2012职称英语综合B阅读理解.doc.doc2012职称英语综合B阅读理解.doc.doc

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第十九篇THEFAMILYTHESTRUCTUREOFAFAMILYTAKESDIFFERENTFORMSAROUNDTHEWORLDANDEVENINTHESAMESOCIETYTHEFAMILYSFORMCHANGESASITADAPTSTOCHANGINGSOCIALANDECONOMICINFLUENCESUNTILRECENTLY,THEMOSTCOMMONFORMINNORTHAMERICAWASTHENUCLEARFAMILY,CONSISTINGOFAMARRIEDCOUPLEWITHTHEIRMINORCHILDRENTHENUCLEARFAMILYISANINDEPENDENTUNITITMUSTBEPREPAREDTOFENDFORITSELFINDIVIDUALFAMILYMEMBERSSTRONGLYDEPENDONONEANOTHERTHEREISLITTLEHELPFROMOUTSIDETHEFAMILYINEMERGENCIESELDERLYRELATIVESOFANUCLEARFAMILYARECAREDFORONLYIFITISPOSSIBLEFORTHEFAMILYTODOSOINNORTHAMERICA,THEELDERLYOFTENDONOTLIVEWITHTHEFAMILY;THEYLIVEINRETIREMENTCOMMUNITIESANDNURSINGHOMESTHEREAREMANYPARALLELSBETWEENTHENUCLEARFAMILYININDUSTRIALSOCIETIES,SUCHASNORTHAMERICA,ANDOFFAMILIESINSOCIETIESSUCHASTHATOFTHEINUITS,WHOLIVEINHARSHENVIRONMENTSTHENUCLEARFAMILYSTRUCTUREISWELLADAPTEDTOALIFEOFMOBILITYINHARSHCONDITIONS,MOBILITYALLOWSTHEFAMILYTOHUNTFORFOODFORNORTHAMERICANS,THEHUNTFORJOBSANDIMPROVEDSOCIALSTATUSALSOREQUIRESMOBILITYTHENUCLEARFAMILYWASNOTALWAYSTHENORTHAMERICANSTANDARDINAMOREAGRARIANTIME,THESMALLNUCLEARFAMILYWASUSUALLYPARTOFALARGEREXTENDEDFAMILYTHISMIGHTHAVEINCLUDEDGRANDPARENTS,MOTHERANDFATHER,BROTHERSANDSISTERS,UNCLES,AUNTS,ANDCOUSINSINNORTHAMERICATODAY,THEREISADRAMATICRISEINTHENUMBEROFSINGLEPARENTHOUSEHOLDSTWICEASMANYHOUSEHOLDSINTHEUNITEDSTATESAREHEADEDBYDIVORCED,SEPARATED,ORNEVERMARRIEDINDIVIDUALSASARECOMPRISEDOFNUCLEARFAMILIESTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEFAMILY,NOTJUSTINNORTHAMERICA,BUTTHROUGHOUTTHEWORLD,CONTINUESTOCHANGEASITADAPTSTOCHANGINGCONDITIONS词汇NUCLEAR/NJUKH/ADJ原子核的,中心的HARSH/HA/N严酷的EMERGENCY/IMDNSI/N紧急状况AGRANAN/GRERLN/ADJ土地的,耕地的注释1LTMUSTBEPREPAREDTOFENDFORITSELF它必须能够照料自己。2INNORTHAMERICA,THEELDERLYOFTENDONOTLIVEWITHTHEFAMILY;THEYLIVEINRETIREMENTCOMMUNITIESANDNURSINGHOMES在北美洲,老人很少和家人一起生活;他们一般住在退休社区和养老机构。3INHARSHCONDITIONS,MOBILITYALLOWSTHEFAMILYTOHUNTFORFOOD在恶劣的条件下,流动性能让一个家庭吃饱饭。