2012年职称英语理工类阅读理解新增文章(含练习解析及译文)可打印.doc.doc2012年职称英语理工类阅读理解新增文章(含练习解析及译文)可打印.doc.doc

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2012年职称英语理工类新增文章阅读理解(6篇)注1、表示A级文章;表示B即文章;其他为C级文章2、阅读理解3、2012年词汇部分与2011年未作任何变化第六篇MAKINGLIGHTOF1SLEEP第十九篇GRAPHENESSUPERSTRENGTH1第三+八篇LIFEFORMFOUNDONSATURNSTITAN第四十篇TEACHINGMATH,TEACHINGANXIETY第四+五篇TEACHINGMATH,TEACHINGANXIETY第四十六篇ANTSHAVEBIGIMPACTONENVIRONMENTASECOSYSTEMENGINEERS阅读理解第六篇MAKINGLIGHTOF1SLEEPALLWEHAVEACLOCKLOCATEDINSIDEOURBRAINSSIMILARTOYOURBEDSIDEALARMCLOCK,YOURINTERNALCLOCK2RUNSONA24HOURCYCLETHISCYCLE,CALLEDACIRCADIANRHYTHM,HELPSCONTROLWHENYOUWAKE,WHENYOUEATANDWHENYOUSLEEPSOMEWHEREAROUNDPUBERTY,SOMETHINGHAPPENSINTHETIMINGOFTHEBIOLOGICALCLOCKTHECLOCKPUSHESFORWARD,SOADOLESCENTSANDTEENAGERSAREUNABLETOFALLASLEEPASEARLYASTHEYUSEDTOWHENYOURMOTHERTELLSYOUITSTIMEFORBED,YOURBODYMAYBEPUSHINGYOUTOSTAYUP3FORSEVERALHOURSMOREANDTHELIGHTCOMINGFROMYOURCOMPUTERSCREENORTVCOULDBEPUSHINGYOUTOSTAYUPEVENLATERTHISSHIFT4ISNATURALFORTEENAGERSBUTSTAYINGUPVERYLATEANDSLEEPINGLATECANGETYOURBODYSCLOCKOUTOFSYNCWITHTHECYCLEOFLIGHTANDDARK5ITCANALSOMAKEITHARDTOGETOUTOFBEDINTHEMORNINGANDMAYBRINGOTHERPROBLEMS,TOOTEENAGERSAREPUTINAKINDOFAGRAYCLOUD6WHENTHEYDONTGETENOUGHSLEEP,SAYSMARYCARSKADON,ASLEEPRESEARCHERATBROWNUNIVERSITYINPROVIDENCE,RI7ITAFFECTSTHEIRMOODANDTHEIRABILITYTOTHINKANDLEARNBUTJUSTLIKEYOURALARMCLOCK,YOURINTERNALCLOCKCANBERESETINFACT,ITAUTOMATICALLYRESETSITSELFEVERYDAYHOWBYUSINGTHELIGHTITGETSTHROUGHYOUREYESSCIENTISTSHAVEKNOWNFORALONGTIMETHATTHELIGHTOFDAYANDTHEDARKOFNIGHTPLAYIMPORTANTROLESINSETTINGOURINTERNALCLOCKSFORYEARS,RESEARCHERSTHOUGHTTHATTHESIGNALSTHATSYNCHRONIZETHEBODYSCLOCK8WEREHANDLEDTHROUGHTHESAMEPATHWAYSTHATWEUSETOSEEBUTRECENTDISCOVERIESSHOWTHATTHEHUMANEYEHASTWOSEPARATELIGHTSENSINGSYSTEMSONESYSTEMALLOWSUSTOSEETHESECONDSYSTEMTELLSOURBODYWHETHERITSDAYORNIGHT词汇CIRCADIAN/S3KEIDIƏN/ADJ昼夜节奏的,生理节奏的ADOLESCENT/DƏULESƏNT/N.青少年;ADJ.青少年的PUBERTY/PJUBƏTI/N.发育;青春期SYNC/SIŊK/N(口语)同步;和谐,协调SYNCHRONIZE/SIŊKRƏNAIZ/V(使)同时发生;(使)同步注释1MAKELIGHTOF轻视,不在乎。例如WESHOULDNOTMAKELIGHTOFTHEIRACHIEVEMENTS.我们不应当低估他们的成就。