters.HenryDavidThoreauwasalsooneofthewritersofTranscendentalism,andhisfamousessaywasWalden,inwhichherevealedthehiddenspiritualpossibilitiesineveryoneslife,andtoconsideratethepursuitofmaterialthings.3HighRomanticsDuetothegreateffortmadebythosegeniusessuchasEmersonandThoreau,awildrangednationalAmericanliteraturehadbeenlaidasolidfoundationbythemid19thcentury.TherearefourimportantnamesinAmericanliteraturetorememberfromthisperiodWashingtonIrving17831859,WaltWhitman18191892,JamesFennimoreCooper17891851,andEdgarAllanPoe180949.Irvingwilllongberememberedforhisbookofessaysandstories,TheSketchBookofGeoffreyCrayon1819,whichhelpingthisnewnationstarteditsfirststepconfidently.CooperandWhitmandescribedthecharacterofthenation,whichcombinedthecourageandclevernessofexpansion,thegreatsenseofdestination,andtheoptimisticspirittogether.HawthorneandMelvilleexpressedthedarksideofAmericandreamthoughtheirprofoundandsymbolizedworks.WaltWhitman18191892,fatheroffreeverse,hethrewasidethetraditionalornamentsandprettinessofverse,andcreatedhisownformWuDingbo,44.HisLeavesofGrass1855,whichcontainssuchwellknownpoemsasIHearAmericaSinging,andSongofMyself,wasregardedAmericasfirstgenuineepicpoem.Herejectedregularmeterandrhymeinfavorofflowingfreeverseandcelebratedpatrioticlove,raggedindividualism,democracyandequalityandstressedanalmostmysticalidentificationwithAmerica.NathanielHawthorne18041864,duetohisfamilybackground,hisworksalwaysconcernedwithsin,morality,romance,andhadcomplexPuritanism.HismasterpiecewasthenovelTheScarletLetter,andhisTheHouseofSevenGableswasalsowellliked.Intheseworkshepresentedmaterialonthealienationbetweenfactsandfancy,byusingmanysymbolsandsettingtorevealthepsychologyofthecharacter.HermanMelvillewasHawthornesgoodfriend,alsoanimportantnovelist.Melvillesgreatestwork,MobyDick1851wasbasedonMelvillesadventuresonthewhalingships.Itisthedeeptragediesofhumanthoughtthatshowhiscriticalunderstandingofhumannature.TodayMelvilleisconsideredoneofAmericasgreatestwriterstoday.RomanismwasextremelyinfluencedinarisingAmericaasAmericahadalwayshadastrongspiritualtraditionandromanticismwasverycomfortablewithAmericanspiritualheritageanditsidealsofdemocracyandequality.Duringthisperiod,theAmericanliteraturewassochangeablethathasneverbeenbefore.NathanielHawthorne,HermanMelville,WaltWhitmanandEdgarAllanPoe,thesefourgreatwritershadgivendepthandstrengthtoAmericanliteratureatthattime.4.LocalColorAndRealismANewFlavortoAmericanLiteratureAftertheCivilWar,theAmericansocietywasinaturbulentsituationthroughseveraleconomicalcrises.Thewritingsaboutcriticalrealismandunveilingthedarksideofthesocietywereincreased.Theyweremainlyfocusonbankruptincountries,difficultlifeorstruggleoflowpositionpeopleandsoon.Thus
编号:201312161530526102    大小:44.26KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-12-16
  【编辑】
2
关 键 词:
行业资料 商业贸易 精品文档 语言文化
温馨提示:
1: 本站所有资源如无特殊说明,都需要本地电脑安装OFFICE2007和PDF阅读器。图纸软件为CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.压缩文件请下载最新的WinRAR软件解压。
2: 本站的文档不包含任何第三方提供的附件图纸等,如果需要附件,请联系上传者。文件的所有权益归上传用户所有。
3.本站RAR压缩包中若带图纸,网页内容里面会有图纸预览,若没有图纸预览就没有图纸。
4. 未经权益所有人同意不得将文件中的内容挪作商业或盈利用途。
5. 人人文库网仅提供交流平台,并不能对任何下载内容负责。
6. 下载文件中如有侵权或不适当内容,请与我们联系,我们立即纠正。
7. 本站不保证下载资源的准确性、安全性和完整性, 同时也不承担用户因使用这些下载资源对自己和他人造成任何形式的伤害或损失。
  人人文库网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

当前资源信息

4.0
 
(2人评价)
浏览:16次
docin上传于2013-12-16

官方联系方式

客服手机:13961746681   
2:不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器下载   
3:不支持QQ浏览器下载,请用其他浏览器   
4:下载后的文档和图纸-无水印   
5:文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

相关资源

相关资源

相关搜索

行业资料   商业贸易   精品文档   语言文化  
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5