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112012年专八阅读理解PARTIIREADINGCOMPREHENSION30MINInthissectiontherearefourreadingpassagesfollowedbyatotalof20multiplechoicequestions.ReadthepassagesandthenmarkthebestanswertoeachquestiononANSWERSHEETTWO.TEXTAIusedtolookatmyclosetandseeclothes.Thesedays,wheneverIcastmyeyesuponthestacksofshoesandhangersofshirts,sweatersandjackets,Iseewater.Ittakes569gallonstomanufactureaTshirt,fromitsstartinthecottonfieldstoitsappearanceonstoreshelves.Apairofrunningshoes1,247gallons.Untillastfall,Idbeenoblivioustomywaterfootprint,whichisdefinedasthetotalvolumeoffreshwaterthatisusedtoproducegoodsandservices,accordingtotheWaterFootprintNetwork.TheDutchnonprofithasbeenworkingtoraiseawarenessoffreshwaterscarcitysince2008,butitwasthroughtheGreenBlueBookbyThomasM.KostigenthatIwasabletoseehowmyownactionsfactoredin.Iveinstalledgraywatersystemstoreusethewastewaterfrommylaundry,machineandbathtubandrerouteittomylandscapesystemsthatsave,onaverage,50gallonsofwaterperday.Ivesetuprainbarrelsandinfiltrationpitstocollectthousandsofgallonsofstormwatercascadingfrommyroof.Iveevenenteredthelastbastionofgreendominstallingacompostingtoilet.Sufficetosay,IvebeenfeelingprettysatisfiedwithmyselfforallthedrinkingwaterIvesavedwiththesebigticketprojects.NowIrealizethatmydailyconsumptionchoicescouldhaveanevenlargereffect–notonlyonthelocalwatersupplybutalsoglobally1.1billionpeoplehavenoaccesstofreshwater,and,inthefuture,thosewhodohaveaccesswillhavelessofit.Toseehowmuchvirtualwater1wasusing,IloggedontotheGreenBlueBookwebsiteanduseditswaterfootprintcalculator,enteringmydailyconsumptionhabits.Tallyingupthewaterfootprintofmybreakfast,lunch,dinnerandsnacks,aswellasmydailydoseofoverthecounteruppersanddownerscoffee,wineandbeerImusing512gallonsofvirtualwatereachdayjusttofeedmyself.Inawordalarming.EvenmorealarmingwashowmuchhiddenwaterIwasusingtogetdressed.Imhardlyaclotheshorse,butthefewnewitemsIbuyonceagaintrumpedtheamountofwaterflowingfrommyfaucetseachday.IfImseriousaboutsavingwater,IrealizedIcouldmakesomesimplelifestyleshifts.Lookingmorecloselyattheareasinmylifethatusethemostvirtualwater,itwasfoodandclothes,specificallymeat,coffeeand,oddly,bluejeansandleatherjackets.Beingamotorcyclist,Iownanunusuallylargeamountofleatherbootsandjacketsinparticular.Allofitisenormouslywaterintensive.Ittakes7,996gallonstomakealeather.jacket,leatherbeingabyproductofbeef.Ittakes2,866gallonsofwatertomakeasinglepairofbluejeans,becausetheyremadefromwaterhoggingcotton.CrunchingthenumbersfortheamountofclothesIbuyeveryyear,itlooksalotlikemyfriendsswimmingpool.MyentireclosetisborderlineOlympic.Gulp.Mylateresolutionistobuysomeitemsused.Underwearandsocksare,ofcourse,exemptfromthisstrategy,but1havenoproblemshoppinglessandalsoshoppingatGoodwill.Infact,Idbeendoingthatforthepastyeartosavemoney.Myclothesoutrageouswaterfootprintjustreintbrceditforme.12Moreconsciouslivingandsubstitution,ratherthansacrifice,aretheprevailingideaswiththewaterfootprint.ItsoneImtrying,andthatshadanunusualupside.Ihadahamburgerrecently,andIenjoyeditalotmoresinceitisnowanoccasionaltreatratherthanaweeklyhabit.Onegallon3.8litres11.Accordingtothepassage,theWaterFootprintNetworkA.madetheauthorawareoffreshwatershortage.B.helpedtheauthorgettoknowtheGreenBlueBook.C.workedforfreshwaterconservationfornonprofitpurposes.D.collaboratedwiththeGreenBlueBookinfreshwaterconservation.12.WhichofthefollowingreasonscanbestexplaintheauthorsfeelingofselfsatisfactionA.Hemadecontributiontodrinkingwaterconservationinhisownway.B.Moneyspentonupgradinghishouseholdfacilitieswasworthwhile.C.Hishousewasequippedwithadvancedwatersavingfacilities.D.Hecouldhavemadeevengreatercontributionbychanginghislifestyle.13.Accordingtothecontext,...howmvownactionsfactoredinmeansA.howIcouldcontributetowaterconservation.B.whateffortsIshouldmaketosavefreshwater.C.whatbehaviourcouldbecountedasfreshwatersaving.D.howmuchofwhatIdidcontributedtofreshwatershortage.14.Accordingtothepassage,theauthorwasmorealarmedbythefactthatA.hewashavingmoremeatandcoffee.B.hisclothesusedevenmorevirtualwater.C.globallytherewillbelessfreshwater.D.hislifestylewastooextravagant.15.MyentireclosetisborderlineOlympicisanexampleofA.exaggeration.B.analogy.C.understatement.D.euphemism.16.WhatisthetoneoftheauthorinthelastparagraphA.Sarcastic.B.Ironic.C.Critical.D.Humorous.DTEXTBInhernovelofReunion,AmericanStyle,RonaJaffesuggeststhataclassreunionismorethanasentimentaljourney.Itisalsoawayofansweringthequestionthatliesatthebackofnearlyallourminds.DidtheydobetterthanIJaffesobservationmaybemisplacedbutnotcompletelylost.AccordingtoastudyconductedbysocialpsychologistJackSparacino,theoverwhelmingmajoritywhoattendreunionsarentthereinvidiouslytocomparetheirrecentaccomplishmentswiththoseoftheirformerclassmates.Instead,theyhope,primarily,torelivetheirearliersuccesses.Certainly,afewreturntoshowtheirformerclassmateshowwelltheyhavedoneothersenjoyobservingthechangesthathaveoccurredintheirclassmatesnotalwaysinthemselves,ofcourse.Butthemajoritywhoattendtheirclassreunionsdosotorelivethegoodtimestheyrememberhavingwhentheywereyounger.Inhisstudy,Sparacinofoundthat,ashighschoolstudents,attendeeshad13beenmorepopular,moreoftenregardedasattractive,andmoreinvolvedinextracurricularactivitiesthanthoseclassmateswhochosenottoattend.Forthosewhoturnedupattheirreunions,then,theoldtimeswerealsothegoodtimesItwouldappearthatAmericanshaveaspecialfondnessforreunions,judgingbytheirprevalence.Majorleaguebaseballplayers,fraternitymembers,veteransgroups,highschoolandcollegegraduates,andformerBoyScoutsallholdreunionsonaregularbasis.Inaddition,familyreunionsfrequentlyattractbloodrelativesfromfarawayplaceswhospendconsiderablemoneyandtimetoreunite.Actually,intheiraffectionforreunitingwithfriends,familyorcolleagues,Americansareprobablynodifferentfromanyotherpeople,exceptthatAmericanshavecreatedamindbogglingnumberandvarietyofinstitutionalizedformsofgatheringstofacilitatethesatisfactionofthisdesire.Indeed,reunionshaveincreasinglybecomeformaleventsthatareorganizedonaregularbasisand,intheprocess,theyhavealsobecomebigbusiness.ShellNorrisofClassReunion,Inc.,saysthatChicagoalonehas1,500highschoolreunionseachyear.Aconservativeestimateonthenationallevelwouldbe10,000annually.Atonetime,allhighschoolreunionswereorganizedbyvolunteers,usuallyfemalehomemakers.Inthelastfewyears,however,asmoreandmorewomenhaveenteredthelabourforce,alumnireunionsareincreasinglybeingplannedbyspecializedcompaniesratherthanbyparttimevolunteers.ThefirstcollegereunionwasheldbythealumniofYaleUniversityin1792.GraduatesofPennsylvania,Princeton,Stanford,andBrownfollowedsuit.Andbytheendofthe19thcentury,most4yearinstitutionswereholdingalumnireunions.Thevarietyofcollegereunionsisimpressive.AtPrinceton,alumniparadethroughthetownwearingtheirclassuniformsandsingingtheiralmamater.AtMariettaCollege,theygatherforadinnerdanceonasteamshipcruisingtheOhioRiver.Clearly,thethoughtofcruisingonasteamshipormarchingthroughthestreetsisusuallynot,byitself,sufficientreasonforlargenumbersofalumnitoreturntocampus.Alumniwhodecidetoattendtheirreunionsshareacommonidentitybasedontheyearstheyspenttogetherasundergraduates.Forthisreason,universitiesthatsomehowestablishacommonbond–forexample,becausetheyarerelativelysmallorespeciallyprestigioustendtodrawsubstantialnumbersoftheiralumnitoreunions.Inanefforttoenhancethiscommonidentity,largercollegesanduniversitiesfrequentlybuildtheirclassreunionsonparticipationinsmallerunits,suchasdepartmentsorschools.Ortheyencourageaffinityreunionsforgroupsofformercheerleaders,editors,fraternitymembers,musicians,membersofmilitaryorganizationsoncampus,andthelike.Ofcourse,noteveryalumnusisfondofhisorheralmamater.Studentswhograduatedduringthelate1960smaybeespeciallyreluctanttogetinvolvedinalumnievents.Theywerepartofthegenerationthatconductedsitinsandteachinsdirectedatuniversityadministrators,protestedmilitaryrecruitmentoncampusandmarchedagainstestablishmentpolitics.Ifthisgenerationhasacommonidentity,itmayfalloutsideoftheiruniversitytiesorevenbehostiletothem.Evenastheyentertheirmiddleyears,alumniwhocontinuetoholdunpleasantmemoriesofcollegeduringthisperiodmaynotwishtoattendclassreunions.17.Accordingtothepassage,SparacinosstudyA.providedstrongevidenceforJaffesstatement.B.showedthatattendeestendedtoexcelinhighschoolstudy.C.foundthatinterestinreunionswaslinkedwithschoolexperience.D.foundevidenceforattendeesintensedesireforshowingoffsuccess.18.WhichofthefollowingisNOTmentionedasadistinctfeatureofU.S.classreunionsA.U.S.classreunionsareusuallyoccasionstoshowoffonesrecentsuccess.14B.Reunionsareregularandformaleventsorganizedbyprofessionalagencies.C.Classreunionshavebecomeaprofitablebusiness.D.Classreunionshavebroughtaboutavarietyofactivities.19.WhatmainlyattractsmanypeopletoreturntocampusforreunionA.Thevarietyofactivitiesforclassreunion.B.Thespecialstatustheiruniversityenjoys.C.Sharedexperiencebeyondthecampus.D.Sharedundergraduateexperienceoncampus.20.TherhetoricalfunctionofthefirstparagraphistoA.introduceRonaJeffesnovel.B.presenttheauthorscounterargument.C.serveaspreludetotheauthorsargument.D.bringintofocuscontrastingopinions.21.WhatisthepassagemainlyaboutA.Reasonsforpopularityandnonattendanceforalumnireunions.B.AhistoricalperspectiveforalumnireunionsintheUnitedStates.C.AlumnireunionsandAmericanuniversitytraditions.D.Alumnireunionanditssocialandeconomicimplications.TEXTCOnetimewhileonhiswalkGeorgemetMr.Cattanzaracominghomeverylatefromwork.Hewonderedifhewasdrunkbutthencouldtellhewasnt.Mr.Cattanzara,astocky,baldheadedmanwhoworkedinachangeboothonanIRTstation,livedonthenextblockafterGeorges,aboveashoerepairstore.Nights,duringthehotweather,hesatonhisstoopinanundershirt,readingtheNewYorkTimesinthelightoftheshoemakerswindow.Hereaditfromthefirstpagetothelast,thenwentuptosleep.Andallthetimehewasreadingthepaper,hiswife,