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97~04年考研英语阅读理解部分真题(打印版).doc.doc97~04年考研英语阅读理解部分真题(打印版).doc.doc -- 5 元

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1997年全真试题Passage1Itwas345inthemorningwhenthevotewasfinallytaken.Aftersixmonthsofarguingandfinal16hoursofhotparliamentarydebates,AustraliasNorthernTerritorybecamethefirstlegalauthorityintheworldtoallowdoctorstotakethelivesofincurablyillpatientswhowishtodie.Themeasurepassedbytheconvincingvoteof15to10.AlmostimmediatelywordflashedontheInternetandwaspickedup,halfaworldaway,byJohnHofsess,executivedirectoroftheRighttoDieSocietyofCanada.Hesentitonviathegroupsonlineservice,DeathNET.SaysHofsessWepostedbulletinsalldaylong,becauseofcoursethisisntjustsomethingthathappenedinAustralia.Itsworldhistory.awhasleftphysiciansandcitizensaliketryingtodealwithitsmoralandpracticalimplications.SomehavebreathedsigThefullimportmaytakeawhiletosinkin.TheNTRightsoftheTerminallyIlllhsofrelief,others,includingchurches,righttolifegroupsandtheAustralianMedicalAssociation,bitterlyattackedthebillandthehasteofitspassage.Butthetideisunlikelytoturnback.InAustraliawhereanagingpopulation,lifeextendingtechnologyandchangingcommunityattitudeshaveallplayedtheirpartotherstatesaregoingtoconsidermakingasimilarlawtodealwitheuthanasia.IntheUSandCanada,wheretherighttodiemovementisgatheringstrength,observersarewaitingforthedominoestostartfalling.UnderthenewNorthernTerritorylaw,anadultpatientcanrequestdeathprobablybyadeadlyinjectionorpilltoputanendtosuffering.Thepatientmustbediagnosedasterminallyillbytwodoctors.Afteracoolingoffperiodofsevendays,thepatientcansignacertificateofrequest.After48hoursthewishfordeathcanbemet.ForLloydNickson,a54yearoldDarwinresidentsufferingfromlungcancer,theNTRightsofTerminallyIlllawmeanshecangetonwithlivingwithoutthehauntingfearofhissufferingaterrifyingdeathfromhisbreathingcondition.Imnotafraidofdyingfromaspiritualpointofview,butwhatIwasafraidofwashowIdgo,becauseIvewatchedpeopledieinthehospitalfightingforoxygenandclawingattheirmasks,hesays.Passage2AreportconsistentlybroughtbackbyvisitorstotheUSishowfriendly,courteous,andhelpfulmostAmericansweretothem.Tobefair,thisobservationisalsofrequentlymadeofCanadaandCanadians,andshouldbestbeconsideredNorthAmerican.Thereare,ofcourse,exceptions.Smallmindedofficials,rudewaiters,andillmanneredtaxidriversarehardlyunknownintheUS.Yetitisanobservationmadesofrequentlythatitdeservescomment.Foralongperiodoftimeandinmanypartsofthecountry,atravelerwasawelcomebreakinanotherwisedullexistence.Dullnessandlonelinesswerecommonproblemsofthefamilieswhogenerallyliveddistantfromoneanother.Strangersandtravelerswerewelcomesourcesofdiversion,andbroughtnewsoftheoutsideworld.Theharshrealitiesofthefrontieralsoshapedthistraditionofhospitality.Someonetravelingalone,ifhungry,injured,orill,oftenhadnowheretoturnexcepttothenearestcabinorsettlement.Itwasnotamatterofchoiceforthetravelerormerelyacharitableimpulseonthepartofthesettlers.Itreflectedtheharshnessofdailylifeifyoudidnttakeinthestrangerandtakecareofhim,therewasnooneelsewhowould.Andsomeday,remember,youmightbeinthesamesituation.Todaytherearemanycharitableorganizationswhichspecializeinhelpingthewearytraveler.Yet,theoldtraditionofhospitalitytostrangersisstillverystrongintheUS,especiallyinthesmallercitiesandtownsawayfromthebusytouristtrails.Iwasjusttravelingthrough,gottalkingwiththisAmerican,andprettysoonheinvitedmehomefordinneramazing.SuchobservationsreportedbyvisitorstotheUSarenotuncommon,butarenotalwaysunderstoodproperly.ThecasualfriendlinessofmanyAmericansshouldbeinterpretedneitherassuperficialnorasartificial,butastheresultofahistoricallydevelopedculturaltradition.Asistrueofanydevelopedsociety,inAmericaacomplexsetofculturalsignals,assumptions,andconventionsunderliesallsocialinterrelationships.And,ofcourse,speakingalanguagedoesnotnecessarilymeanthatsomeoneunderstandssocialandculturalpatterns.Visitorswhofailtotranslateculturalmeaningsproperlyoftendrawwrongconclusions.Forexample,whenanAmericanusesthewordfriend,theculturalimplicationsofthewordmaybequitedifferentfromthoseithasinthevisitorslanguageandculture.Ittakesmorethanabriefencounteronabustodistinguishbetweencourteousconventionandindividualinterest.Yet,beingfriendlyisavirtuethatmanyAmericansvaluehighlyandexpectfrombothneighborsandstrangers.Passage3Technically,anysubstanceotherthanfoodthataltersourbodilyormentalfunctioningisadrug.Manypeoplemistakenlybelievethetermdrugrefersonlytosomesortofmedicineoranillegalchemicaltakenbydrugaddicts.Theydontrealizethatfamiliarsubstancessuchasalcoholandtobaccoarealsodrugs.Thisiswhythemoreneutraltermsubstanceisnowusedbymanyphysiciansandpsychologists.Thephrasesubstanceabuseisoftenusedinsteadofdrugabusetomakeclearthatsubstancessuchasalcoholandtobaccocanbejustasharmfullymisusedasheroinandcocaine.Weliveinasocietyinwhichthemedicalandsocialuseofsubstancesdrugsispervasiveanaspirintoquietaheadache,somewinetobesociable,coffeetogetgoinginthemorning,acigaretteforthenerves.WhendothesesociallyacceptableandapparentlyconstructiveusesofasubstancebecomemisusesFirstofall,mostsubstancestakeninexcesswillproducenegativeeffectssuchaspoisoningorintenseperceptualdistortions.Repeateduseofasubstancecanalsoleadtophysicaladdictionorsubstancedependence.Dependenceismarkedfirstbyanincreasedtolerance,withmoreandmoreofthesubstancerequiredtoproducethedesiredeffect,andthenbytheappearanceofunpleasantwithdrawalsymptomswhenthesubstanceisdiscontinued.Drugssubstancesthataffectthecentralnervoussystemandalterperception,mood,andbehaviorareknownaspsychoactivesubstances.Psychoactivesubstancesarecommonlygroupedaccordingtowhethertheyarestimulants,depressants,orhallucinogens.Stimulantsinitiallyspeeduporactivatethecentralnervoussystem,whereasdepressantsslowitdown.Hallucinogenshavetheirprimaryeffectonperception,distortingandalteringitinavarietyofwaysincludingproducinghallucinations.ThesearethesubstancesoftencalledpsychedelicfromtheGreekwordmeaningmindmanifestationbecausetheyseemedtoradicallyalteronesstateofconsciousness.Passage4Nocompanylikestobetolditiscontributingtothemoraldeclineofanation.IsthiswhatyouintendedtoaccomplishwithyourcareersSenatorRobertDoleaskedTimeWarnerexecutiveslastweek.Youhavesoldyoursouls,butmustyoucorruptournationandthreatenourchildrenaswellAtTimeWarner,however,suchquestionsaresimplythelatestmanifestationofthesoulsearchingthathasinvolvedthecompanyeversincethecompanywasbornin1990.Itsaselfexaminationthathas,atvarioustimes,involvedissuesofresponsibility,creativefreedomandthecorporatebottomline.AtthecoreofthisdebateischairmanGeraldLevin,56,whotookoverforthelateSteveRossin1992.Onthefinancialfront,Levinisunderpressuretoraisethestockpriceandreducethecompanysmountainousdebt,whichwillincreaseto17.3billionaftertwonewcabledealsclose.Hehaspromisedtoselloffsomeofthepropertyandrestructurethecompany,butinvestorsarewaitingimpatiently.Theflapoverrapisnotmakinglifeanyeasierforhim.Levinhasconsistentlydefendedthecompanysrapmusiconthegroundsofexpression.In1992,whenTimeWarnerwasunderfireforreleasingIceTsviolentrapsongCopKiller,Levindescribedrapasalawfulexpressionofstreetculture,whichdeservesanoutlet.Thetestofanydemocraticsociety,hewroteinaWallStreetJournalcolumn,liesnotinhowwellitcancontrolexpressionbutinwhetheritgivesfreedomofthoughtandexpressionthewidestpossiblelatitude,howeverdisputableorirritatingtheresultsmaysometimesbe.Wewontretreatinthefaceofanythreats.Levinwouldnotcommentonthedebatelastweek,butthereweresignsthatthechairmanwasbackingoffhishardlinestand,atleasttosomeextent.Duringthediscussionofrocksingingversesatlastmonthsstockholdersmeeting,Levinassertedthatmusicisnotthecauseofsocietysillsandevencitedhisson,ateacherintheBronx,NewYork,whousesraptocommunicatewithstudents.Buthetalkedaswellaboutthebalancedstrugglebetweencreativefreedomandsocialresponsibility,andheannouncedthatthecompanywouldlaunchadrivetodevelopstandardsfordistributionandlabelingofpotentiallyobjectionablemusic.The15memberTimeWarnerboardisgenerallysupportiveofLevinandhiscorporatestrategy.Butinsiderssayseveralofthemhaveshowntheirconcernsinthismatter.Someofushaveknownformany,manyyearsthatthefreedomsundertheFirstAmendmentarenottotallyunlimited,saysLuce.Ithinkitisperhapsthecasethatsomepeopleassociatedwiththecompanyhaveonlyrecentlycometorealizethis.Passage5Muchofthelanguageusedtodescribemonetarypolicy,suchassteeringtheeconomytoasoftlandingoratouchonthebrakes,makesitsoundlikeaprecisescience.Nothingcouldbefurtherfromthetruth.Thelinkbetweeninterestratesandinflationisuncertain.Andtherearelong,variablelagsbeforepolicychangeshaveanyeffectontheeconomy.Hencetheanalogythatlikenstheconductofmonetarypolicytodrivingacarwithablackenedwindscreen,acrackedrearviewmirrorandafaultysteeringwheel.Givenallthesedisadvantages,centralbankersseemtohavehadmuchtoboastaboutoflate.Averageinflationinthebigsevenindustrialeconomiesfelltoamere2.3lastyear,closetoitslowestlevelin30years,beforerisingslightlyto2.5thisJuly.Thisisalongwaybelowthedoubledigitrateswhichmanycountriesexperiencedinthe1970sandearly1980s.Itisalsolessthanmostforecastershadpredicted.Inlate1994thepanelofeconomistswhichTheEconomistpollseachmonthsaidthatAmericasinflationratewouldaverage3.5in1995.Infact,itfellto2.6inAugust,andisexpectedtoaverageonlyabout3fortheyearasawhole.InBritainandJapaninflationisrunninghalfapercentagepointbelowtheratepredictedattheendoflastyear.Thisisnoflashinthepanoverthepastcoupleofyears,inflationhasbeenconsistentlylowerthanexpectedinBritainandAmerica.EconomistshavebeenparticularlysurprisedbyfavourableinflationfiguresinBritainandtheUnitedStates,sinceconventionalmeasuressuggestthatbotheconomies,andespeciallyAmericas,havelittleproductiveslack.Americascapacityutilisation,forexample,hithistoricallyhighlevelsearlierthisyear,anditsjoblessrate5.6inAugusthasfallenbelowmostestimatesofthenaturalrateofunemploymenttheratebelowwhichinflationhastakenoffinthepast.WhyhasinflationprovedsomildThemostthrillingexplanationis,unfortunately,alittledefective.Someeconomistsarguethatpowerfulstructuralchangesintheworldhaveupendedtheoldeconomicmodelsthatwerebaseduponthehistoricallinkbetweengrowthandinflation.1998Text1Fewcreationsofbigtechnologycapturetheimaginationlikegiantdams.Perhapsitishumankindslongsufferingatthemercyoffloodanddroughtthatmakestheideaofforcingthewaterstodoourbiddingsofascinating.Buttobefascinatedisalso,sometimes,tobeblind.Severalgiantdamprojectsthreatentodomoreharmthangood.Thelessonfromdamsisthatbigisnotalwaysbeautiful.Itdoesnthelpthatbuildingabig,powerfuldamhasbecomeasymbolofachievementfornationsandpeoplestrivingtoassertthemselves.EgyptsleadershipintheArabworldwascementedbytheAswanHighDam.TurkeysbidforFirstWorldstatusincludesthegiantAtaturkDam.Butbigdamstendnottoworkasintended.TheAswanDam,forexample,stoppedtheNilefloodingbutdeprivedEgyptofthefertilesiltthatfloodsleftallinreturnforagiantreservoirofdiseasewhichisnowsofullofsiltthatitbarelygenerateselectricity.Andyet,themythofcontrollingthewaterspersists.Thisweek,intheheartofcivilizedEurope,SlovaksandHungariansstoppedjustshortofsendinginthetroopsintheircontentionoveradamontheDanube.Thehugecomplexwillprobablyhavealltheusualproblemsofbigdams.ButSlovakiaisbiddingforindependencefromtheCzechs,andnowneedsadamtoproveitself.Meanwhile,inIndia,theWorldBankhasgiventhegoaheadtotheevenmorewrongheadedNarmadaDam.Andthebankhasdonethiseventhoughitsadvisorssaythedamwillcausehardshipforthepowerlessandenvironmentaldestruction.Thebenefitsareforthepowerful,buttheyarefarfromguaranteed.Proper,scientificstudyoftheimpactsofdamsandofthecostandbenefitsofcontrollingwatercanhelptoresolvetheseconflicts.Hydroelectricpowerandfloodcontrolandirrigationarepossiblewithoutbuildingmonsterdams.Butwhenyouaredealingwithmyths,itishardtobeeitherproper,orscientific.ItistimethattheworldlearnedthelessonsofAswan.Youdontneedadamtobesaved.Text2Well,nogainwithoutpain,theysay.ButwhataboutpainwithoutgainEverywhereyougoinAmerica,youheartalesofcorporaterevival.Whatishardertoestablishiswhethertheproductivitrevolutionthatbusinessmenassumetheyarepresidingoverisforreal.Theofficialstatisticsaremildlydiscouraging.Theyshowthat,ifyoulumpmanufacturingandservicestogether,productivityhasgrownonaverageby1.2since1987.Thatissomewhatfasterthantheaverageduringthepreviousdecade.Andsince1991,productivityhasincreasedbyabout2ayear,whichismorethantwicethe197887average.Thetroubleisthatpartoftherecentaccelerationisduetotheusualreboundthatoccursatthispointinabusinesscycle,andsoisnotconclusiveevidenceofarevivalintheunderlyingtrend.Thereis,asRobertRubin,thetreasurysecretary,says,adisjunctionbetweenthemassofbusinessanecdotethatpointstoaleapinproductivityandthepicturereflectedbythestatistics.Someofthiscanbeeasilyexplained.Newwaysoforganizingtheworkplaceallthatreengineeringanddownsizingareonlyonecontributiontotheoverallproductivityofaneconomy,whichisdrivenbymanyotherfactorssuchasjointinvestmentinequipmentandmachinery,newtechnology,andinvestmentineducationandtraining.Moreover,mostofthechangesthatcompaniesmakeareintendedtokeepthemprofitable,andthisneednotalwaysmeanincreasingproductivityswitchingtonewmarketsorimprovingqualitycanmatterjustasmuch.Twootherexplanationsaremorespeculative.First,someofthebusinessrestructuringofrecentyearsmayhavebeenineptlydone.Second,evenifitwaswelldone,itmayhavespreadmuchlesswidelythanpeoplesuppose.LeonardSchlesinger,aHarvardacademicandformerchiefexecutiveofAuBongPain,arapidlygrowingchainofbakerycafes,saysthatmuchreengineeringhasbeencrude.Inmanycases,hebelieves,thelossofrevenuehasbeengreaterthanthereductionsincost.Hiscolleague,MichaelBeer,saysthatfartoomanycompanieshaveappliedreengineeringinamechanisticfashion,choppingoutcostswithoutgivingsufficientthoughttolongtermprofitability.BBDOsAlRosenshineisblunter.Hedismissesalotoftheworkofreengineeringconsultantsasmererubbishtheworstsortofambulancechasing.Sciencehaslonghadanuneasyrelationshipwithotheraspectsofculture.ThinkofGallileos17thcenturytrialforhisrebellingbeliefbeforetheCatholicChurchorpoetWilliamBlakesharshremarksagainstthemechanisticworldviewofIsaacNewton.Theschismbetweenscienceandthehumanitieshas,ifanything,deepenedinthiscentury.Untilrecently,thescientificcommunitywassopowerfulthatitcouldaffordtoignoreitscriticsbutnolonger.Asfundingforsciencehasdeclined,scientistshaveattackedantiscienceinseveralbooks,notablyHigherSuperstition,byPaulR.Gross,abiologistattheUniversityofVirginia,andNormanLevitt,amathematicianatRutgersUniversityandTheDemonHauntedWorld,byCarlSaganofCornellUniversity.DefendersofsciencehavealsovoicedtheirconcernsatmeetingssuchasTheFlightfromScienceandReason,heldinNewYorkCityin1995,andScienceintheAgeofMisinformation,whichassembledlastJunenearBuffalo.Antiscienceclearlymeansdifferentthingstodifferentpeople.GrossandLevittfindfaultprimarilywithsociologists,philosophersandotheracademicswhohavequestionedsciencesobjectivity.Saganismoreconcernedwiththosewhobelieveinghosts,creationismandotherphenomenathatcontradictthescientificworldview.Asurveyofnewsstoriesin1996revealsthattheantisciencetaghasbeenattachedtomanyothergroupsaswell,fromauthoritieswhoadvocatedtheeliminationofthelastremainingstocksofsmallpoxvirustoRepublicanswhoadvocateddecreasedfundingforbasicresearch.FewwoulddisputethatthetermappliestotheUnabomber,whosemanifesto,publishedin1995,scornsscienceandlongsforreturntoapretechnologicalutopia.Butsurelythatdoesnotmeanenvironmentalistsconcernedaboutuncontrolledindustrialgrowthareantiscience,asanessayinUSNewsWorldReportlastMayseemedtosuggest.Theenvironmentalists,inevitably,respondtosuchcritics.Thetrueenemiesofscience,arguesPaulEhrlichofStanfordUniversity,apioneerofenvironmentalstudies,arethosewhoquestiontheevidencesupportingglobalwarming,thedepletionoftheozonelayerandotherconsequencesofindustrialgrowth.Indeed,someobserversfearthattheantiscienceepithetisindangerofbecomingmeaningless.Thetermantisciencecanlumptogethertoomany,quitedifferentthings,notesHarvardUniversityphilosopherGeraldHoltoninhis1993workScienceandAntiScience.Theyhaveincommononlyonethingthattheytendtoannoyorthreatenthosewhoregardthemselvesasmoreenlightened.Text4Emergingfromthe1980censusisthepictureofanationdevelopingmoreandmoreregionalcompetition,aspopulationgrowthintheNortheastandMidwestreachesanearstandstill.ThisdevelopmentanditsstrongimplicationsforUSpoliticsandeconomyinyearsaheadhasenthronedtheSouthasAmericasmostdenselypopulatedregionforthefirsttimeinthehistoryofthenationsheadcounting.Altogether,theUSpopulationroseinthe1970sby23.2millionpeoplenumericallythethirdlargestgrowtheverrecordedinasingledecade.Evenso,thatgainaddsuptoonly11.4percent,lowestinAmericanannualrecordsexceptfortheDepressionyears.AmericanshavebeenmigratingsouthandwestinlargernumberssinceWorldWarII,andthepatternstillprevails.ThreesunbeltstatesFlorida,TexasandCaliforniatogetherhadnearly10millionmorepeoplein1980thanadecadeearlier.Amonglargecities,SanDiegomovedfrom14thto8thandSanAntoniofrom15thto10thwithClevelandandWashington.D.C.,droppingoutofthetop10.Notallthatshiftcanbeattributedtothemovementoutofthesnowbelt,censusofficialssay.Nonstopwavesofimmigrantsplayedarole,tooandsodidbiggercropsofbabiesasyesterdaysbabyboomgenerationreacheditschildbearingyears.Moreover,demographersseethecontinuingshiftsouthandwestasjoinedbyarelatedbutnewerphenomenonMoreandmore,Americansapparentlyarelookingnotjustforplaceswithmorejobsbutwithfewerpeople,too.Someinstances■Regionally,theRockyMountainstatesreportedthemostrapidgrowthrate37.1percentsince1970inavastareawithonly5percentoftheUSpopulation.