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HeatPproductivity_NASA.pdfHeatPproductivity_NASA.pdf -- 10 元

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NASACR12051,ACompendiumofHumanResponsestotheAerospaceEnvironment.Thereportshowsthatwheninplanttemperaturesriseover85°,outputdropsby18andaccuracysuffersfroma40increaseinerrors.Productivitylossesfromhightemperaturesmaybedocumentedbyyourownproductionrecords.EffectiveTemp.75º80º85º90º95º100º105ºLossinOutput381829456279LossinAccuracyNegligible540300700EffectiveTemperatureisthecombinedeffectoftemperature,humidity,andairmotiononthebody.StudyforNASA.ComfortConditioningthePlantwithEvaporativeCoolingPlantEngineeringJuly8,1976Pg76JosephMargEvaporativeAirConditioningHandbookJohnWatt,PEandWillBrownPE3rdEditionPg201U.S.DepartmentofLaborProgramHighlightsFactSheetNo.OSHA9516PROTECTINGWORKERSINHOTENVIRONMENTSManyworkersspendsomepartoftheirworkingdayinahotenvironment.Workersinfoundries,laundries,constructionprojects,andbakeriestonameafewindustriesoftenfacehotconditionswhichposespecialhazardstosafetyandhealth.HEATSTRESSCAUSESBODYREACTIONSFourenvironmentalfactorsaffecttheamountofstressaworkerfacesinahotworkareatemperature,humidity,radiantheatsuchasfromthesunorafurnaceandairvelocity.Perhapsmostimportanttothelevelofstressanindividualfacesarepersonalcharacteristicssuchasage,weight,fitness,medicalconditionandacclimatizationtotheheat.Thebodyreactstohighexternaltemperaturebycirculatingbloodtotheskinwhichincreasesskintemperatureandallowsthebodytogiveoffitsexcessheatthroughtheskin.However,ifthemusclesarebeingusedforphysicallabor,lessbloodisavailabletoflowtotheskinandreleasetheheat.Sweatingisanothermeansthebodyusestomaintainastableinternalbodytemperatureinthefaceofheat.However,sweatingiseffectiveonlyifthehumiditylevelislowenoughtopermitevaporationandifthefluidsandsaltslostareadequatelyreplaced.Ofcoursetherearemanystepsapersonmightchoosetotaketoreducetheriskofheatstress,suchasmovingtoacoolerplace,reducingtheworkpaceorload,orremovingorlooseningsomeclothing.Butifthebodycannotdisposeofexcessheat,itwillstoreft.Whenthishappens,thebodyscoretemperaturerisesandtheheartrateincreases.Asthebodycontinuestostoreheat,theindividualbeginstoloseconcentrationandhasdifficultyfocusingonatask,maybecomeirritableorsickandoftenlosesthedesiretodrink.ThenextstageIsmostoftenfaintinganddeathispossibleifthepersonisnotremovedfromtheheatstress.HEATDISORDERSHeatstroke,themostserioushealthproblemforworkersinhotenvironments,iscausedbythefailureofthebodysinternalmechanismtoregulateitscoretemperature.Sweatingstopsandthebodycannolongerriditselfofexcessheat.Signsinclude1mentalconfusion,delirium,lossofconsciousness,convulsionsorcoma2abodytemperatureof106degreesForhigherand3hotdryskinwhichmaybered,mottled,orbluish.Victimsofheatstrokewilldieunlesstreatedpromptly.Whileawaitingmedicalhelp,thevictimmustberemovedtoacoolareaandhisorherclothingsoakedwithcoolwater.Heorsheshouldbefannedvigorouslytoincreasecooling.Promptfirstaidcanpreventpermanentinjurytothebrainandothervitalorgans.Heatexhaustionresultsfromlossoffluidthroughsweatingwhenaworkerhasfailedtodrinkenoughfluidsortakeinenoughsaltorboth.Theworkerwithheatexhaustionstillsweatsbutexperiencesextremeweaknessorfatigue,giddiness,nausea,orheadache.Theskinisclammyandmoist,thecomplexionpaleorflushed,andthebodytemperaturenormalorslightlyhigher.Treatmentisusuallysimplethevictimshouldrestinacoolplaceanddrinkwateroranelectrolytesolutionabeverageusedbyathletestoquicklyrestorepotassium,calcium,andmagnesiumsalts.Severecasesinvolvingvictimswhovomitorloseconsciousnessmayrequirelongertreatmentundermedicalsupervision.Heatcramps,painfulspasmsofthemuscles,arecausedwhenworkersdrinklargequantitiesofwaterbutfailtoreplacetheirbodiessaltloss.Tiredmusclesthoseusedforperformingtheworkareusuallytheonesmostsusceptibletocramps.Crampsmayoccurduringorafterworkinghoursandmayberelievedbytakingliquidsbymouthorsalinesolutionsintravenouslyforquickerrelief,ifmedicallydeterminedtoberequired.Faintingheatsyncopemaybeaproblemfortheworkerunacclimatizedtoahotenvironmentwhosimplystandsstillintheheat.Victimsusuallyrecoverquicklyafterabriefperiodoflyingdown.Movingaround,ratherthanstandingstill,willusuallyreducethepossibilityoffainting.Heatrash,alsoknownaspricklyheat,mayoccurinhotandhumidenvironmentswheresweatisnoteasilyremovedfromthesurfaceoftheskinbyevaporation.Whenextensiveorcomplicatedbyinfection,heatrashcanbesouncomfortablethatitinhibitssleep,impedesaworkersperformance,orevenresultsintemporarytotaldisability.Itcanbepreventedbyrestinginacoolplaceandallowingtheskintodry.PREVENTINGHEATSTRESSMostheatrelatedhealthproblemscanbepreventedortheriskofdevelopingthemreduced.Followingafewbasicprecautionsshouldlessenheatstress.1.Avarietyofengineeringcontrolsincludinggeneralventilationandspotcoolingbylocalexhaustventilationatpointsofhighheatproductionmaybehelpful.Shieldingisrequiredasprotectionfromradiantheatsources.Evaporativecoolingandmechanicalrefrigerationareotherwaystoreduceheat.Coolingfanscanalsoreduceheatinhotconditions.Eliminatingsteamleakswillalsohelp.Equipmentmodifications,theuseofpowertoolstoreducemanuallaborandpersonalcoolingdevicesorprotectiveclothingareotherwaystoreducethehazardsofheatexposureforworkers.2.Workpracticessuchasprovidingplentyof,drinkingwaterasmuchasaquartperworkerperhourattheworkplacecanhelpreducetheriskofheatdisorders.Trainingfirstaidworkerstorecognizeandtreatheatstressdisordersandmakingthenamesoftrainedstaffknowntoallworkersisessential.EmployersshouldalsoconsideranindividualworkersphysicalconditionwhendetermininghisorherfitnessforworkingInhotenvironments.Olderworkers,obeseworkersandpersonnelonsometypesofmedicationareatgreaterrisk.3.Alternatingworkandrestperiodswithlongerrestperiodsinacoolareacanhelpworkersavoidheatstress.Ifpossible,heavyworkshouldbescheduledduringthecoolerpartsofthedayandappropriateprotectiveclothingprovided.Supervisorsshouldbetrainedtodetectearlysignsofheatstressandshouldpermitworkerstointerrupttheirworkiftheyareextremelyuncomfortable.4.Acclimatizationtotheheatthroughshortexposuresfollowedbylongerperiodsofworkinthehotenvironmentcanreduceheatstress.Newemployeesandworkersreturningfromanabsenceoftwoweeksormoreshouldhavea5dayperiodofacclimatization.Thisperiodshouldbeginwith50percentofthenormalworkloadandtimeexposurethefirstdayandgraduallybuildingupto100percentonthefifthday.5.Employeeeducationisvitalsothatworkersareawareoftheneedtoreplacefluidsandsaltlostthroughsweatandcanrecognizedehydration,exhaustion,fainting,heatcramps,saltdeficiency,heatexhaustion,andheatstrokeasheatdisorders.Workersshouldalsobeinformedoftheimportanceofdailyweighingbeforeandafterworktoavoiddehydration.Safetyisamajoreconomicconsiderationinallworkingareas.Safeworkingconditionsareimportantinkeepinginsurancecostsdownandavoidingemployeedisruptions.Thehot,uncomfortableworkerismoreliabletoignoregoodsafetypracticeandallowaccidentcausingsituationstooccur.HeatStressrelatedproductivitylossesduetohightemperaturesinyourplantareprobablydocumentedbyyourownrecords.Accuracyissimilarlyaffectedastemperaturesabove85degreescausea300increaseinerrors.LowMoralecausedbyanuncomfortableworkenvironmentresultsintardiness,absenteeism,andturnover.Thesummerincreaseinnegativeemployeereactionsduetoheatstressisalsodocumentedthroughproductionrecords.Vacantworkstationsresultinloweredefficiency,inovertimepaidtomeetschedules,andinhiringandtrainingcostsforreplacements.HealthFactorsrelatingtoheatstressintheworkingenvironmentisanincreasingconcernofregulatoryagencies.TheNationalInstituteofOccupationalSafetyHealthNIOSHhasdevelopedapreliminarystandardforallowableheatstresslevels.Thestandarddefinesenvironmentaltemperaturerequirementsandworktime/resttimepercentagestolerableforemployees.Paybackisanimportantfactorindeterminingthepurchaseofequipment.Aswagesinflate,itbecomesincreasinglyimportanttogetthefullproductivityyouarepayingforfromyouremployeesbykeepingtheirworkingconditionscomfortable.MOREINFORMATIONA15pagebooklet,WorkinginHotEnvironments,isavailablefreefromNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthPublications,4676ColumbiaParkway,Cincinnati,Ohio45226telephone5135338287.U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice1995387186,22971ThisisoneofaseriesoffactsheetshighlightingU.S.DepartmentofLaborprograms.Itisintendedasageneraldescriptiononlyanddoesnotcarrytheforceoflegalopinion.Thisinformationwillbemadeavailabletosensoryimpairedindividualsuponrequest.Voicephone2022198151.TDDmessagereferralphone18003262577.documentwasscannedandmodifiedforformattingpurposesonlyfromitsoriginalform
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