afatwomanwithawhiteface,leanedoutofthewindow,gazingintothestreet,herthickwhitearmsfoldedunderherloosebreast,onthewindowledge.OnceinawhileMr.Cattanzaracamehomedrunk,butitwasaquietdrunk.Henevermadeanytrouble,onlywalkedstifflyupthestreetandslowlyclimbedthestairsintothehall.Thoughdrunkhelookedthesameasalways,exceptforhistightwalk,thequietness,andthathiseyeswerewet.GeorgelikedMr.Cattanzarabecauseherememberedhimgivinghimnickelstobuylemonicewithwhenhewasasquirt.Mr.Cattanzarawasadifferenttypethanthoseintheneighbourhood.Heaskeddifferentquestionsthantheotherswhenhemetyou,andheseemedtoknowwhatwentoninallthenewspapers.Hereadthem,ashisfatsickwifewatchedfromthewindow.Whatareyoudoingwithyourselfthissummer,GeorgeMr.Cattanzaraasked.lseeyouwalkinaroundatnight.Georgefeltembarrassed.Iliketowalk.WhatareyoudoininthedaynowNothingmuchjustnow.Imwaitingforajob.Sinceitshamedhimtoadmitthathewasntworking,Georgesaid,Imreadingalottopickupmyeducation.WhatareyoureadinGeorgehesitated,thensaid,IgotalistofbooksinthelibraryonceandnowImgonnareadthemthissummer.Hefeltstrangeandalittleunhappysayingthis,buthewantedMr.Cattanzaratorespecthim.HowmanybooksarethereonitInevercountedthem.Maybearoundahundred.15Mr.Cattanzarawhistledthroughhisteeth.Ifigureifldidthat,Georgewentonearnestly,itwouldhelpmeinmyeducation.1dontmeanthekindtheygiveyouinhighschool.Iwanttoknowdifferentthingsthantheylearnthere,ifyouknowwhatImean.Thechangemakernodded.Stillandall,onehundredbooksisaprettybigloadforonesummer.Itmighttakelonger.Afteryourefinishedwithsome,maybeyouandIcanshootthebreezeaboutthemsaidMr.Cattanzara.WhenImfinished,Georgeanswered.Mr.CattanzarawenthomeandGeorgecontinuedonhiswalk.Afterthat,thoughhehadtheurgeto,Georgedidnothingdifferentfromusual.Hestilltookhiswalksatnight,endingupinthelittlepark.ButoneeveningtheshoemakeronthenextblockstoppedGeorgetosayhewasagoodboy,andGeorgefiguredthatMr.Cattanzarahadtoldhimallaboutthebookshewasreading.Fromtheshoemakeritmusthavegonedownthestreet,becauseGeorgesawacoupleofpeoplesmilingkindlyathim,thoughnobodyspoketohimpersonally.Hefeltalittlebetteraroundtheneighbourhoodandlikeditmore,thoughnotsomuchhewouldwanttoliveinitforever.Hehadneverexactlydislikedthepeopleinit,yethehadneverlikedthemverymucheither.Itwasthefaultoftheneighbourhood.Tohissurprise,GeorgefoundoutthathisfatherandhissisterSophieknewabouthisreadingtoo.HisfatherwastooshytosayanythingaboutithewasnevermuchofatalkerinhiswholelifebutSophiewassoftertoGeorge,andsheshowedhiminotherwaysshewasproudofhim.22.Intheexcerpt,Mr.CattanzarawasdescribedasamanwhoA.wasfondofdrinking.B.showedawideinterest.C.oftenworkedovertime.D.likedtogossipafterwork.23.ItcanbeinferredfromthepassagethatA.Mr.CattanzarawassurprisedatGeorgesreadingplan.B.Mr.CannazarawasdoubtfulaboutGeorgethroughout.C.Georgewasforcedtotellalieandthenregretted.D.Georgeliedatthebeginningandthenbecameserious.24.AfterthestreetconversationwithMr.Cattanzara,GeorgeA.remainedthesameasusual.B.becamemorefriendlywithMr.Cattanzara.C.begantolikehisneighboursmorethanever.D.continuedtoreadthebooksfromthelist.25.WecantellfromtheexcerptthatGeorgeA.hadaneitherclosenordistantrelationshipwithhisfather.B.wasdissatisfiedwithhislifeandsurroundings.C.foundthathissisterremainedskepticalabouthim.D.foundhisneighbourslikedtopoketheirnoseintohim.TEXTDAbrahamLincolnturns200thisyear,andhesbeginningtoshowhisage.Whenhisbirthdayarrives,onFebruary12,CongresswillholdaspecialjointsessionintheCapitolsNationalStatuaryHall,awreathwillbelaidatthegreatmemorialinWashington,andawebcastwilllinkschoolclassroomsforateachinhonouringhismemory.Admirableastheyare,though,theeventswillstrikemanyofusLincolnfansasinadequate,evenhalfheartedandanothersignthatourappreciationforthe16thpresidentandhistowering16achievementsisslippingaway.AndyoudonthavetobeaLincolnenthusiasttobelievethatthisissomethingwecantaffordtolose.ComparethisyearscelebrationwiththeLincolncentennial,in1909.Thatyear,Lincolnslikenessmadeitsdebutonthepenny,thankstoapprovalfromtheU.S.SecretaryoftheTreasury.Communitiesandcivicassociationsineverycomerofthecountryeruptedinparades,concerts,balls,lectures,andmilitarydisplays.WestillfeeltheeffectstodayThemomentumunloosedin1909ledtotheLincolnMemorial,openedin1922,andtheLincolnHighway,thefirstpavedtranscontinentalthoroughfare.Thecelebrantsin1909hadafewinspirationswelacktoday.LincolnspresidencywasstillalivingmemoryforcountlessAmericans.In2009wearefartherintimefromtheendoftheSecondWorldWarthantheywerefromtheCivilWarfamiliesstillfeltthelossoflovedonesfromthatawfulnationaltrauma.ButAmericansin1909hadsomethingmoreanunembarrassedappreciationforheroesandanacutesenseofthewaythatevenlongdeadhistoricalfigurespressinonthepresentandmakeuswhoweare.Onestorywillillustratewhatlmtalkingabout.In2003agroupoflocalcitizensarrangedtoplaceastatueofLincolninRichmond,Virginia,formercapitaloftheConfederacy.Theideatouchedoffafirestormofcontroversy.TheSonsofConfederateVeteransheldapublicconferenceofcarefullyselectedscholarstoreassessthelegacyofLincoln.TheverdictnosurprisewasnegativeLincolnwaslabeledeverythingfromaracisttotalitariantoatellerofdirtyjokes.Icoveredtheconferenceasareporter,butwhatreallyunnervedmewasacounterconferenceofscholarstorefutetheearlierone.ThesescholarsdrewapictureofLincolnthatonlyourtouchyfeelyagecouldconjureup.Themanwhooversawthemostsavagewarinourhistorywasdescribedbyhisadmirers,rememberasnonjudgmental,unmoralistic,comfortablewithambiguity.IfeltthewayafriendofminefeltaswelaterwatchedtheunveilingoftheRichmondstatueinasubduedceremonyButhessosmallThestatueinRichmondwasindeedsmalllikenearlyeveryLincolnstatueputupinthepasthalfcentury,itwaslifesizeandwasplacedatgroundlevel,aconsciousrejectionoftheheroicapproachableandhuman,yes,butnotsomethingtolookupto.TheRichmondepisodetaughtmethatAmericanshavelostthelanguagetoexplainLincolnsgreatnesseventoourselves.EarliergenerationssaidtheywantedtheirchildrentobelikeLincolnprincipled,kind,compassionate,resolute.TodaywewantLincolntobelikeus.ThishelpstoexplainthelongstringofrecentbooksinwhichwritershavepresentedaLincolnmadeaftertheirownimage.WevehadLincolnashumoristandLincolnasmanicdepressive,Lincolnthebusinesssage,theconservativeLincolnandtheliberalLincoln,theemancipatorandtheracist,thestoicphilosopher,theChristian,theatheistLincolnovereasyandLincolnscrambled.Whatsoftenmissing,,though,i,sthetimelessLincoln,theLincolnwhomallgenerations,ourownnolessthanthatof1909,canlayclaimto.Luckyforus,thosememorializersfromacenturyagoand,throughthem,Lincolnhimselfhaveleftusahin,tofwheretofindhim.TheLincolnMemorialisthemos,,tvisitedofourpresidentialmonuments.HereiswherewefindtheLincolnwhoenduresinthewordsheleftus,definingthecountryweveinherited.HereistheLincolnwhocanbeendlesslyrenewedandwho,200yearsafterhisbirth,retainsthepowertorenewus.26.TheauthorthinksthatthisyearscelebrationisinadequateandevenhalfheartedbecauseA.noLincolnstatuewillbeunveiled.B.nomemorialcoinswillbeissued.C.nosimilarappreciationofLincolnwillbeseen.17D.noactivitiescanbecomparedtothosein1909.27.Accordingtothepassage,whatreallymakesthe1909celebrationsdifferentfromthisyearsA.Respectforgreatpeopleandtheirinfluence.B.Varietyandmagnitudeofcelebrationactivities.C.StructuresconstructedinmemoryofLincoln.D.TemporalproximitytoLincolnspresidency.28.Intheauthorsopinion,thecounterconferenceA.rectifiedthejudgmentbythosecarefullyselectedscholars.B.offeredabrandnewreassessmentperspective.C.cameupwithsomewhatfavourableconclusions.D.resultedinsimilardisparagingremarksonLincoln.29.Accordingtotheauthor,theimageofLincolnconceivedbycontemporarypeopleA.conformstotraditionalimages.B.reflectsthepresentdaytendencyofworship.C.showsthepresentdaydesiretoemulateLincoln.D.revealsthevarietyofcurrentopinionsonheroes.30.WhichofthefollowingbestexplainstheimplicationofthelastparagraphA.Lincolnsgreatnessremainsdespitethepassageoftime.B.Thememorialissymbolicofthegreatmansachievements.C.EachgenerationhasitowninterpretationofLincoln.D.PeoplegettoknowLincolnthroughmemorializers.阅读部分TEXTA11.C.workedforfreshwaterconservationfornonprofitpurposes.12.C.Hishousewasequippedwithadvancedwatersavingfacilities.13.A.howIcouldcontributetowaterconversation.14.D.hislifestylewastooextravagant.15.A.exaggeration.16.D.Humorous.TEXTB17.C.foundthatinterestinreunionswaslinkedwithschoolexperience.18.A.U.S.classreunionsareusuallyoccasionstoshowoffonesrecentsuccess.19.D.Sharedundergraduateexperienceoncampus.20.D.bringintofocuscontrastingopinions.21.A.Reasonsforpopularityandnonattendanceforalumnireunions.TEXTC22.B.showedawideinterest.23.A.Mr.CattanzarawassurprisedatGeorgesreadingplan.24.A.remainedthesameasusual.25.B.wasdissatisfiedwithhislifeandsurroundings.TEXTD26.D.noactivitiescanbecomparedtothosein1909.27.B.Varietyandmagnitudeofcelebrationactivities.28.D.resultedinsimilardisparagingremarksonLincoln.29.D.revealsthevarietyofcurrentopinionsonheroes.30.A.Lincolnsgreatnessremainsdespitethepassageoftime.182011年专八阅读理解IIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONInthissectiontherearefourreadingpassagesfollowedbyatotalof20multiplechoicequestions.ReadthepassagesandthenmarkthebestanswertoeachquestiononANSWERSHEETTWO.TEXTAWheneverwecould,JoanandItookrefugeinthestreetsofGibraltar.TheEnglishmanshomeishiscastlebecausehehasnotmuchchoice.ThereisnowheretositinthestreetsofEngland,noteven,aftertwilight,inthepublicgardens.Theclimate,veryoften,doesnotevenpermithimtowalkoutside.Naturally,hestaysindoorsandcreatesacocoonofcomfort.ThatwasthewaywelivedinLeeds.Thesesouthernpeople,ontheotherhand,lookoutwards.TheGibraltarianhomeis,typically,asmallandcrowdedapartmentupseveralflightsofdarkanddirtystairs.Init,one,twooreventhreeoldpeopleshareafewilllitroomswiththeyoungfamily.Oncehehaseaten,changedhisclothes,embracedhiswife,kissedhischildrenandhisparents,thereisnothingtokeepthesouthernmanathome.Hehurriesout,takingevenhisbreakfastcoffeeathislocalbar.Hecomeshomelateforhisafternoonmealafteranappetitivehourathiscafé.Hesleepsforanhour,dresses,goesoutagainandstaysoutuntillateatnight.Hiswifedoesnotmisshim,forsheisout,tooatthemarketinthemorningandintheafternoonsittingwithothermothers,babymindinginthesun.TheusualGibraltarianhomehasnosittingroom,livingroomorlounge.Theparlourofourworkingclasshouseswouldbeanintolerablewasteofspace.Easychairs,sofasandsuchlikefurnitureareunknown.Therearenobookshelves,becausetherearenobooks.Talkinganddrinking,aswellaseating,aredoneonhardchairsroundthediningtable,betweenasideboarddecoratedwiththebestglassesandaninevitabledisplaycabinetfulloffamilytreasures,photographsandsouvenirs.Theelaboratechandelieroverthistableproclaimsitasthehubofthehouseholdandofthefamily.HearthandhomemakesverylittlesenseinGibraltar.Oneshomeisonestownorvillage,andoneshearthisthesunshine.Ournortherntownsaredormitorieswithcubicles,bycomparison.Whenwecongregateinthechurchesitusedtobe,nowinthecinema,say,impersonally,oratpublicmeetings,formallywearescarcelyevermantoman.Onlyinourpubscanyoufindthetrulygregariousandcommunalspiritsurviving,andinEnglandeventhepubsaredividedalongclasslines.AlongthisMediterraneancoast,homeisonlyarefugeandaretreat.Thepeoplelivetogetherintheopenairinthestreet,marketplace.Downhere,thereisafarstrongerfeelingofcommunitythanwehadeverknown.IncrowdedandcircumscribedGibraltar,withitscomplicatedintermarriages,itsidentityofinterests,itssurvivingsenseofsiege,onecanseeandfeelanintegratedsociety.Toliveinatinytownwithalltheorganizationofastate,withViceroy总督,Premier,Parliament,PressandPentagon,allinminiature,allwithinarmsreach,isanintensivecourseincivics.Insuchanenvironment,nothingcanbehidden,forbetterorforworse.Onessuccessesareseenandrecognizedonesfailuresareimmediatelyexposed.Socialconsciousnessisatitsstrongest,withtheresultthatthereisaconstantandfirmpressuretowardsgoodsocialbehaviour,towardscourtesyandkindness.Gibraltar,withallitsfaults,isthefriendliestandmosttolerantofplaces.Straightfromthecynicalanonymityofabigcity,weluxuriatedinitshappypersonalism.Welookbackonit,likeallitsexiledsonsanddaughters,withtrueaffection.11.WhichofthefollowingbestexplainsthedifferencesinwaysoflivingbetweentheEnglishandtheGibraltarians19A.Thefamilystructure.B.Religiousbelief.C.Theclimate.D.Eatinghabit.参考答案ATIP选A。文章对英国人和直布罗陀的居民的不同生活方式进行描写,对比了两种迥异的社会习俗和社会结构。12.Theitalicizedpartinthethirdparagraphimpliesthat____________.A.EnglishworkingclasshomesaresimilartoGibraltarianonesB.EnglishworkingclasshomeshavespacioussittingroomsC.EnglishworkingclasshomeswastealotofspaceD.theEnglishworkingclassparlourisintolerableinGibraltar参考答案CTIP选C。斜体字部分的含义是英国工人阶级的会客厅对直布罗陀的居民来说是一种不能容忍的对空间的浪费。13.WelearnfromthedescriptionoftheGibraltarianhomethatitis_________.A.modernB.luxuriousC.starkD.simple参考答案DTIP选D。文章提到直布罗陀的居民家里没有安乐椅、沙发、书柜等类似的家具,因此很简朴。14.Thereisamuchstrongersenseof_______amongtheGibraltarians.A.togethernessB.survivalC.identityD.leisure参考答案ATIP选A。文章好几处的用词如congregate、gregarious、communalspirit等都体现了直布罗陀人彼此之间较亲密。15.AccordingtothepassagepeopleinGibraltartendtobewellbehavedbecauseofthefollowingEXCEPT_______.A.theentiretyofthestatestructureB.constantpressurefromthestateC.thesmallsizeofthetownD.transparencyofoccurrences参考答案B
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