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NASACR12051,ACOMPENDIUMOFHUMANRESPONSESTOTHEAEROSPACEENVIRONMENTTHEREPORTSHOWSTHATWHENINPLANTTEMPERATURESRISEOVER85,OUTPUTDROPSBY18ANDACCURACYSUFFERSFROMA40INCREASEINERRORSPRODUCTIVITYLOSSESFROMHIGHTEMPERATURESMAYBEDOCUMENTEDBYYOUROWNPRODUCTIONRECORDSEFFECTIVETEMP7580859095100105LOSSINOUTPUT381829456279LOSSINACCURACYNEGLIGIBLE540300700EFFECTIVETEMPERATUREISTHECOMBINEDEFFECTOFTEMPERATURE,HUMIDITY,ANDAIRMOTIONONTHEBODYSTUDYFORNASACOMFORTCONDITIONINGTHEPLANTWITHEVAPORATIVECOOLINGPLANTENGINEERINGJULY8,1976PG76JOSEPHMARGEVAPORATIVEAIRCONDITIONINGHANDBOOKJOHNWATT,PEANDWILLBROWNPE3RDEDITIONPG201USDEPARTMENTOFLABORPROGRAMHIGHLIGHTSFACTSHEETNOOSHA9516PROTECTINGWORKERSINHOTENVIRONMENTSMANYWORKERSSPENDSOMEPARTOFTHEIRWORKINGDAYINAHOTENVIRONMENTWORKERSINFOUNDRIES,LAUNDRIES,CONSTRUCTIONPROJECTS,ANDBAKERIESTONAMEAFEWINDUSTRIESOFTENFACEHOTCONDITIONSWHICHPOSESPECIALHAZARDSTOSAFETYANDHEALTHHEATSTRESSCAUSESBODYREACTIONSFOURENVIRONMENTALFACTORSAFFECTTHEAMOUNTOFSTRESSAWORKERFACESINAHOTWORKAREATEMPERATURE,HUMIDITY,RADIANTHEATSUCHASFROMTHESUNORAFURNACEANDAIRVELOCITYPERHAPSMOSTIMPORTANTTOTHELEVELOFSTRESSANINDIVIDUALFACESAREPERSONALCHARACTERISTICSSUCHASAGE,WEIGHT,FITNESS,MEDICALCONDITIONANDACCLIMATIZATIONTOTHEHEATTHEBODYREACTSTOHIGHEXTERNALTEMPERATUREBYCIRCULATINGBLOODTOTHESKINWHICHINCREASESSKINTEMPERATUREANDALLOWSTHEBODYTOGIVEOFFITSEXCESSHEATTHROUGHTHESKINHOWEVER,IFTHEMUSCLESAREBEINGUSEDFORPHYSICALLABOR,LESSBLOODISAVAILABLETOFLOWTOTHESKINANDRELEASETHEHEATSWEATINGISANOTHERMEANSTHEBODYUSESTOMAINTAINASTABLEINTERNALBODYTEMPERATUREINTHEFACEOFHEATHOWEVER,SWEATINGISEFFECTIVEONLYIFTHEHUMIDITYLEVELISLOWENOUGHTOPERMITEVAPORATIONANDIFTHEFLUIDSANDSALTSLOSTAREADEQUATELYREPLACEDOFCOURSETHEREAREMANYSTEPSAPERSONMIGHTCHOOSETOTAKETOREDUCETHERISKOFHEATSTRESS,SUCHASMOVINGTOACOOLERPLACE,REDUCINGTHEWORKPACEORLOAD,ORREMOVINGORLOOSENINGSOMECLOTHINGBUTIFTHEBODYCANNOTDISPOSEOFEXCESSHEAT,ITWILLSTOREFTWHENTHISHAPPENS,THEBODYSCORETEMPERATURERISESANDTHEHEARTRATEINCREASESASTHEBODYCONTINUESTOSTOREHEAT,THEINDIVIDUALBEGINSTOLOSECONCENTRATIONANDHASDIFFICULTYFOCUSINGONATASK,MAYBECOMEIRRITABLEORSICKANDOFTENLOSESTHEDESIRETODRINKTHENEXTSTAGEISMOSTOFTENFAINTINGANDDEATHISPOSSIBLEIFTHEPERSONISNOTREMOVEDFROMTHEHEATSTRESSHEATDISORDERSHEATSTROKE,THEMOSTSERIOUSHEALTHPROBLEMFORWORKERSINHOTENVIRONMENTS,ISCAUSEDBYTHEFAILUREOFTHEBODYSINTERNALMECHANISMTOREGULATEITSCORETEMPERATURESWEATINGSTOPSANDTHEBODYCANNOLONGERRIDITSELFOFEXCESSHEATSIGNSINCLUDE1MENTALCONFUSION,DELIRIUM,LOSSOFCONSCIOUSNESS,CONVULSIONSORCOMA;2ABODYTEMPERATUREOF106