练习1ANOTHERGOODTITLEFORTHISPASSAGEWOULDBE_____AWHATMAKESAFAMILYBTHELIFEOFTHEINUITSCLIVINGWITHHARDSHIPDTHEFAILUREOFTHENUCLEARFAMILY2ANUCLEARFAMILYISDEFINEDAS_____AAMARRIEDCOUPLEWITHTHEIRMINORCHILDRENBASINGLEFATHERWITH,MINORCHILDRENCPARENTS,GRANDPARENTS,ANDCHILDRENDPARENTS,CHILDREN,ANDAUNTSANDUNCLES3THEINFORMATIONINTHISPASSAGEWOULDMOSTLIKELYBEFOUNDIN_____AANANTHROPOLOGYTEXTBOOKBABIOLOGYTEXTBOOKCAMATHEMATICSTEXTBOOKDAGEOGRAPHYTEXTBOOK4THEINFORMATIONINTHEFIRSTPARAGRAPHISPRESENTEDMAINLYTHROUGH_____ALISTINGSTATISTICSBTELLINGASTORYCPOINTINGOUTSIMILARITIESDPOINTINGOUTDIFFERENCES5THEWORDMOBILITYMEANS_____AMONEYBREADINESSTOMOVECORGANIZATIONDSKILL答案与题解1A本题问的是这篇文章的题目还可以是什么A的意思是是什么构成了一个家。B的意思是因纽特人的生活。C的意思是生活得很艰难。D的意思是核心家庭的失败之处。根据文意,本文主要介绍了与家庭相关的信息。B不是主要内容。C未提到。D未提到。因此A是正确的答案。2A本题问的是核心家庭的定义是什么根据第一段的第三句话UNTILRECENTLY,THEMOSTCOMMONFORMINNORTHAMERICAWASTHENUCLEARFAMILY,CONSISTINGOFAMARRIEDCOUPLEWITHTHEIRMINORCHILDREN可知A是正确的答案。3A本题问的是这篇文章最有可能出自哪里A的意思是人类学课本。B的意思是生物课本。C的意思是数学课本。D的意思是地理课本。本文主要介绍了家庭,因此最有可能是人类学课本。所以A是正确的答案。4C本题问的是第一段的信息主要以何种方式陈述的根据第一段的陈述方式,并没有列出数据或者讲故事,而是通过描述共性而阐述出核心家庭的概念。因此C是正确的答案。5B本题问的是MOBILITY的词意。MOBILITY是MOBILE的名词形式。根据文中第二段,核心家庭能够生存下去最重要的是能够有流动性,而钱、组织或是技能都不是能够使一个家庭吃饱饭的必要条件。因此B是正确的答案。第二十篇TALESOFTHETERRIBLEPASTITISNOTTHEJOBOFFICTIONWRITERSTOANALYZEANDINTERPRETHISTORYYETBYWRITINGABOUTTHEPASTINAVIVIDANDCOMPELLINGMANNER,STORYTELLERSCANBRINGEARLIERERASTOLIFEANDFORCEREADERSTOCONSIDERTHEMSERIOUSLYAMONGTHOSETAKINGONTHETASKOFRECOUNTINGHISTORYARESOMEBLACKWRITERSWHOATTEMPTTOEXAMINESLAVERYFROMDIFFERENTPOINTSOFVIEWNOBELPRIZEWINNINGAUTHORTONIMORRISONDEALSSPECIFICALLYWITHTHELEGACYOFSLAVERYINHERBOOKBELOVEDTHEMAINCHARACTERINTHISNOVEL,AFORMERSLAVECALLEDSETHE,LIVESINOHIOINTHEYEARSFOLLOWINGTHECIVILWAR,BUTSHECANNOTFREEHERSELFFROMHERHORRIFICMEMORIESTHROUGHASERIESOFFLASHBACKSANDBITTERREMINISCENCES,THEREADERLEARNSHOWANDWHYSETHEESCAPEDFROMTHEPLANTATIONSHEHADLIVEDON;THEFATEOFHERHUSBAND,WHOALSOTRIEDTOESCAPE;ANDFINALLY,WHATHAPPENEDTOTHECHILDCALLEDBELOVEDMORRISONSSCENESOFTORTUREANDMURDERAREVIVIDANDSTRONGLYCONVEYTHEDESPERATIONOFTHESLAVESANDTHECRUELTYOFTHEIROWNERSCHARLESJOHNSONSMIDDLEPASSAGEAPPROACHESSLAVERYFROMADIFFERENT,YETNOLESSVIOLENT,VANTAGEPOINTHISMAINCHARACTER,RUTHERFPRDCALHOUN,ISANEERDOWELLFREEBLACKAMERICANWHOSTOWSAWAYONASLAVESHIPBOUNDFORAFRICATOCOLLECTITSCARGOPUTTOWORKAFTERHEISDISCOVERED,CALHOUNWITNESSESFIRSTHANDTHEAPPALLINGCONDITIONSINWHICHTHECAPTUREDAFRICANSARETRANSPORTEDWHENTHEYFINALLYREBELANDTAKEOVERTHESHIP,HEFINDSHIMSELFINTHEMIDDLEANDISFORCEDTOCOMETOTERMSWITHWHOHEISANDWHATHISVALUESARENEITHERBELOVEDNORMIDDLEPASSAGEISANEASYREAD,BUTBOTHEXEMPLIFYAFRICANAMERICANWRITERSATTEMPTSTOBRINGSIGNIFICANTHISTORICALSITUATIONSALIVEFORAMODEMAUDIENCE词汇INTERPRET/INTPRIT/V解释,翻译DESPERATION/DESPREIN/N绝望的境地RECOUNT/RIKAUNT/V叙述CAPTURE/KPT/V俘获SLAVERY/SLEIVRI/N奴隶制度注释1YETBYWRITINGABOUTTHEPASTINAVIVIDANDCOMPELLINGMANNER,STORYTELLERSCANBRINGEARLIERERASTOLIFEANDFORCEREADERSTOCONSIDERTHEMSERIOUSLY然而通过用一种生动有趣的方式来描写过去,小说家可以将早期时代重现,并引起读者的重视。2HISMAINCHARACTERRUTHERFORDCALHOUNISANEERDOWELLFREEBLACKAMERICANWHOSTOWSAWAYONASLAVESHIPBOUNDFORAFRICATOCOLLECTITSCARGO他的主人公叫做RUTHERFORDCALHOUN,是一个游手好闲,身份自由的美国黑人。他偷偷登上了一艘开往非洲贩卖奴隶的船只。练习1THISPASSAGEISMOSTLYABOUT__________ATHECAUSESOFSLAVERYINAMERICABBLACKWRITERSINTHELATE20THCENTURYCWHYMORRISONANDJOHNSONWROTETHEBOOKSTHEYDIDDTWONOVELSTHATDEALWITHSLAVERY2BELOVEDISSET__________AONASLAVESHIPBONAPLANTATIONBEFORETHECIVILWARCINOHIOAFTERTHECIVILWARDINANAFRICANTOWN3THEWRITERSEEMSTOFEELTHAT__________AEVEYONESHOULDREADMORRISONSANDJOHNSONSNOVELSBTHEBOOKSAREWORTHWHILEBUTCHALLENGINGCBLACKWRITERSSHOULDIGNORERACIALISSUESDWEWILLREPEATTHEPASTIFWEDON’TLEARNABOUTIT4THEWRITEREMPHASIZESTHATTHETWOBOOKSARESIMILARINTHEIR__________AUSEOFFLASHBACKSBTREATMENTOFWOMENCCRITICISMOFWHITESDPORTRAYALOFVIOLENCE5THEWORDAPPALLINGMEANS__________ATERRIBLEBSURPRISINGCGUILTYDUNREALISTIC答案与题解1D本题问的是这篇文章主要讲什么A的意思是美国奴隶制的原因。B的意思是20世纪的黑人作家。C的意思是莫里森和约翰逊写书的原因。D的意思是关于奴隶制的两本小说。本文主要介绍了莫里森和约翰逊各自关于奴隶制的小说的主要内容,因此D是正确的答案。2C本题问的是“宠儿”的设置背景是什么根据第二段的第二句话AFORNIERSLAVECALLEDSETHE,LIVESINOHIOINTHEYEARSFOLLOWINGTHECIVILWAR可知其背景是在内战之后的俄亥俄州。因此C是正确的答案。3B本题问的是作者的感觉是什么A的意思是每个人都应该读莫里森和约翰逊的小说。B的意思是这些作品非常值得写但又很有挑战性。C的意思是黑人作家应当忽略种族问题。D的意思是如果我们没有学习过去,那么这些过去会重现。