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2000年上半年全国高教自考英语(二)试卷PARTONEⅠVOCABULARYANDSTRUCTURE(10POINTS,1POINTFOREACH)从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答题纸上将相应的字母涂黑。1ALMOSTEVERYTHINGAMANAGERDOES________DECISIONS;INDEED,SOMESUGGESTTHATTHEMANAGEMENTPROCESSISDECISIONMAKINGAIMPOSESBIMPROVISESCINVOLVESDINDICATES2ASTRONOMERSANDSCIENTISTSTHINKTHATABLACKHOLEISAREGIONOFSPACE_______WHICHMATTERHASFALLENAND________WHICHNOTHINGCANESCAPEATOWARDSTOWARDSBINTOFROMCOUTOFFROMDTHROUGHTHROUGH3AMERICANMENDONTCRYBECAUSEITISCONSIDEREDNOT________OFMENTODOSOACHARACTERISTICBTOLERANTCSYMBOLICDINDEPENDENT4ATTHEENDOF1994THEBRITISHGOVERNMENTINTRODUCEDNEWMEASURESTOHELP________DOMESTICWORKERSFROMABUSEBYTHEIREMPLOYERSAPROTECTBSUSPECTCEXPECTDINSPECT5ROBOTSDIFFERFROMAUTOMATICMACHINES________AFTERCOMPLETIONOFONESPECIFICTASK,THEYCANBEREPROGRAMMEDBYACOMPUTERTODOANOTHERONEASOTHATBINWHICHCGIVENTHATDINTHAT6THESPECIFICUSEOFLEISURE________FROMINDIVIDUALTOINDIVIDUALARANGESBDISTINGUISHESCVARIESDCOVERS7COFFEEDELAYSTHEBODYCLOCKINTHEMORNING,ANDADVANCES________ATNIGHTAITBTHEMCTHECOFFEEDTHEBODY8NATIONSARE________ASAGEDWHENTHEYHAVE7PERCENTORMOREOFTHEIRPEOPLEAGED65ORABOVEALIMITEDBCLASSIFIEDCORIGINATEDDPROCESSED9ITISTOUCHINGTOSEEHOWACATORDOGESPECIALLYADOG________ITSELFTOFAMILYANDWANTSTOSHAREINALLITSGOINGSANDCOMINGSAATTRIBUTESBAPPLIESCASSIGNEDDATTACHES10YOUNEEDNT________HIMABOUTTHISSINCEHECOULDFINDOUTFORHIMSELFATELLBBETELLINGCHAVETOLDDHAVETOTELLⅡCLOZETEST(10POINTS,1POINTFOREACH)下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并在答题纸上将相应的字母涂黑。DECISIONSABOUTHOUSINGCANINFLUENCETHEQUALITYOFYOURFUTURELIFEINDIVIDUALANDFAMILYNEEDSCHANGE(11)THETIME,ANDHOUSINGSHOULDBEFLEXIBLEENOUGHTO(12)THESECHANGINGNEEDSTHEPLANGOBUYAHOMEMAYBE(13)OFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTFINANCIALDECISIONSAPERSON(14)MAKESTHEPLANTOBUYAHOMEIS(15)TOPRESENTANDFUTUREINCOMERENTALHOUSING,WHILENOTREQUIRING(16)LARGEINITIALINVESTMENT,STILLTAKESALARGEPORTIONOFAFAMILYSMONTHLYBUDGETHOUSINGPROVIDESASETTING(17)DAYTODAYLIVINGHOUSING,FURNISHINGS,ANDEQUIPMENTMUSTBEPLANNEDWITHPRESENTANDFUTURENEEDSANDINTERESTSTAKENINTO(18)SOMEPEOPLEACQUIREFURNISHINGSANDEQUIPMENTBEFORETHEYMOVEINTOTHEIROWNHOMEFAMILYSIZE,HEALTH,ANDINCOMEARE(19)THEFACTORSINFLUENCINGHOUSINGCHOICESHOUSINGSHORTAGESINMANYPARTSOFTHECOUNTRYSERIOUSLY(20)THEFREEDOMOFCHOICEINSECURINGSHELTERMANYFAMILIESMOVE,ANDHOUSINGMAYNOTBEPERMANENT11ABYBONCOVERDAT12AMEETBREACHCSEEKDCATCH13ASUCHBTHATCONEDEACH14ASTILLBYETCEVENDEVER15ASAVEDBTIEDCSPENTDCOST16ASOABASOCSUCHADASUCH17ATOBFORCWITHDFROM18AAMOUNTBACCOUNTCACCESSDAVERAGE19ABETWEENBWITHINCAMONGDACROSS20AAVOIDBENCOURAGECLIMITDEXTENDⅢREADINGCOMPREHENSION(30POINTS,2PINTSFOREACH)从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,并在答案纸上将相应的字母涂黑。