2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc

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12011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题SECTIONIUSEOFENGLISHDIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGTEXTCHOOSETHEBESTWORDSFOREACHNUMBEREDBLANKANDMARKA,B,CORDONANSWERSHEET110POINTSANCIENTGREEKPHILOSOPHERARISTOTLEVIEWEDLAUGHTERAS“ABODILYEXERCISEPRECIOUSTOHEALTH”BUT_____SOMECLAIMSTOTHECONTRARY,LAUGHINGPROBABLYHASLITTLEINFLUENCEONPHYSICALFILNESSLAUGHTERDOES_____SHORTTERMCHANGESINTHEFUNCTIONOFTHEHEARTANDITSBLOODVESSELS,____HEARTRATEANDOXYGENCONSUMPTIONBUTBECAUSEHARDLAUGHTERISDIFFICULTTO____,AGOODLAUGHISUNLIKELYTOHAVE_____BENEFITSTHEWAY,SAY,WALKINGORJOGGINGDOES____,INSTEADOFSTRAININGMUSCLESTOBUILDTHEM,ASEXERCISEDOES,LAUGHTERAPPARENTLYACCOMPLISHESTHE____,STUDIESDATINGBACKTOTHE1930’SINDICATETHATLAUGHTERMUSCLES,SUCHBODILYREACTIONMIGHTCONCEIVABLYHELP____THEEFFECTSOFPSYCHOLOGICALSTRESSANYWAY,THEACTOFLAUGHINGPROBABLYDOESPRODUCEOTHERTYPESOF______FEEDBACK,THATIMPROVEANINDIVIDUAL’SEMOTIONALSTATE______ONECLASSICALTHEORYOFEMOTION,OURFEELINGSAREPARTIALLYROOTED_______PHYSICALREACTIONSITWASARGUEDATTHEENDOFTHE19THCENTURYTHATHUMANSDONOTCRY______THEYARESADBUTTHEYBECOMESADWHENTETEARSBEGINTOFLOWALTHOUGHSADNESSALSO_______TEARS,EVIDENCESUGGESTSTHATEMOTIONSCANFLOW_____MUSCULARRESPONSESINANEXPERIMENTPUBLISHEDIN1988,SOCIALPSYCHOLOGISTFRITZ1.AAMONGBEXCEPTCDESPITEDLIKE2.AREFLECTBDEMANDCINDICATEDPRODUCE3.ASTABILIZINGBBOOSTINGCIMPAIRINGDDETERMINING24.ATRANSMITBSUSTAINCEVALUATEDOBSERVE5.AMEASURABLEBMANAGEABLECAFFORDABLEDRENEWABLE6.AINTURNBINFACTCINADDITIONDINBRIEF7.AOPPOSITEBIMPOSSIBLECAVERAGEDEXPECTED8.AHARDENSBWEAKENSCTIGHTENSDRELAXES9.AAGGRAVATEBGENERATECMODERATEDENHANCE10.APHYSICALBMENTALCSUBCONSCIOUSDINTERNAL11.AEXCEPTFORBACCORDINGTOCDUETODASFOR12.AWITHBONCINDAT13.AUNLESSBUNTILCIFDBECAUSE14.AEXHAUSTSBFOLLOWSCPRECEDESDSUPPRESSES15.AINTOBFROMCTOWARDSDBEYOND16.AFETCHBBITECPICKDHOLD17.ADISAPPOINTEDBEXCITEDCJOYFULDINDIFFERENT18.AADAPTEDBCATEREDCTURNEDDREACTED19.ASUGGESTINGBREQUIRINGCMENTIONINGDSUPPOSING20.AEVENTUALLYBCONSEQUENTLYCSIMILARLYDCONVERSELYSECTIONIIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONPARTADIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGFOURTEXTSANSWERTHEQUESTIONSBELOWEACHTEXTBYCHOOSINGA,B,CORDMARKYOURANSWERSONANSWERSHEET140POINTSTEXT1THEDECISIONOFTHENEWYORKPHILHARMONICTOHIREALANGILBERTASITSNEXTMUSICDIRECTORHASBEENTHETALKOFTHECLASSICALMUSICWORLDEVERSINCETHESUDDENANNOUNCEMENTOFHISAPPOINTMENTIN2009FOR3THEMOSTPART,THERESPONSEHASBEENFAVORABLE,TOSAYTHELEAST“HOORAYATLAST”WROTEANTHONYTOMMASINI,ASOBERSIDEDCLASSICALMUSICCRITICONEOFTHEREASONSWHYTHEAPPOINTMENTCAMEASSUCHASURPRISE,HOWEVER,ISTHATGILBERTISCOMPARATIVELYLITTLEKNOWNEVENTOMMASINI,WHOHADADVOCATEDGILBERT’SAPPOINTMENTINTHETIMES,CALLSHIM“ANUNPRETENTIOUSMUSICIANWITHNOAIROFTHEFORMIDABLECONDUCTORABOUTHIM”ASADESCRIPTIONOFTHENEXTMUSICDIRECTOROFANORCHESTRATHATHASHITHERTOBEENLEDBYMUSICIANSLIKEGUSTAVMAHLERANDPIERREBOULEZ,THATSEEMSLIKELYTOHAVESTRUCKATLEASTSOMETIMESREADERSASFAINTPRAISEFORMYPART,IHAVENOIDEAWHETHERGILBERTISAGREATCONDUCTOROREVENAGOODONETOBESURE,HEPERFORMSANIMPRESSIVEVARIETYOFINTERESTINGCOMPOSITIONS,BUTITISNOTNECESSARYFORMETOVISITAVERYFISHERHALL,ORANYWHEREELSE,TOHEARINTERESTINGORCHESTRALMUSICALLIHAVETODOISTOGOTOMYCDSHELF,ORBOOTUPMYCOMPUTERANDDOWNLOADSTILLMORERECORDEDMUSICFROMITUNESDEVOTEDCONCERTGOERSWHOREPLYTHATRECORDINGSARENOSUBSTITUTEFORLIVEPERFORMANCEAREMISSINGTHEPOINTFORTHETIME,ATTENTION,ANDMONEYOFTHEARTLOVINGPUBLIC,CLASSICALINSTRUMENTALISTSMUSTCOMPETENOTONLYWITHOPERAHOUSES,DANCETROUPES,THEATERCOMPANIES,ANDMUSEUMS,BUTALSOWITHTHERECORDEDPERFORMANCESOFTHEGREATCLASSICALMUSICIANSOFTHE20THCENTURYTHERERECORDINGSARECHEAP,AVAILABLEEVERYWHERE,ANDVERYOFTENMUCHHIGHERINARTISTICQUALITYTHANTODAY’SLIVEPERFORMANCES;MOREOVER,THEYCANBE“CONSUMED”ATATIMEANDPLACEOFTHELISTENER’SCHOOSINGTHEWIDESPREADAVAILABILITYOFSUCHRECORDINGSHASTHUSBROUGHTABOUTACRISISINTHEINSTITUTIONOFTHETRADITIONALCLASSICALCONCERTONEPOSSIBLERESPONSEISFORCLASSICALPERFORMERSTOPROGRAMATTRACTIVENEWMUSICTHATISNOTYETAVAILABLEONRECORDGILBERT’SOWN4INTERESTINNEWMUSICHASBEENWIDELYNOTEDALEXROSS,ACLASSICALMUSICCRITIC,HASDESCRIBEDHIMASAMANWHOISCAPABLEOFTURNINGTHEPHILHARMONICINTO“AMARKEDLYDIFFERENT,MOREVIBRANTORGANIZATION”BUTWHATWILLBETHENATUREOFTHATDIFFERENCEMERELYEXPANDINGTHEORCHESTRA’SREPERTOIREWILLNOTBEENOUGHIFGILBERTANDTHEPHILHARMONICARETOSUCCEED,THEYMUSTFIRSTCHANGETHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENAMERICA’SOLDESTORCHESTRAANDTHENEWAUDIENCEITHOPSTOATTRACT21WELEARNFROMPARA1THATGILBERT’SAPPOINTMENTHASAINCURREDCRITICISMBRAISEDSUSPICIONCRECEIVEDACCLAIMDAROUSEDCURIOSITY22TOMMASINIREGARDSGILBERTASANARTISTWHOISAINFLUENTIALBMODESTCRESPECTABLEDTALENTED23THEAUTHORBELIEVESTHATTHEDEVOTEDCONCERTGOERSAIGNORETHEEXPENSESOFLIVEPERFORMANCESBREJECTMOSTKINDSOFRECORDEDPERFORMANCESCEXAGGERATETHEVARIETYOFLIVEPERFORMANCESDOVERESTIMATETHEVALUEOFLIVEPERFORMANCES24ACCORDINGTOTHETEXT,WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTRUEOFRECORDINGSATHEYAREOFTENINFERIORTOLIVECONCERTSINQUALITYBTHEYAREEASILYACCESSIBLETOTHEGENERALPUBLICCTHEYHELPIMPROVETHEQUALITYOFMUSICDTHEYHAVEONLYCOVEREDMASTERPIECES25REGARDINGGILBERT’SROLEINREVITALIZINGTHEPHILHARMONIC,THEAUTHORFEELSADOUBTFULBENTHUSIASTICCCONFIDENTDPUZZLEDTEXT2WHENLIAMMCGEEDEPARTEDASPRESIDENTOFBANKOFAMERICAIN5AUGUST,HISEXPLANATIO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