A,C,D原文没有体现,因此B是正确的答案。4D本题问的是作者强调两部作品的共同之处是什么根据第三段的第一句话YETNOLESSVIOLENT可知两部作品都有对暴力的描写。因此D是正确的答案。5A本题问的是APPALLING的意思是什么根据第三段对运送非洲人去美国的描述可知,此状况必然是不好的,糟糕的。A的意思是糟糕的。B的意思是令人惊讶的。C的意思是有罪的。D的意思是不现实的。因此根据文意,A是正确的答案。第二十六篇SEEINGTHEWORLDCENTURIESAGOIFYOUENJOYLOOKINGTHROUGHTRAVELBOOKSBYSUCHFAMILIARAUTHORSASARTHURFROMMEROREUGENEFODOR,ITWILLNOTSURPRISEYOUTOLEANTHATTRAVELWRITINGHASALONGANDVENERABLEHISTORYALMOSTFROMTHEEARLIESTANNALSOFRECORDEDTIMEINDIVIDUALSHAVEFOUNDREADYAUDIENCESFORTHEIRACCOUNTSOFJOURNEYSTOSTRANGEANDEXOTICLOCALES1ONEOFTHEEARLIESTTRAVELWRITERS,AGREEKGEOGRAPHERANDHISTORIANNAMEDSTRABO,LIVEDAROUNDTHETIMEOFCHRISTTHOUGHSTRABOISKNOWNTOHAVETRAVELEDFROMEASTOFTHEBLACKSEAWESTTOITALYANDASFARSOUTHASETHIOPIA,HEALSOUSEDDETAILSGLEANEDFROMOTHERWRITERSTOEXTENDANDENLIVENHISACCOUNTSHISMULTIVOLUMEDWORKGEOGRAPHYPROVIDESTHEONLYSURVIVINGACCOUNTOFTHECITIES,PEOPLES,CUSTOMS,ANDGEOGRAPHICALPECULIARITIESOFTHEWHOLEKNOWNWORLDOFHISTIMETWOOTHERCLASSICTRAVELWRITERS,THELTALIANMARCOPOLOANDTHEMOROCCANIBNBATTUTAH,LIVEDINROUGHLYTHESAMETIMEPERIODMARCOPOLOTRAVELEDTOCHINAWITHHISFATHERANDUNCLEINABOUTAD1275ANDREMAINEDTHERE16OR17YEARS,VISITINGSEVERALOTHERCOUNTRIESDURINGHISTRAVELSWHENMARCORETURNEDTOLTALYHEDICTATEDHISMEMOIRS,INCLUDINGSTORIESHEHADHEARDFROMOTHERS,TOASCRIBE,WITHTHERESULTINGBOOKIIMILIONEBEINGANINSTANTSUCCESSTHOUGHDIFFICULTTOATTESTTOTHEACCURACYOFALLHESAYS,MARCOSBOOKIMPELLEDEUROPEANSTOBEGINTHEIRGREATVOYAGESOFEXPLORATION2LBNBATTUTAHSINTERESTINTRAVELBEGANONHISREQUIREDMUSLIMJOUMEYTOMECCAIN1325,ANDDURINGHISLIFETIMEHEJOURNEYEDTHROUGHALLTHECOUNTRIESWHEREISLAMHELDSWAY3HISTRAVELBOOKTHERIHLAHISAPERSONALIZEDACCOUNTOFDESERTJOURNEYS,COURTINTRIGUES,ANDEVENTHEEFFECTOFTHEBACKDEATHINTHEVARIOUSLANDSHEVISITEDINALMOST30YEARSOFTRAVELINGITISESTIMATEDTHATIBNBATTUTAHCOVEREDMORETHAN75,000MILES词汇VENERABLE/VENRBL/ADJ庄严的,值得尊敬的ENLIVEN/INLAIVN/V使生动ACCOUNT/KAUNT/N记述VOYAGE/VIID/N航行EXOTIC/IGZTIK/V异国的,外来的注释1ALMOSTFROMTHEEARLIESTANNALSOFRECORDEDTIMEINDIVIDUALSHAVEFOUNDREADYAUDIENCESFORTHEIRACCOUNTSOFJOURNEYSTOSTRANGEANDEXOTICLOCALES几乎从最早有时间记载开始,人们就发现,他们对去一个陌生地方旅行的记录是不乏读者的。