■Amongstates,NevadaandArizonagrewfastestofall63.5and53.1percentrespectively.ExceptforFloridaandTexas,thetop10inrateofgrowthiscomposedofWesternstateswith7.5millionpeopleabout9persquaremile.Theflightfromovercrowdednessaffectsthemigrationfromsnowbelttomorebearableclimates.Nowheredo1980censusstatisticsdramatizemoretheAmericansearchforspaciouslivingthanintheFarWest.There,Californiaadded3.7milliontoitspopulationinthe1970s,morethananyotherstate.Inthatdecade,however,largenumbersalsomigratedfromCalifornia,mostlytootherpartsoftheWest.OftentheychoseandstillarechoosingsomewhatcolderclimatessuchasOregon,IdahoandAlaskainordertoescapesmog,crimeandotherplaguesofurbanizationintheGoldenState.Asaresult,Californiasgrowthratedroppedduringthe1970s,to18.5percentlittlemorethantwothirdsthe1960sgrowthfigureandconsiderablybelowthatofotherWesternstates.Text5Scatteredaroundtheglobearemorethan100smallregionsofisolatedvolcanicactivityknowntogeologistsashotspots.Unlikemostoftheworldsvolcanoes,theyarenotalwaysfoundattheboundariesofthegreatdriftingplatesthatmakeuptheearthssurfaceonthecontrary,manyofthemliedeepintheinteriorofaplate.Mostofthehotspotsmoveonlyslowly,andinsomecasesthemovementoftheplatespastthemhaslefttrailsofdeadvolcanoes.Thehotspotsandtheirvolcanictrailsaremilestonesthatmarkthepassageoftheplates.Thattheplatesaremovingisnowbeyonddispute.AfricaandSouthAmerica,forexample,aremovingawayfromeachotherasnewmaterialisinjectedintotheseafloorbetweenthem.Thecomplementarycoastlinesandcertaingeologicalfeaturesthatseemtospantheoceanareremindersofwherethetwocontinentswereoncejoined.Therelativemotionoftheplatescarryingthesecontinentshasbeenconstructedindetail,butthemotionofoneplatewithrespecttoanothercannotreadilybetranslatedintomotionwithrespecttotheearthsinterior.Itisnotpossibletodeterminewhetherbothcontinentsaremovinginoppositedirectionsorwhetheronecontinentisstationaryandtheotherisdriftingawayfromit.Hotspots,anchoredinthedeeperlayersoftheearth,providethemeasuringinstrumentsneededtoresolvethequestion.FromananalysisofthehotspotpopulationitappearsthattheAfricanplateisstationaryandthatithasnotmovedduringthepast30millionyears.Thesignificanceofhotspotsisnotconfinedtotheirroleasaframeofreference.Itnowappearsthattheyalsohaveanimportantinfluenceonthegeophysicalprocessesthatpropeltheplatesacrosstheglobe.Whenacontinentalplatecometorestoverahotspot,thematerialrisingfromdeeperlayerscreatesabroaddome.Asthedomegrows,itdevelopsdeepfissurescracksinatleastafewcasesthecontinentmaybreakentirelyalongsomeofthesefissures,sothatthehotspotinitiatestheformationofanewocean.Thusjustasearliertheorieshaveexplainedthemobilityofthecontinents,sohotspotsmayexplaintheirmutabilityinconstancy.1999年年全真试题Passage1Itsaroughworldoutthere.Stepoutsideandyoucouldbreakalegslippingonyourdoormat.Lightupthestoveandyoucouldburndownthehouse.Luckily,ifthedoormatorstovefailedtowarnofcomingdisaster,asuccessfullawsuitmightcompensateyouforyourtroubles.Orsothethinkinghasgonesincetheearly1980s,whenjuriesbeganholdingmorecompaniesliablefortheircustomersmisfortunes.Feelingthreatened,companiesrespondedbywritingeverlongerwarninglabels,tryingtoanticipateeverypossibleaccident.Today,stepladderscarrylabelsseveralincheslongthatwarn,amongotherthings,thatyoumightsurprisefalloff.ThelabelonachildsBatmancapecautionsthatthetoydoesnotenableusertofly.Whilewarningsareoftenappropriateandnecessarythedangersofdruginteractions,forexampleandmanyarerequiredbystateorfederalregulations,itisntclearthattheyactuallyprotectthemanufacturersandsellersfromliabilityifacustomerisinjured.About50percentofthecompanieslosewheninjuredcustomerstakethemtocourt.Nowthetideappearstobeturning.Aspersonalinjuryclaimscontinueasbefore,somecourtsarebeginningtosidewithdefendants,especiallyincaseswhereawarninglabelprobablywouldnthavechangedanything.InMay,JulieNimmons,presidentofSchuttSportsinIllinois,successfullyfoughtalawsuitinvolvingafootballplayerwhowasparalyzedinagamewhilewearingaSchutthelmet.Werereallysorryhehasbecomeparalyzed,buthelmetsarentdesignedtopreventthosekindsofinjuries,saysNimmons.Thejuryagreedthatthenatureofthegame,notthehelmet,wasthereasonfortheathletesinjury.Atthesametime,theAmericanLawInstituteagroupofjudges,lawyers,andacademicswhoserecommendationscarrysubstantialweightissuednewguidelinesfortortlawstatingthatcompaniesneednotwarncustomersofobviousdangersorbombardthemwithalengthylistofpossibleones.Importantinformationcangetburiedinaseaoftrivialities,saysalawprofessoratCornellLawSchoolwhohelpeddraftthenewguidelines.Ifthemoderateendofthelegalcommunityhasitsway,theinformationonproductsmightactuallybeprovidedforthebenefitofcustomersandnotasprotectionagainstlegalliability.Passage2InthefirstyearorsoofWebbusiness,mostoftheactionhasrevolvedaroundeffortstotaptheconsumermarket.Morerecently,astheWebprovedtobemorethanafashion,companieshavestartedtobuyandsellproductsandserviceswithoneanother.Suchbusinesstobusinesssalesmakesensebecausebusinesspeopletypicallyknowwhatproducttheyrelookingfor.Nonetheless,manycompaniesstillhesitatetousetheWebbecauseofdoubtsaboutitsreliability.Businessesneedtofeeltheycantrustthepathwaybetweenthemandthesupplier,sayssenioranalystBlaneErwinofForresterResearch.Somecompaniesarelimitingtheriskbyconductingonlinetransactionsonlywithestablishedbusinesspartnerswhoaregivenaccesstothecompanysprivateintranet.AnothermajorshiftinthemodelforInternetcommerceconcernsthetechnologyavailableformarketing.Untilrecently,Internetmarketingactivitieshavefocusedonstrategiestopullcustomersintosites.Inthepastyear,however,softwarecompanieshavedevelopedtoolsthatallowcompaniestopushinformationdirectlyouttoconsumers,transmittingmarketingmessagesdirectlytotargetedcustomers.Mostnotably,thePointcastNetworkusesascreensavertodeliveracontinuallyupdatedstreamofnewsandadvertisementstosubscriberscomputermonitors.SubscriberscancustomizetheinformationtheywanttoreceiveandproceeddirectlytoacompanysWebsite.CompaniessuchasVirtualVineyardsarealreadystartingtousesimilartechnologiestopushmessagestocustomersaboutspecialsales,productofferings,orotherevents.ButpushtechnologyhasearnedthecontemptofmanyWebusers.Onlineculturethinkshighlyofthenotionthattheinformationflowingontothescreencomestherebyspecificrequest.Oncecommercialpromotionbeginstofillthescreenuninvited,thedistinctionbetweentheWebandtelevisionfades.ThatsaprospectthathorrifiesNetpurists.ButitishardlyinevitablethatcompaniesontheWebwillneedtoresorttopushstrategiestomakemoney.TheexamplesofVirtualVineyards,Amazon.com,andotherpioneersshowthataWebsitesellingtherightkindofproductswiththerightmixofinteractivity,hospitality,andsecuritywillattractonlinecustomers.Andthecostofcomputingpowercontinuestofreefall,whichisagoodsignforanyenterprisesettingupshopinsilicon.Peoplelookingback5or10yearsfromnowmaywellwonderwhysofewcompaniestooktheonlineplunge.Passage3Aninvisibleborderdividesthosearguingforcomputersintheclassroomonthebehalfofstudentscareerprospectsandthosearguingforcomputersintheclassroomforbroaderreasonsofradicaleducationalreform.Veryfewwritersonthesubjecthaveexploredthisdistinctionindeed,contradictionwhichgoestotheheartofwhatiswrongwiththecampaigntoputcomputersintheclassroom.Aneducationthataimsatgettingastudentacertainkindofjobisatechnicaleducation,justifiedforreasonsradicallydifferentfromwhyeducationisuniversallyrequiredbylaw.Itisnotsimplytoraiseeveryonesjobprospectsthatallchildrenarelegallyrequiredtoattendschoolintotheirteens.Rather,wehaveacertainconceptionoftheAmericancitizen,acharacterwhoisincompleteifhecannotcompetentlyassesshowhislivelihoodandhappinessareaffectedbythingsoutsideofhimself.Butthiswasnotalwaysthecasebeforeitwaslegallyrequiredforallchildrentoattendschooluntilacertainage,itwaswidelyacceptedthatsomewerejustnotequippedbynaturetopursuethiskindofeducation.Withoptimismcharacteristicofallindustrializedcountries,wecametoacceptthateveryoneisfittobeeducated.Computereducationadvocatesforsakethisoptimisticnotionforapessimismthatbetraystheirotherwisecheeryoutlook.Bankingontheconfusionbetweeneducationalandvocationalreasonsforbringingcomputersintoschools,computeredadvocatesoftenemphasizethejobprospectsofgraduatesovertheireducationalachievement.Therearesomegoodargumentsforatechnicaleducationgiventherightkindofstudent.ManyEuropeanschoolsintroducetheconceptofprofessionaltrainingearlyoninordertomakesurechildrenareproperlyequippedfortheprofessionstheywanttojoin.Itis,however,presumptuoustoinsistthattherewillonlybesomanyjobsforsomanyscientists,somanybusinessmen,somanyaccountants.Besides,thisisunlikelytoproducetheneedednumberofeverykindofprofessionalinacountryaslargeasoursandwheretheeconomyisspreadoversomanystatesandinvolvessomanyinternationalcorporations.But,forasmallgroupofstudents,professionaltrainingmightbethewaytogosincewelldevelopedskills,allotherfactorsbeingequal,canbethedifferencebetweenhavingajobandnot.Ofcourse,thebasicsofusinganycomputerthesedaysareverysimple.Itdoesnottakealifelongacquaintancetopickupvarioussoftwareprograms.Ifonewantedtobecomeacomputerengineer,thatis,ofcourse,anentirelydifferentstory.Basiccomputerskillstakeattheverylongestacoupleofmonthstolearn.Inanycase,basiccomputerskillsareonlycomplementarytothehostofrealskillsthatarenecessarytobecominganykindofprofessional.Itshouldbeobserved,ofcourse,thatnoschool,vocationalornot,ishelpedbyaconfusionoveritspurpose.Passage4WhenaScottishresearchteamstartledtheworldbyrevealing3monthsagothatithadclonedanadultsheep,PresidentClintonmovedswiftly.Declaringthathewasopposedtousingthisunusualanimalhusbandrytechniquetoclonehumans,heorderedthatfederalfundsnotbeusedforsuchanexperimentalthoughnoonehadproposedtodosoandaskedanindependentpanelofexpertschairedbyPrincetonPresidentHaroldShapirotoreportbacktotheWhiteHousein90dayswithrecommendationsforanationalpolicyonhumancloning.ThatgrouptheNationalBioethicsAdvisoryCommissionNBAChasbeenworkingfeverishlytoputitswisdomonpaper,andatameetingon17May,membersagreedonanearfinaldraftoftheirrecommendations.NBACwillaskthatClintons90daybanonfederalfundsforhumancloningbeextendedindefinitely,andpossiblythatitbemadelaw.ButNBACmembersareplanningtowordtherecommendationnarrowlytoavoidnewrestrictionsonresearchthatinvolvesthecloningofhumanDNAorcellsroutineinmolecularbiology.Thepanelhasnotyetreachedagreementonacrucialquestion,however,whethertorecommendlegislationthatwouldmakeitacrimeforprivatefundingtobeusedforhumancloning.Inadraftprefacetotherecommendations,discussedatthe17Maymeeting,Shapirosuggestedthatthepanelhadfoundabroadconsensusthatitwouldbemorallyunacceptabletoattempttocreateahumanchildbyadultnuclearcloning.Shapiroexplainedduringthemeetingthat
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