2YOURINTERNALCLOCK指的是第一句中的ACLOCKLOCATEDINSIDEOURBRAINS,也即是第二段第一句中的THEBIOLOGICALCLOCK(生物钟)。3STAYUP不睡觉,熬夜4THISSHIFT这种调整。指上文所描述的由于生理时间的变化青少年上床时间越来越晚的现象。5GETYOURBODYSCLOCKOUTOFSYNCWITHTHECYCLEOFLIGHTANDDARK打乱了你的生物钟与昼夜时间循环之间的平衡6GRAYCLOUD提不起精神的状态7BROWNUNIVERSITYINPROVIDENCE,RI位于美国罗得岛州普罗维登斯的布朗大学。RI是RHODEISLAND(罗得岛)的首字母缩写;PROVIDENCE是罗得岛州的首府。布朗大学是美国一流大学,创建于1764年,是世界闻名的美国“常春藤联盟”(还包括哈佛大学、耶鲁大学、普林斯顿大学、布朗大学、哥伦比亚大学、宾夕法尼亚大学、达特茅斯大学和康奈尔大学)中的一员。8THESIGNALSTHATSYNCHRONIZETHEBODYSCLOCK平衡生物钟的光信号练习1THECLOCKLOCATEDINSIDEOURBRAINSISSIMILARTOOURBEDSIDEALARMCLOCKBECAUSEAITCONTROLSWHENWEWAKE,WHENWEEATANDWHENWESLEEPBITHASACYCLEOF24HOURSCITISACYCLEALSOCALLEDCIRCADIANRHYTHMDITCANALARMANYTIMEDURING24HOURS2WHATISIMPLIEDINTHESECONDPARAGRAPHAYOUNGCHILDRENSBIOLOGICALCLOCKHASTHESAMERHYTHMWITHTHATOFTHETEENAGERSBPEOPLEAFTERPUBERTYBEGINTOGOTOBEDEARLIERDUETOTHECHANGEOFTHEBIOLOGICALCLOCKCCHILDRENBEFOREPUBERTYTENDTOFALLASLEEPEARLIERATNIGHTTHANADOLESCENTSDTEENAGERSGOTOBEDLATERTHANTHEYUSEDTODUETOTHELIGHTFROMTHECOMPUTERSCREEN3INTHETHIRDPARAGRAPHTHEAUTHORWANTSTOTELLTHEREADERTHATAITISNATURALFORTEENAGERSTOSTAYUPLATEANDGETUPLATEBSTAYINGUPLATEHASABADEFFECTONTEENAGERSABILITYTOTHINKANDLEARNCDURINGPUBERTYMOSTTEENAGERSEXPERIENCEAKINDOFGRAYCLOUDDITISHARDFORTEENAGERSTOGETOUTOFBEDINTHEMORNING4WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSISNOTTRUEACCORDINGTOTHEFOURTHANDFIFTHPARAGRAPHSAOURBIOLOGICALCLOCKRESETSITSELFAUTOMATICALLYBLIGHTGETSTHROUGHOUREYESANDRESETSOURBIOLOGICALCLOCKCOURINTERNALCLOCKASWELLASTHEALARMCLOCKCANBERESETAUTOMATICALLYDOURINTERNALCLOCK,LIKETHEALARMCLOCK,CANBERESET5ACCORDINGTOTHELASTTWOPARAGRAPHS,WHATDIDTHEPREVIOUSRESEARCHERSTHINKABOUTTHEHUMANEYESLIGHTSENSINGSYSTEMATHEHUMANEYEHADTWOLIGHTSENSINGSYSTEMSBTHEHUMANEYEHADONELIGHTSENSINGSYSTEMCTHEHUMANEYECOULDSENSETHELIGHTOFDAYMOREQUICKLYTHANTHEDARKOFNIGHTDTHEHUMANEYECOULDRESETOURINTERNALCLOCKSINACCORDANCEWITHTHEALARMCLOCKS答案与题解1B第一段第二句提供了答案。句中的YOURINTERNALCLOCK即指ACLOCKLOCATEDINSIDEOURBRAINS。2C第二段主要内容是告诉读者,过了青春期(PUBERTY),由于生物钟节奏的变化,青少年(ADOLESCENTSANDTEENAGERS)比以前要晚睡几小时。所以C是该段所隐含的内容。3B第三段的最后一句直接给出了答案。