2MARCOSBOOKIMPELLEDEUROPEANSTOBEGINTHEIRGREATVOYAGESOFEXPLORATION马可的书促使欧洲人开始了他们伟大的航海探索之旅。3HEJOURNEYEDTHROUGHALLTHECOUNTRIESWHEREISLAMHELDSWAY他去了所有伊斯兰教掌权的国家旅行。练习1THISPASSAGEISMOSTLYABOUT__________AWHYPEOPLEFINDTRAVELWRITINGEXCITINGBTHELITERARYSTYLEOFTHREEEARLYTRAVELWRITERSCWHERETHREEEARLYTRAVELWRITERSWENTANDWROTEABOUTDHOWTOWRITEATRAVELBOOK2IBNBATTUTAHTRAVELED__________ATOCHINABTOETHIOPIACTHROUGHOUTTHEMUSLIMWORDDFOR16OR17YEARS3THEBOOKSBFTHETHREEWRITERSWEREPOPULARBECAUSE__________ATHEYLISTEDGOODPLACESTOSTAYBTHEYTOLDOFSTRANGEANDEXOTICLOCALESCTHEYEXPLAINEDTHEBESTROUTESTOGETTOPLACESDALLOFTHEIRSTORIESWEREFIRSTHANDACCOUNTS4THEOVERALLORGANIZATIONOFTHISPASSAGEISTHROUGH__________ACHRONOLOGICALORDERBSPATIALDESCRIPTIONCTRAVELWRITERS’PERSONALNARRATIVESDPERSUASIVEDETAILS5INTHISPASSAGEATTESTMEANSTO__________AGIVEANEXAMINATIONTOBDRAWAMAPOFCTELLLIESTODGIVEPROOFOF答案与题解1C本题问的是这篇文章主要讲了什么A的意思是为什么人们觉得旅行写作令人激动。B的意思是三位早期旅行作家的文学风格。C的意思是三位早期旅行作家去过的地方以及他们的写作内容。D的意思是如何写一部旅行作品。根据本文内容,C选项最符合题意。因此C是正确的答案。2C本题问的是IBNBATTUTAH到过哪里旅行根据最后一段的第一句话HEJOURNEYEDTHROUGHALLTHECOUNTRIESWHEREISLAMHELDSWAY,可知,他去过了所有穆斯林的国家。因此C是正确的答案。3B本题问的是三位作家的作品都很受欢迎,原因是什么A的意思是他们列出了好的地方。B的意思是他们写出了陌生的外面的地方。C的意思是他们说明了去一些地方的最好路线。D的意思是他们的所有故事都是一手资料。根据第一段的最后一句话可知,旅行作品吸引读者的地方在于它描述了一个陌生的地方,因此B是正确的答案。4A本题问的是这篇文章的整体布局是依照什么本文主要依照时间顺序介绍了公元前后的三位作家,按时间先后用序,因此A是正确的答案。5D本题问的是在这篇文章中ATTEST是什么意思ATTEST出现在第三段的最后一句话,为的是表达马可所说的无法被证实是否都属实。A的意思是考察。B的意思是画一张地图。C的意思是说谎。D的意思是证实。因此D是正确的答案。第三十篇“LUCKY”LORDLUCANALIVEORDEADON8THNOVEMBER1974LORDLUCAN,ABRITISHARISTOCRAT,VANISHEDTHEDAYBEFORE,HISCHILDRENSNANNYHADBEENBRUTALLYMURDEREDANDHISWIFEHADBEENATTACKEDTOOTOTHISDAYTHEBRITISHPUBLICARESTILLINTERESTEDINTHEMURDERCASEBECAUSELUCANHASNEVERBEENFOUNDNOW,OVER30YEARSLATER,THEPOLICEHAVEREOPENED,THECASE,HOPINGTHATNEWDNATECHNIQUESWILLHE1PSOLVETHISMURDERMYSTERY1PEOPLESUSPECTEDTHAT“LUCKY”,ASHEWASCALLEDBYFRIENDS,WANTEDTOKILLHISWIFEHENOLONGERLIVEDWITHTHEYSAYTHATLUCANENTEREDHISOLDHOUSEANDINTHEDARK,KILLEDTHENANNYBYMISTAKEHISESTRANGEDWIFEHEARDNOISES,CAMEDOWNSTAIRSANDWASA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