1986-2010历年考研英语真题阅读理解直接打印.doc.doc1986-2010历年考研英语真题阅读理解直接打印.doc.doc

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1阅读(1986-2009)1986TEXT1THEREAREAGREATMANYCAREERSINWHICHTHEINCREASINGEMPHASISISONSPECIALIZATIONYOUFINDTHESECAREERSINENGINEERING,INPRODUCTION,INSTATISTICALWORK,ANDINTEACHINGBUTTHEREISANINCREASINGDEMANDFORPEOPLEWHOAREABLETOTAKEINGREATAREAATAGLANCE,PEOPLEWHOPERHAPSDONOTKNOWTOOMUCHABOUTANYONEFIELDTHEREIS,INOTHERWORDS,ADEMANDFORPEOPLEWHOARECAPABLEOFSEEINGTHEFORESTRATHERTHANTHETREES,OFMAKINGGENERALJUDGMENTSWECANCALLTHESEPEOPLE“GENERALISTS”ANDTHESE“GENERALISTS”AREPARTICULARLYNEEDEDFORPOSITIONSINADMINISTRATION,WHEREITISTHEIRJOBTOSEETHATOTHERPEOPLEDOTHEWORK,WHERETHEYHAVETOPLANFOROTHERPEOPLE,TOORGANIZEOTHERPEOPLE’SWORK,TOBEGINITANDJUDGEITTHESPECIALISTUNDERSTANDSONEFIELD;HISCONCERNISWITHTECHNIQUEANDTOOLSHEISA“TRAINED”MAN;ANDHISEDUCATIONALBACKGROUNDISPROPERLYTECHNICALORPROFESSIONALTHEGENERALISTANDESPECIALLYTHEADMINISTRATORDEALSWITHPEOPLE;HISCONCERNISWITHLEADERSHIP,WITHPLANNING,ANDWITHDIRECTIONGIVINGHEISAN“EDUCATED”MAN;ANDTHEHUMANITIESAREHISSTRONGESTFOUNDATIONVERYRARELYISASPECIALISTCAPABLEOFBEINGANADMINISTRATORANDVERYRARELYISAGOODGENERALISTALSOAGOODSPECIALISTINPARTICULARFIELDANYORGANIZATIONNEEDSBOTHKINDSOFPEOPLE,THOUGHDIFFERENTORGANIZATIONSNEEDTHEMINDIFFERENTPROPORTIONSITISYOURTASKTOFINDOUT,DURINGYOURTRAININGPERIOD,INTOWHICHOFTHETWOKINDSOFJOBSYOUFIT,ANDTOPLANYOURCAREERACCORDINGLYYOURFIRSTJOBMAYTURNOUTTOBETHERIGHTJOBFORYOUBUTTHISISPUREACCIDENTCERTAINLYYOUSHOULDNOTCHANGEJOBSCONSTANTLYORPEOPLEWILLBECOMESUSPICIOUSOFYOURABILITYTOHOLDANYJOBATTHESAMETIMEYOUMUSTNOTLOOKUPONTHEFIRSTJOBASTHEFINALJOB;ITISPRIMARILYATRAININGJOB,ANOPPORTUNITYTOUNDERSTANDYOURSELFANDYOURFITNESSFORBEINGANEMPLOYEE26THEREISANINCREASINGDEMANDFOR________AALLROUNDPEOPLEINTHEIROWNFIELDSBPEOPLEWHOSEJOBISTOORGANIZEOTHERPEOPLE’SWORKCGENERALISTSWHOSEEDUCATIONALBACKGROUNDISEITHERTECHNICALORPROFESSIONALDSPECIALISTSWHOSECHIEFCONCERNISTOPROVIDEADMINISTRATIVEGUIDANCETOOTHERS27THESPECIALISTIS________AAMANWHOSEJOBISTOTRAINOTHERPEOPLEBAMANWHOHASBEENTRAINEDINMORETHANONEFIELDSCAMANWHOCANSEETHEFORESTRATHERTHANTHETREESDAMANWHOSECONCERNISMAINLYWITHTECHNICALORPROFESSIONALMATTERS28THEADMINISTRATORIS________AA“TRAINED”MANWHOISMOREASPECIALISTTHANAGENERALISTBAMANWHOSEESTHETREESASWELLASTHEFORESTCAMANWHOISVERYSTRONGINTHEHUMANITIESDAMANWHOISAN“EDUCATED”SPECIALIST29DURINGYOURTRAININGPERIOD,ITISIMPORTANT________ATOTRYTOBEAGENERALISTBTOCHOOSEAPROFITABLEJOBCTOFINDANORGANIZATIONWHICHFITSYOUDTODECIDEWHETHERYOUAREFITTOBEASPECIALISTORAGENERALIST30AMAN’SFIRSTJOB________AISNEVERTHERIGHTJOBFORHIMBSHOULDNOTBEREGARDEDASHISFINALJOBCSHOULDNOTBECHANGEDORPEOPLEWILLBECOMESUSPICIOUSOFHISABILITYTOHOLDANYJOBDISPRIMARILYANOPPORTUNITYTOFITHIMSELFFORHISFINALJOBTEXT2ATTHEBOTTOMOFTHEWORLDLIESAMIGHTYCONTINENTSTILLWRAPPEDINTHEICEAGEAND,UNTILRECENTTIMES,UNKNOWNTOMANITISAGREATLANDMASSWITHMOUNTAINRANGESWHOSEEXTENTANDELEVATIONARESTILLUNCERTAINMUCHOFTHECONTINENTISACOMPLETEBLANKONOURMAPSMANHASEXPLORED,ONFOOT,LESSTHANONEPERCENTOFITSAREAANTARCTICADIFFERSFUNDAMENTALLYFROMTHEARCTICREGIONSTHEARCTICISANOCEAN,COVEREDWITHDRIFTINGPACKEDICEANDHEMMEDINBYTHELANDMASSESOFEUROPE,ASIA,ANDNORTHAMERICATHEANTARCTICISACONTINENTALMOSTASLARGEASEUROPEANDAUSTRALIACOMBINED,CENTEREDROUGHLYONTHESOUTHPOLEANDSURROUNDEDBYTHEMOSTUNOBSTRUCTEDWATERAREASOFTHEWORLDTHEATLANTIC,PACIFIC,ANDINDIANOCEANSTHECONTINENTALICESHEETISMORETHANTWOMILESHIGHINITSCENTRE,THUS,THEAIROVERTHEANTARCTICISFARMOREREFRIGERATEDTHANITISOVERTHEARCTICREGIONSTHISCOLDAIRCURRENTFROMTHELANDISSOFORCEFULTHATITMAKESTHENEARBYSEASTHESTORMIESTINTHEWORLDANDRENDERSUNLIVABLETHOSEREGIONSWHOSECOUNTERPARTSATTHEOPPOSITEENDOFTHEGLOBEAREINHABITEDTHUS,MORETHANAMILLIONPERSONSLIVEWITHIN2,000MILESOFTHENORTHPOLEINANAREATHATINCLUDESMOSTOFALASKA,SIBERIA,ANDSCANDINAVIAAREGIONRICHINFORESTANDMININGINDUSTRIESAPARTFROMAHANDFULOFWEATHERSTATIONS,WITHINTHESAMEDISTANCEOFTHESOUTHPOLETHEREISNOTASINGLETREE,INDUSTRY,ORSETTLEMENT31THEBESTTITLEFORTHISSELECTIONWOULDBE________AICELANDBLANDOFOPPORTUNITYCTHEUNKNOWNCONTINENTDUTOPIAATLAST32ATTHETIMETHISARTICLEWASWRITTEN,OURKNOWLEDGEOFANTARCTICAWAS________AVERYLIMITEDBVASTCFAIRLYRICHDNONEXISTENT33ANTARCTICAISBORDEREDBYTHE________APACIFICOCEANBINDIANOCEANCATLANTICOCEANDALLTHREE34THEANTARCTICISMADEUNINHABITABLEPRIMARILYBY________ACOLDAIRBCALMSEASCICEDLACKOFKNOWLEDGEABOUTTHECONTINENT35ACCORDINGTOTHISARTICLE________A2,000PEOPLELIVEONTHEANTARCTICCONTINENTBAMILLIONPEOPLELIVEWITHIN2,000MILESOFTHESOUTHPOLE2CWEATHERCONDITIONSWITHINA2,000MILERADIUSOFTHESOUTHPOLEMAKESETTLEMENTSIMPRACTICALDONLYAHANDFULOFNATIVESINHABITANTARCTICA1987TEXT1FORCENTURIESMENDREAMEDOFACHIEVINGVERTICALFLIGHTIN400ADCHINESECHILDRENPLAYEDWITHAFANLIKETOYTHATSPUNUPWARDSANDFELLBACKTOEARTHASROTATIONCEASEDLEONARDODAVINCICONCEIVETHEFIRSTMECHANICALAPPARATUS,CALLEDA“HELIX,”WHICHCOULDCARRYMANSTRAIGHTUP,BUTWASONLYADESIGNANDWASNEVERTESTEDTHEANCIENTDREAMWASFINALLYREALIZEDIN1940WHENARUSSIANENGINEERPILOTEDASTRANGELOOKINGCRAFTOFSTEELTUBINGWITHAROTATINGFANONTOPITROSEAWKWARDLYANDVERTICALLYINTOTHEAIRFROMASTANDINGSTART,HOVEREDAFEWFEETABOVETHEGROUND,WENTSIDEWAYSANDBACKWARDS,ANDTHENSETTLEDBACKTOEARTHTHEVEHICLEWASCALLEDAHELICOPTERIMAGINATIONSWEREFIREDMENDREAMEDOFGOINGTOWORKINTHEIROWNPERSONALHELICOPTERSPEOPLEANTICIPATETHATVERTICALFLIGHTTRANSPORTSWOULDCARRYMILLIONSOFPASSENGERSASDOTHEAIRLINERSOFTODAYSUCHFANTASTICEXPECTATIONSWERENOTFULFILLEDTHEHELICOPTERHASNOWBECOMEANEXTREMELYUSEFULMACHINEITEXCELSINMILITARYMISSIONS,CARRYINGTROOPS,GUNSANDSTRATEGICINSTRUMENTSWHEREOTHERAIRCRAFTCANNOTGOCORPORATIONSUSETHEMASAIRBORNEOFFICES,MANYMETROPOLITANAREASUSETHEMINPOLICEWORK,CONSTRUCTIONANDLOGGINGCOMPANIESEMPLOYTHEMINVARIOUSADVANTAGEOUSWAYS,ENGINEERSUSETHEMFORSITESELECTIONANDSURVEYING,ANDOILCOMPANIESUSETHEMASTHEBESTWAYTOMAKEOFFSHOREANDREMOTEWORKSTATIONSACCESSIBLETOCREWSANDSUPPLIESANYURGENTMISSIONTOAHARDTOGETTOPLACEISALIKELYTASKFORAHELICOPTERAMONGTHEIROTHERMULTITUDEOFUSEDDELIVERPEOPLEACROSSTOWN,FLYTOANDFROMAIRPORTS,ASSISTINRESCUEWORK,ANDAIDINTHESEARCHFORMISSINGORWANTEDPERSONS11PEOPLEEXPECTTHAT________ATHEAIRLINERSOFTODAYWOULDEVENTUALLYBEREPLACEDBYHELICOPTERSBHELICOPTERSWOULDSOMEDAYBEABLETOTRANSPORTLARGENUMBEROFPEOPLEFROMPLACETOPLACEASAIRLINERSARENOWDOINGCTHEIMAGINATIONSFIREDBYTHERUSSIANENGINEER’SINVENTIONWOULDBECOMEAREALITYINTHEFUTUREDTHEIRFANTASTICEXPECTATIONSABOUTHELICOPTERSCOULDBEFULFILLEDBYAIRLINERSOFTODAY12HELICOPTERSWORKWITHTHEAIDOF________AACOMBINATIONOFROTATINGDEVICESINFRONTANDONTOPBAROTATINGDEVICETOPSIDECONEROTATINGFANINTHECENTEROFTHEAIRCRAFTANDOTHERSATEACHENDDAROTATINGFANUNDERNEATHFORLIFTING13WHATISSAIDABOUTTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEHELICOPTERAHELICOPTERSHAVEONLYBEENWORKEDONBYMANSINCE1940BCHINESECHILDRENWERETHEFIRSTTOACHIEVEFLIGHTINHELICOPTERSCHELICOPTERSWERECONSIDEREDMOREDANGEROUSTHANTHEEARLYAIRPLANESDSOMEPEOPLETHOUGHTTHEYWOULDBECOMEWIDELYUSEDBYAVERAGEINDIVIDUALS14HOWHASTHEUSEOFHELICOPTERSDEVELOPEDATHEYHAVEBEENWIDELYUSEDFORVARIOUSPURPOSESBTHEYARETAKINGTHEPLACEOFHIGHFLYINGJETSCTHEYAREUSEDFORRESCUEWORKDTHEYARENOWUSEDEXCLUSIVELYFORCOMMERCIALPROJECTS15UNDERWHATCONDITIONSAREHELICOPTERSFOUNDTOBEABSOLUTELYESSENTIALAFOROVERSEASPASSENGERTRANSPORTATIONBFOREXTREMELYHIGHALTITUDEFLIGHTSCFORHIGHSPEEDTRANSPORTATIONDFORURGENTMISSIONTOPLACESINACCESSIBLETOOTHERKINDSOFCRAFTTEXT2INANCIENTGREECEATHLETICFESTIVALSWEREVERYIMPORTANTANDHADSTRONGRELIGIOUSASSOCIATIONSTHEOLYMPIANATHLETICFESTIVALHELDEVERYFOURYEARSINHONOROFZEUS,KINGOFTHEOLYMPIANGODS,EVENTUALLYLOSTITSLOCALCHARACTER,BECAMEFIRSTANATIONALEVENTANDTHEN,AFTERTHERULESAGAINSTFOREIGNCOMPETITORSHADBEENABOLISHED,INTERNATIONALNOONEKNOWSEXACTLYHOWFARBACKTHEOLYMPICGAMESGO,BUTSOMEOFFICIALRECORDSDATEFROM776BCTHEGAMESTOOKPLACEINAUGUSTONTHEPLAINBYMOUNTOLYMPUSMANYTHOUSANDSOFSPECTATORSGATHEREDFROMALLPARTSOFGREECE,BUTNOMARRIEDWOMANWASADMITTEDEVENASASPECTATORSLAVES,WOMENANDDISHONOREDPERSONSWERENOTALLOWEDTOCOMPETETHEEXACTSEQUENCEOFEVENTSUNCERTAIN,BUTEVENTSINCLUDEDBOY’SGYMNASTICS,BOXING,WRESTLING,HORSERACINGANDFIELDEVENTS,THOUGHTHEREWEREFEWERSPORTSINVOLVEDTHANINTHEMODERNOLYMPICGAMESONTHELASTDAYOFTHEGAMES,ALLTHEWINNERSWEREHONOREDBYHAVINGARINGOFHOLYOLIVELEAVESPLACEDONTHEIRHEADSSOGREATWASTHEHONORTHATTHEWINNEROFTHEFOOTRACEGAVEHISNAMETOTHEYEAROFHISVICTORYALTHOUGHOLYMPICWINNERSRECEIVEDNOPRIZEMONEY,THEYWERE,INFACT,RICHLYREWARDEDBYTHEIRSTATEAUTHORITIESHOWTHEIRRESULTSCOMPAREDWITHMODERNSTANDARDS,WEUNFORTUNATELYHAVENOMEANSOFTELLINGAFTERANUNINTERRUPTEDHISTORYOFALMOST1,200YEARS,THEGAMESWERESUSPENDEDBYTHEROMANSIN394ADTHEYCONTINUEDFORSUCHALONGTIMEBECAUSEPEOPLEBELIEVEDINTHEPHILOSOPHYBEHINDTHEOLYMPICSTHEIDEATHATAHEALTHYBODYPRODUCEDAHEALTHYMIND,ANDTHATTHESPIRITOFCOMPETITIONINSPORTSANDGAMESWASPREFERABLETOTHECOMPETITIONTHATCAUSEDWARSITWASOVER1,500YEARSBEFOREANOTHERSUCHINTERNATIONALATHLETICGATHERINGTOOKPLACEINATHENSIN1896NOWADAYS,THEGAMESAREHELDINDIFFERENTCOUNTRIESINTURNTHEHOSTCOUNTRYPROVIDESVASTFACILITIES,INCLUDINGASTADIUM,SWIMMINGPOOLSANDLIVINGACCOMMODATION,BUTCOMPETINGCOURTIERSPAYTHEIROWNATHLETES’EXPENSESTHEOLYMPICSSTARTWITHTHEARRIVALINTHESTADIUMOFATORCH,LIGHTEDONMOUNTOLYMPUSBYTHESUN’SRAYSITISCARRIEDBYASUCCESSIONOFRUNNERSTOTHESTADIUMTHETORCHSYMBOLIZEDTHECONTINUATIONOFTHEANCIENTGREEKATHLETICIDEALS,ANDITBURNSTHROUGHOUTTHEGAMESUNTILTHECLOSINGCEREMONYTHEWELLKNOWNOLYMPICFLAG,HOWEVER,ISAMODERNCONCEPTIONTHEFIVEINTERLOCKINGRINGS3SYMBOLIZETHEUNITINGOFALLFIVECONTINENTSPARTICIPATINGINTHEGAMES16INANCIENTGREECE,THEOLYMPICGAMES________AWEREMERELYNATIONALATHLETICFESTIVALSBWEREINTHENATUREOFANATIONALEVENTWITHASTRONGRELIGIOUSCOLOURCHADRULESWHICHPUTFOREIGNPARTICIPANTSINADISADVANTAGEOUSPOSITIONDWEREPRIMARILYNATIONALEVENTSWITHFEWFOREIGNPARTICIPANTS17INTHEEARLYDAYSOFANCIENTOLYMPICGAMES________AONLYMALEGREEKATHLETESWEREALLOWEDTOPARTICIPATEINTHEGAMESBALLGREEKS,IRRESPECTIVEOFSEX,RELIGIONORSOCIALSTATUS,WEREALLOWEDTOTAKEPARTCALLGREEKS,WITHTHEEXCEPTIONOFWOMEN,WEREALLOWEDTOCOMPETEINGAMESDALLMALEGREEKSWEREQUALIFIEDTOCOMPETEINTHEGAMES18THEORDEROFATHLETICEVENTSATTHEANCIENTOLYMPICS________AHASNOTDEFINITELYBEENESTABLISHEDBVARIEDACCORDINGTOTHENUMBEROFFOREIGNCOMPETITORSCWASDECIDEDBYZEUS,INWHOSEHONORTHEGAMESWEREHELDDWASCONSIDEREDUNIMPORTANT19MODERNATHLETES’RESULTSCANNOTBECOMPAREDWITHTHOSEOFANCIENTRUNNERSBECAUSE________ATHEGREEKSHADNOMEANSOFRECORDINGTHERESULTSBTHEYAREMUCHBETTERCDETAILSSUCHASTHETIMEWERENO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