4C根据第四和第五段的内容,闹钟和生物钟都可以重新设定时间,但生物钟能通过眼睛接受的日光来自动调节生理节奏。所以A、B和D都是这两段中所述内容,C是正确选择,因为闹钟不能自动重新设定时间。5B问题使用的是过去时,问的是研究者在最新发现(RECENTDISCOVERIES)之前对眼睛感光系统的认识,即,THESIGNALSTHATSYNCHRONIZETHEBODYSCLOCKWEREHANDLEDTHROUGHTHESAMEPATHWAYSTHATWEUSETOSEE(眼睛所接受到的平衡生物钟的光信号同样作用于人类的视觉系统),也就是说,研究者之前认为人类的眼睛只有一个感光系统。但最新发现却是,人的眼睛有两个感光系统。第十九篇GRAPHENESSUPERSTRENGTH1BIGTECHNOLOGYCOMESINTINYPACKAGESNEWCELLPHONESANDPERSONALCOMPUTERSGETSMALLEREVERYYEAR,WHICHMEANSTHESEELECTRONICSREQUIREEVENSMALLERCOMPONENTSONTHEINSIDEENGINEERSARELOOKINGFORCREATIVEWAYSTOBUILDTHESECOMPONENTS,ANDTHEYVETURNEDTHEIREYESTOGRAPHENE,ASUPERTHIN2MATERIAL,MADEOFCARBON,THATCOULDCHANGETHEFUTUREOFELECTRONICSTHISYEARSNOBELPRIZEFORPHYSICS3HASBEENAWARDEDTOANDREGEIMANDKOSTYANOVOSELOVFROMTHEUNIVERSITYOFMANCHESTER4,UKFORTHEDISCOVERYOFGRAPHENEGRAPHENEISNTJUSTSMALL,ITS“THETHINNESTPOSSIBLEMATERIALINTHISWORLD,”SAYSNOVOSELOVHECALLSITA“WONDERMATERIAL”ITSSOTHINTHATYOUWOULDNEEDTOSTACKABOUT25,000SHEETSJUSTTOMAKEAPILEASTHICKASAPIECEOFORDINARYWHITEPAPERIFYOUWERETOHOLDASHEETOFGRAPHENEINYOURFINGERS5,YOUDHAVENOIDEABECAUSEYOUWOULDNTBEABLETOSEEITCARBONISONEOFTHEMOSTABUNDANTELEMENTSINTHEUNIVERSEEVERYKNOWNKINDOFLIFECONTAINSCARBONGRAPHENEISASHEETOFCARBON,BUTONLYONEATOMTHICKYOUDONTHAVETOLOOKFARTOFINDGRAPHEMEITSALLAROUNDYOUIFYOUWANTTHISHIGHTECHWONDERSTUFF6,ALLYOUNEEDISAPENCIL,PAPERANDALITTLEADHESIVETAPEUSETHEPENCILTOSHADEASMALLAREAONTHEPAPER,ANDTHENAPPLYASMALLPIECEOFADHESIVETAPEOVERTHEAREA7WHENYOUPULLUPTHETAPE,YOULLSEETHATITPULLSUPATHINLAYEROFSOMEOFTHESHADINGFROMYOURPENCILTHATLAYERISCALLEDGRAPHITE,ONEOFTHESOFTESTMINERALSINTHEWORLDNOWSTICKTHESAMEPIECEOFTAPEONANOTHERSHEETOFPAPERANDPULLTHETAPEUPTHERESHOULDBEANEVENTHINNERLAYER,THISTIMELEFTONTHEPAPERNOWIMAGINETHATYOUDOTHISOVERANDOVER,UNTILYOUGETTHETHINNESTPOSSIBLELAYEROFMATERIALONTHEPAPERTHISLAYERWOULDBEONLYONEATOMTHICK,ANDYOUWOULDNTBEABLETOSEEITGRAPHITEISMADEOFLAYERSOFGRAPHENE,SOWHENYOUGETTOTHETHINNESTPOSSIBLELAYER,YOUVEFOUNDGRAPHENE词汇GRAPHENE/GRFIN/N.石墨烯ABUNDANT/Ə’BɅNDƏNT/ADJ.丰富的,充裕的ATOM/TƏM/N.原子ADHESIVE/ƏDHISIV/N.胶粘剂;ADJ黏着的STACK/STK/V.使成堆,堆放GRAPHITE/GRFAIT/N.石墨注释1SUPERSTRENGTH超强的力量。