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2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc -- 5 元

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12011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsAncientGreekphilosopherAristotleviewedlaughterasabodilyexerciseprecioustohealth.But_____someclaimstothecontrary,laughingprobablyhaslittleinfluenceonphysicalfilnessLaughterdoes_____shorttermchangesinthefunctionoftheheartanditsbloodvessels,____heartrateandoxygenconsumptionButbecausehardlaughterisdifficultto____,agoodlaughisunlikelytohave_____benefitstheway,say,walkingorjoggingdoes.____,insteadofstrainingmusclestobuildthem,asexercisedoes,laughterapparentlyaccomplishesthe____,studiesdatingbacktothe1930sindicatethatlaughter.muscles,Suchbodilyreactionmightconceivablyhelp____theeffectsofpsychologicalstress.Anyway,theactoflaughingprobablydoesproduceothertypesof______feedback,thatimproveanindividualsemotionalstate.______oneclassicaltheoryofemotion,ourfeelingsarepartiallyrooted_______physicalreactions.Itwasarguedattheendofthe19thcenturythathumansdonotcry______theyaresadbuttheybecomesadwhentetearsbegintoflow.Althoughsadnessalso_______tears,evidencesuggeststhatemotionscanflow_____muscularresponses.Inanexperimentpublishedin1988,socialpsychologistFritz.1.AamongBexceptCdespiteDlike2.AreflectBdemandCindicateDproduce3.AstabilizingBboostingCimpairingDdetermining24.AtransmitBsustainCevaluateDobserve5.AmeasurableBmanageableCaffordableDrenewable6.AInturnBInfactCInadditionDInbrief7.AoppositeBimpossibleCaverageDexpected8.AhardensBweakensCtightensDrelaxes9.AaggravateBgenerateCmoderateDenhance10.AphysicalBmentalCsubconsciousDinternal11.AExceptforBAccordingtoCDuetoDAsfor12.AwithBonCinDat13.AunlessBuntilCifDbecause14.AexhaustsBfollowsCprecedesDsuppresses15.AintoBfromCtowardsDbeyond16.AfetchBbiteCpickDhold17.AdisappointedBexcitedCjoyfulDindifferent18.AadaptedBcateredCturnedDreacted19.AsuggestingBrequiringCmentioningDsupposing20.AEventuallyBConsequentlyCSimilarlyDConverselySectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1ThedecisionoftheNewYorkPhilharmonictohireAlanGilbertasitsnextmusicdirectorhasbeenthetalkoftheclassicalmusicworldeversincethesuddenannouncementofhisappointmentin2009.For3themostpart,theresponsehasbeenfavorable,tosaytheleast.HoorayAtlastwroteAnthonyTommasini,asobersidedclassicalmusiccritic.Oneofthereasonswhytheappointmentcameassuchasurprise,however,isthatGilbertiscomparativelylittleknown.EvenTommasini,whohadadvocatedGilbertsappointmentintheTimes,callshimanunpretentiousmusicianwithnoairoftheformidableconductorabouthim.AsadescriptionofthenextmusicdirectorofanorchestrathathashithertobeenledbymusicianslikeGustavMahlerandPierreBoulez,thatseemslikelytohavestruckatleastsomeTimesreadersasfaintpraise.Formypart,IhavenoideawhetherGilbertisagreatconductororevenagoodone.Tobesure,heperformsanimpressivevarietyofinterestingcompositions,butitisnotnecessaryformetovisitAveryFisherHall,oranywhereelse,tohearinterestingorchestralmusic.AllIhavetodoistogotomyCDshelf,orbootupmycomputeranddownloadstillmorerecordedmusicfromiTunes.Devotedconcertgoerswhoreplythatrecordingsarenosubstituteforliveperformancearemissingthepoint.Forthetime,attention,andmoneyoftheartlovingpublic,classicalinstrumentalistsmustcompetenotonlywithoperahouses,dancetroupes,theatercompanies,andmuseums,butalsowiththerecordedperformancesofthegreatclassicalmusiciansofthe20thcentury.Thererecordingsarecheap,availableeverywhere,andveryoftenmuchhigherinartisticqualitythantodaysliveperformancesmoreover,theycanbeconsumedatatimeandplaceofthelistenerschoosing.Thewidespreadavailabilityofsuchrecordingshasthusbroughtaboutacrisisintheinstitutionofthetraditionalclassicalconcert.Onepossibleresponseisforclassicalperformerstoprogramattractivenewmusicthatisnotyetavailableonrecord.Gilbertsown4interestinnewmusichasbeenwidelynotedAlexRoss,aclassicalmusiccritic,hasdescribedhimasamanwhoiscapableofturningthePhilharmonicintoamarkedlydifferent,morevibrantorganization.ButwhatwillbethenatureofthatdifferenceMerelyexpandingtheorchestrasrepertoirewillnotbeenough.IfGilbertandthePhilharmonicaretosucceed,theymustfirstchangetherelationshipbetweenAmericasoldestorchestraandthenewaudienceithopstoattract.21.WelearnfromPara.1thatGilbertsappointmenthasAincurredcriticism.Braisedsuspicion.Creceivedacclaim.Darousedcuriosity.22.TommasiniregardsGilbertasanartistwhoisAinfluential.Bmodest.Crespectable.Dtalented.23.TheauthorbelievesthatthedevotedconcertgoersAignoretheexpensesofliveperformances.Brejectmostkindsofrecordedperformances.Cexaggeratethevarietyofliveperformances.Doverestimatethevalueofliveperformances.24.Accordingtothetext,whichofthefollowingistrueofrecordingsATheyareofteninferiortoliveconcertsinquality.BTheyareeasilyaccessibletothegeneralpublic.CTheyhelpimprovethequalityofmusic.DTheyhaveonlycoveredmasterpieces.25.RegardingGilbertsroleinrevitalizingthePhilharmonic,theauthorfeelsAdoubtful.Benthusiastic.Cconfident.Dpuzzled.Text2WhenLiamMcGeedepartedaspresidentofBankofAmericain5August,hisexplanationwassurprisinglystraightup.Ratherthancloakinghisexitintheusualvagueexcuses,hecamerightoutandsaidhewasleavingtopursuemygoalofrunningacompany.Broadcastinghisambitionwasverymuchmydecision,McGeesays.Withintwoweeks,hewastalkingforthefirsttimewiththeboardofHartfordFinancialServicesGroup,whichnamedhimCEOandchairmanonSeptember29.McGeesaysleavingwithoutapositionlinedupgavehimtimetoreflectonwhatkindofcompanyhewantedtorun.Italsosentaclearmessagetotheoutsideworldabouthisaspirations.AndMcGeeisntalone.InrecentweekstheNo.2executivesatAvonandAmericanExpressquitwiththeexplanationthattheywerelookingforaCEOpost.Asboardsscrutinizesuccessionplansinresponsetoshareholderpressure,executiveswhodontgetthenodalsomaywishtomoveon.Aturbulentbusinessenvironmentalsohasseniormanagerscautiousoflettingvaguepronouncementscloudtheirreputations.Asthefirstsignsofrecoverybegintotakehold,deputychiefsmaybemorewillingtomakethejumpwithoutanet.Inthethirdquarter,CEOturnoverwasdown23fromayearagoasnervousboardsstuckwiththeleaderstheyhad,accordingtoLiberumResearch.Astheeconomypicksup,opportunitieswillaboundforaspiringleaders.Thedecisiontoquitaseniorpositiontolookforabetteroneisunconventional.ForyearsexecutivesandheadhuntershaveadheredtotherulethatthemostattractiveCEOcandidatesaretheoneswhomustbepoached.SaysKorn/FerryseniorpartnerDennisCareyIcantthinkofasinglesearchIvedonewhereaboardhasnotinstructedmetolookatsittingCEOsfirst.Thosewhojumpedwithoutajobhaventalwayslandedintoppositionsquickly.EllenMarramquitaschiefofTropicanaadecadeage,sayingshewantedtobeaCEO.Itwasayearbeforeshebecamehead6ofatinyInternetbasedcommoditiesexchange.RobertWillumstadleftCitigroupin2005withambitionstobeaCEO.Hefinallytookthatpostatamajorfinancialinstitutionthreeyearslater.Manyrecruiterssaytheolddisgraceisfadingfortopperformers.Thefinancialcrisishasmadeitmoreacceptabletobebetweenjobsortoleaveabadone.Thetraditionalrulewasitssafertostaywhereyouare,butthatsbeenfundamentallyinverted,saysoneheadhunter.Thepeoplewhovebeenhurttheworstarethosewhovestayedtoolong.26.WhenMcGeeannouncedhisdeparture,hismannercanbestbedescribedasbeingAarrogant.Bfrank.Cselfcentered.Dimpulsive.27.AccordingtoParagraph2,seniorexecutivesquittingmaybespurredbyAtheirexpectationofbetterfinancialstatus.Btheirneedtoreflectontheirprivatelife.Ctheirstrainedrelationswiththeboards.Dtheirpursuitofnewcareergoals.28.ThewordpoachedLine3,Paragraph4mostprobablymeansAapprovedof.Battendedto.Chuntedfor.Dguardedagainst.29.ItcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatAtopperformersusedtoclingtotheirposts.Bloyaltyoftopperformersisgettingoutdated.Ctopperformerscaremoreaboutreputations.Ditssafertosticktothetraditionalrules.30.WhichofthefollowingisthebesttitleforthetextACEOsWheretoGoBCEOsAlltheWayUpCTopManagersJumpwithoutaNetDTheOnlyWayOutfor7TopPerformersText3Theroughguidetomarketingsuccessusedtobethatyougotwhatyoupaidfor.Nolonger.Whiletraditionalpaidmedia–suchastelevisioncommercialsandprintadvertisements–stillplayamajorrole,companiestodaycanexploitmanyalternativeformsofmedia.ConsumerspassionateaboutaproductmaycreateownedmediabysendingemailalertsaboutproductsandsalestocustomersregisteredwithitsWebsite.Thewayconsumersnowapproachthebroadrangeoffactorsbeyondconventionalpaidmedia.Paidandownedmediaarecontrolledbymarketerspromotingtheirownproducts.Forearnedmedia,suchmarketersactastheinitiatorforusersresponses.Butinsomecases,onemarketersownedmediabecomeanothermarketerspaidmedia–forinstance,whenanecommerceretailersellsadspaceonitsWebsite.Wedefinesuchsoldmediaasownedmediawhosetrafficissostrongthatotherorganizationsplacetheircontentorecommerceengineswithinthatenvironment.Thistrend,whichwebelieveisstillinitsinfancy,effectivelybeganwithretailersandtravelproviderssuchasairlinesandhotelsandwillnodoubtgofurther.JohnsonJohnson,forexample,hascreatedBabyCenter,astandalonemediapropertythatpromotescomplementaryandevencompetitiveproducts.Besidesgeneratingincome,thepresenceofothermarketersmakesthesiteseemobjective,givescompaniesopportunitiestolearnvaluableinformationabouttheappealofothercompaniesmarketing,andmayhelpexpandusertrafficforallcompaniesconcerned.Thesamedramatictechnologicalchangesthathaveprovidedmarketerswithmoreandmorediversecommunicationschoiceshavealsoincreasedtheriskthatpassionateconsumerswillvoicetheiropinionsinquicker,morevisible,andmuchmoredamagingways.8Suchhijackedmediaaretheoppositeofearnedmediaanassetorcampaignbecomeshostagetoconsumers,otherstakeholders,oractivistswhomakenegativeallegationsaboutabrandorproduct.Membersofsocialnetworks,forinstance,arelearningthattheycanhijackmediatoapplypressureonthebusinessesthatoriginallycreatedthem.Ifthathappens,passionateconsumerswouldtrytopersuadeotherstoboycottproducts,puttingthereputationofthetargetcompanyatrisk.Insuchacase,thecompanysresponsemaynotbesufficientlyquickorthoughtful,andthelearningcurvehasbeensteep.ToyotaMotor,forexample,alleviatedsomeofthedamagefromitsrecallcrisisearlierthisyearwitharelativelyquickandwellorchestratedsocialmediaresponsecampaign,whichincludedeffortstoengagewithconsumersdirectlyonsitessuchasTwitterandthesocialnewssiteDigg.31.ConsumersmaycreateearnedmediawhentheyareAobscssedwithonlineshoppingatcertainWebsites.Binspiredbyproductpromotingemailssenttothem.Ceagertohelptheirfriendspromotequalityproducts.Denthusiasticaboutrecommendingtheirfavoriteproducts.32.AccordingtoParagraph2,soldmediafeatureAasafebusinessenvironment.Brandomcompetition.Cstrongusertraffic.Dflexibilityinorganization.33.TheauthorindicatesinParagraph3thatearnedmediaAinviteconstantconflictswithpassionateconsumers.Bcanbeusedtoproducenegativeeffectsinmarketing.Cmayberesponsibleforfiercercompetition.Ddeserveallthenegativecommentsaboutthem.934.ToyotaMotorsexperienceiscitedasanexampleofArespondingeffectivelytohijackedmedia.Bpersuadingcustomersintoboycottingproducts.Ccooperatingwithsupportiveconsumers.Dtakingadvantageofhijackedmedia.35.WhichofthefollowingisthetextmainlyaboutAAlternativestoconventionalpaidmedia.BConflictbetweenhijackedandearnedmedia.CDominanceofhijackedmedia.DPopularityofownedmedia.Text4ItsnosurprisethatJenniferSeniorsinsightful,provocativemagazinecoverstory,IloveMyChildren,IHateMyLife,isarousingmuchchatter–nothinggetspeopletalkinglikethesuggestionthatchildrearingisanythinglessthanacompletelyfulfilling,lifeenrichingexperience.Ratherthanconcludingthatchildrenmakeparentseitherhappyormiserable,Seniorsuggestsweneedtoredefinehappinessinsteadofthinkingofitassomethingthatcanbemeasuredbymomenttomomentjoy,weshouldconsiderbeinghappyasapasttensecondition.Eventhoughthedaytodayexperienceofraisingkidscanbesoulcrushinglyhard,Seniorwritesthattheverythingsthatinthemomentdampenourmoodscanlaterbesourcesofintensegratificationanddelight.ThemagazinecovershowinganattractivemotherholdingacutebabyishardlytheonlyMadonnaandchildimageonnewsstandsthisweek.Therearealsostoriesaboutnewlyadoptive–andnewlysingle–momSandraBullock,aswellastheusualJenniferAnistonispregnantnews.Practicallyeveryweekfeaturesatleastonecelebritymom,ormomtobe,smilingonthenewsstands.Inasocietythatsopersistentlycelebratesprocreation,isitany
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