DEGREESFORHIGHER;AND3HOTDRYSKINWHICHMAYBERED,MOTTLED,ORBLUISHVICTIMSOFHEATSTROKEWILLDIEUNLESSTREATEDPROMPTLYWHILEAWAITINGMEDICALHELP,THEVICTIMMUSTBEREMOVEDTOACOOLAREAANDHISORHERCLOTHINGSOAKEDWITHCOOLWATERHEORSHESHOULDBEFANNEDVIGOROUSLYTOINCREASECOOLINGPROMPTFIRSTAIDCANPREVENTPERMANENTINJURYTOTHEBRAINANDOTHERVITALORGANSHEATEXHAUSTIONRESULTSFROMLOSSOFFLUIDTHROUGHSWEATINGWHENAWORKERHASFAILEDTODRINKENOUGHFLUIDSORTAKEINENOUGHSALTORBOTHTHEWORKERWITHHEATEXHAUSTIONSTILLSWEATSBUTEXPERIENCESEXTREMEWEAKNESSORFATIGUE,GIDDINESS,NAUSEA,ORHEADACHETHESKINISCLAMMYANDMOIST,THECOMPLEXIONPALEORFLUSHED,ANDTHEBODYTEMPERATURENORMALORSLIGHTLYHIGHERTREATMENTISUSUALLYSIMPLETHEVICTIMSHOULDRESTINACOOLPLACEANDDRINKWATERORANELECTROLYTESOLUTIONABEVERAGEUSEDBYATHLETESTOQUICKLYRESTOREPOTASSIUM,CALCIUM,ANDMAGNESIUMSALTSSEVERECASESINVOLVINGVICTIMSWHOVOMITORLOSECONSCIOUSNESSMAYREQUIRELONGERTREATMENTUNDERMEDICALSUPERVISIONHEATCRAMPS,PAINFULSPASMSOFTHEMUSCLES,ARECAUSEDWHENWORKERSDRINKLARGEQUANTITIESOFWATERBUTFAILTOREPLACETHEIRBODIESSALTLOSSTIREDMUSCLESTHOSEUSEDFORPERFORMINGTHEWORKAREUSUALLYTHEONESMOSTSUSCEPTIBLETOCRAMPSCRAMPSMAYOCCURDURINGORAFTERWORKINGHOURSANDMAYBERELIEVEDBYTAKINGLIQUIDSBYMOUTHORSALINESOLUTIONSINTRAVENOUSLYFORQUICKERRELIEF,IFMEDICALLYDETERMINEDTOBEREQUIREDFAINTINGHEATSYNCOPEMAYBEAPROBLEMFORTHEWORKERUNACCLIMATIZEDTOAHOTENVIRONMENTWHOSIMPLYSTANDSSTILLINTHEHEATVICTIMSUSUALLYRECOVERQUICKLYAFTERABRIEFPERIODOFLYINGDOWNMOVINGAROUND,RATHERTHANSTANDINGSTILL,WILLUSUALLYREDUCETHEPOSSIBILITYOFFAINTINGHEATRASH,ALSOKNOWNASPRICKLYHEAT,MAYOCCURINHOTANDHUMIDENVIRONMENTSWHERESWEATISNOTEASILYREMOVEDFROMTHESURFACEOFTHESKINBYEVAPORATIONWHENEXTENSIVEORCOMPLICATEDBYINFECTION,HEATRASHCANBESOUNCOMFORTABLETHATITINHIBITSSLEEP,IMPEDESAWORKERSPERFORMANCE,OREVENRESULTSINTEMPORARYTOTALDISABILITYITCANBEPREVENTEDBYRESTINGINACOOLPLACEANDALLOWINGTHESKINTODRYPREVENTINGHEATSTRESSMOSTHEATRELATEDHEALTHPROBLEMSCANBEPREVENTEDORTHERISKOFDEVELOPINGTHEMREDUCEDFOLLOWINGAFEWBASICPRECAUTIONSSHOULDLESSENHEATSTRESS1AVARIETYOFENGINEERINGCONTROLSINCLUDINGGENERALVENTILATIONANDSPOTCOOLINGBYLOCALEXHAUSTVENTILATIONATPOINTSOFHIGHHEATPRODUCTIONMAYBEHELPFULSHIELDINGISREQUIREDASPROTECTIONFROMRADIANTHEATSOURCESEVAPORATIVECOOLINGANDMECHANICALREFRIGERATIONAREOTHERWAYSTOREDUCEHEATCOOLINGFANSCANALSOREDUCEHEATINHOTCONDITIONSELIMINATINGSTEAMLEAKSWILLALSOHELPEQUIPMENTMODIFICATIONS,THEUSEOFPOWERTOOLSTOREDUCEMANUALLABORANDPERSONALCOOLINGDEVICESORPROTECTIVECLOTHINGAREOTHERWAYSTOREDUCETHEHAZARDSOFHEATEXPOSUREFORWORKERS2WORKPRACTICESSUCHASPROVIDI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