该词是一个合成词,由两部分组成,SUPER(超级的)和STRENGTH(力量)。2SUPERTHIN超薄。见注释1。3NOBELPRIZEFORPHYSICS诺贝尔物理学奖4THEUNIVERSITYOFMANCHESTER曼彻斯特大学。这是一所位于英国曼彻斯特市的公立研究型大学,创建于1851年。5IFYOUWERETOHOLDASHEETOFGRAPHENEINYOURFINGERS句子使用的是虚拟语气,因为不可能将几乎肉眼看不到的石墨烯放在指尖上。6WONDERSTUFF神奇物。该词为合成词,由WONDER(神奇)和STUFF(东西)两个词构成。WONDERSTUFF指的是第二段提到的WONDERMATERIAL。7APPLYASMALLPIECEOFADHESIVETAPEOVER将一小片胶带敷在上。练习1WHATWOULDCHANGETHEFUTUREOFELECTRONICSACCORDINGTOENGINEERSABIGTECHNOLOGYBCREATIVEWAYSCGRAPHENEDBOTHAANDB2ACCORDINGTOTHESECONDANDTHIRDPARAGRAPHS,WHATISTRUEOFGRAPHENEAITCANBEUSEDTOMAKEPAPERBITISPOSSIBLETOSEEITWITHOURNAKEDEYECITISEASYTOFINDGRAPHENEDITISPOSSIBLYTHETHICKESTMATERIALINTHEWORLD3WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGCANBEUSEDTOREPLACETHEWORD“APPLY”INPARAGRAPH4AREQUESTBPOLISHCUSEDPUT4WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISNOTMEANTINTHELASTTWOPARAGRAPHSAGRAPHENEISMADEOFGRAPHITE,ONEOFTHESOFTESTMATERIALSINTHEWORLDBGRAPHITEISMADEOFLAYERSOFGRAPHENE,THETHINNESTMATERIALINTHEWORLDCWHENWEGETTOTHETHINNESTPOSSIBLELAYEROFGRAPHITE,WEFINDGRAPHENEDWITHAPENCIL,ASHEETOFPAPERANDAPIECEOFADHESIVETAPE,WECANFINDGRAPHENE5GRAPHENESSUPERSTRENGTHLIESINTHEFACTTHATAITISTHETHINNESTMATERIALINTHEWORLDBITISMADEOFTHEMOSTABUNDANTELEMENTSINTHEWORLDCITCANHELPTOMAKEELECTRONICCOMPONENTSSMALLERDITHELPSENGINEERSTOPRODUCEMORESENSITIVEELECTRONICPRODUCTS答案与题解1C第一段最后一句提供了答案工程师将眼光投向石墨烯,一种由碳原子组成的超薄材料,这种材料能够改变电子产品的未来。2C第二段倒数第二句告诉我们,25,000层石墨烯才能堆砌成一张普通白纸的厚度,这是为了说明石墨烯是多么的薄,而不是说它可以用来造纸,所以A不是正确答案。第三段最后一句说明石墨烯就在我们周围,因此C是答案。B和D的表述内容都与该两段内容不符合。3DAPPLYOVER将涂(敷)在上。4A最后两段告诉我们,用一张纸,一支铅笔和一片胶带就能找到石墨烯;无数层石墨烯构成石墨,当铅笔留在纸上的石墨被胶带剥离到最薄一层时,我们就得到了石墨烯。因此只有A不是最后两段的表述内容。5C第一段提供了答案。随着电子产品越来越小,需要更小的电子组件(COMPONENTS,而石墨烯作为最薄的材料可以帮助工程师实现这一目标。这就是石墨烯力量所在。第三+八篇LIFEFORMFOUNDONSATURNSTITANSCIENTISTSSAYTHEYHAVEDISCOVEREDHINTSOFALIENLIFE1ONTHESATURNSMOON2THEDISCOVERYOFASORTOFLIFEWASANNOUNCEDAFTERRESEARCHERSATTHEUSSPACEAGENCY,NASA3,ANALYZEDDATAFROMSPACECRAFTCASSINI4,WHICHPOINTEDTO,THEEXISTENCEOFMETHANEBASEDFORMOFLIFEONSATURNSBIGGESTMOONSCIENTISTSHAVEREPORTEDLYDISCOVEREDCLUESSHOWINGPRIMITIVEALIENBEINGSAREBREATHINGINTITANSDENSEATMOSPHEREFILLEDWITHHYDROGENTHEYARGUETHATHYDROGENGETSABSORBEDBEFOREHITTINGTITANSPLANETLIKESURFACECOVEREDWITHMETHANELAKESANDRIVERSTHIS,THEYSAY,POINTSTOTHEEXISTENCEOFSOMEBUGS5CONSUMINGTHEHYDROGENATTHESURFACEOFTHEMOONLESSTHANHALFTHESIZEOFTHEEARTHWESUGGESTEDHYDROGENCONSUMPTIONBECAUSEITSTHEOBVIOUSGASFORLIFETOCONSUMEONTITAN,SIMILARTOTHEWAYWECONSUMEOXYGENONEARTH,SAYSNASASCIENTISTCHRISMCKAYIFTHESESIGNSDOTURNOUTTOBEASIGNOFLIFE,ITWOULDBEDOUBLYEXCITINGBECAUSEITWOULDREPRESENTASECONDFORMOFLIFEINDEPENDENTFROMWATERBASEDLIFEONEARTHTODATE,SCIENTISTSHAVENOTYETDETECTEDTHISFORMOFLIFEANYWHERE,THOUGHTHEREARELIQUIDWATERBASEDMICROORGANISMSONEARTHTHATGROWWELLONMETHANEORPRODUCEITASAWASTEPRODUCTONTITAN,WHERETEMPERATURESAREAROUND90KELVIN6MINUS290DEGREESFARENHEIT,AMETHANEBASEDORGANISMWOULDHAVETOUSEASUBSTANCETHATISLIQUIDASITSMEDIUMFORLIVINGPROCESSES,BUTNOTWATERITSELFWATERISFROZENSOLIDONTITANSSURFACEANDMUCHTOOCOLDTOSUPPORTLIFEASWEKNOWITSCIENTISTSHADEXPECTEDTHESUNSINTERACTIONSWITHCHEMICALSINTHEATMOSPHERETOPRODUCEACOATINGOFACETYLENEONTITANSSURFACEBUTCASSINIDETECTEDNOACETYLENEONTHESURFACETHEABSENCEOFDETECTABLEACETYLENEONTHETITANSSURFACECANVERYWELLHAVEANONBIOLOGICALEXPLANATION,SAIDMARKALLEN,APRINCIPALINVESTIGATOR7OFTHENASATITANTEAMSCIENTIFICCONSERVATISMSUGGESTSTHATABIOLOGICALEXPLANATIONSHOULDBETHELASTCHOICEAFTERALLNONBIOLOGICALEXPLANATIONSAREADDRESSED,ALLENSAIDWEHAVEALOTOFWORKTODOTORULEOUT8POSSIBLENONBIOLOGICALEXPLANATIONSITISMORELIKELYTHATACHEMICALPROCESS,WITHOUTBIOLOGY,CANEXPLAINTHESERESULTS词汇SATURN/STƏN/N.土星METHANE/MIΘEIN/N.甲烷,沼气TITAN/TAITƏN/N.土卫六ACETYLENE/ƏSETILIN/N.乙炔ALIEN/EILJƏN/N.外星人;ADJ.外星球的;相异的CONSERVATISM/KƏNSƷVƏTIZƏM/N.保守主义,守旧注释1HINTSOFALIENLIFE外星生命迹象。2THESATURNSMOON指土卫六(TITAN。土卫六又称泰坦星,是土星卫星中最大的一颗。3NASA美国国家航空航天局的缩写,全称是NATIONALAERONAUTICSANDSPACEADMINISTRATION。4SPACECRAFTCASSINI卡西尼号探测器,以出生于意大利的法国天文学家卡西尼的名字命名,其任务是环绕土星飞行,对土星及其大气、光环、卫星和磁场进行深人考察。1997年10月15日,重六吨的“卡西尼”号星际探测器被发射飞往土星的轨道。这是上世纪发射的最后一艘行星际探测的大飞船。“卡西尼”号用了将近七年时间,在2004年7月1日飞达土星轨道。5BUGS微生物。非正式口语表达,所以使用了引号。6KELVIN可翻译成“绝对温度”。KE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