PASSAGEONEQUESTION21TO25AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGEART,SAIDPICASSO,ISALIETHATMAKESUSREALIZETHETRUTHSOISAMAPWEDONOTUSUALLYASSOCIATETHEPRECISEWORKOFTHEMAPMAKERWITHAFANCIFULOBJECTOFARTYETAMAPHASMANYQUALITIESTHATAPAINTINGORAPOEMHASITISTRUTHREALIZEDINASYMBOLICWAY,HOLDINGMEANINGSITDOESNOTEXPRESSONTHESURFACEANDLIKEWORKOFART,ITREQUIRESIMAGINATIVEREADINGTHUS,MAPANDREALITYARENOT,ANDCANNOTBE,IDENTICALNOASPECTOFMAPUSEISSOOBVIOUSYETSOOFTENOVERLOOKEDMOSTMAPREADINGMISTAKESOCCURBECAUSETHEUSERFORGETSTHISVITALFACTANDEXPECTSAONETOONECORRESPONDENCEBETWEENMAPANDREALITYAMAP,LIKEAPAINTING,ISJUSTONESPECIALVERSIONOFREALITYTOUNDERSTANDAPAINTING,YOUMUSTHAVESOMEIDEAOFTHEMEDIUMWHICHWASUSEDBYTHEARTISTYOUWOULDNTEXPECTAWATERCOLORTOLOOKANYTHINGLIKEANOILPAINTINGORACHARCOAL(木碳)DRAWING,EVENIFTHESUBJECTMATTEROFALLTHREEWEREIDENTICALINTHESAMEWAY,THETECHNIQUESUSEDTOCREATEMAPSWILLGREATLYINFLUENCETHEFINALREPRESENTATIONASAMAPREADER,YOUSHOULDALWAYSBEAWAREOFTHEINVISIBLEHANDOFTHEMAPMAKERNEVERUSEAMAPWITHOUTASKINGYOURSELFHOWITHASBEENBIASEDBYTHEMETHODSUSEDTOMAKEITIFTHEENTIREMAPMAKINGPROCESSOPERATESATITSFULLPOTENTIAL,COMMUNICATIONTAKESPLACEBETWEENTHEMAPMAKERANDTHEUSERTHEMAPMAKERTRANSLATESREALITYINTOTHECLEARESTPOSSIBLEPICTUREUNDERTHECIRCUMSTANCES,ANDTHEMAPREADERCONVERTSTHISPICTUREBACKINTOANIMPRESSIONOFTHEENVIRONMENTFORSUCHCOMMUNICATIONTOTAKEPLACE,THEMAPREADERASTHEMAPMAKERMUSTKNOWSOMETHINGABOUTHOWMAPSARECREATED21MAPISALIE_________ATHATHASLITTLETRUTHINITBTHATFEWOFUSBELIEVECTHATWEUSETOEXPRESSTHETRUTHDTHATCHEATSPEOPLEINATRICKYWAY22MAPRESEMBLESARTINTHAT________ATHEYAREBOTHABSOLUTELIESBTHEYAREBOTHPRECISEASWELLASFANCIFULCTHEYMUSTBEREADWITHIMAGINATIONDTHEYBOTHEXPRESSMEANINGSINASUPERFICIALWAY23MOSTMAPREADINGMISTAKESOCCURBECAUSE________ATHEMAPISNOTMADEACCORDINGTOREALITYBTHEREAREOBVIOUSDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHEMAPANDREALITYCTHEUSERFORGETSTHEONETOONECORRESPONDENCEBETWEENTHEMAPANDREALITYDTHEUSEROVERLOOKSTHEGAPBETWEENTHEMAPANDREALITY24“THEINVISIBLEHANDOFTHEMAPMAKER”(INPARAGRAPH3)REFERSTO________ATHETECHNIQUESUSEDTOCREATEMAPSBTHESUBJECTMATTEROFTHEMAPCTHESYMBOLSUSEDINTHEMAPDTHEFINALREPRESENTATIONOFTHEMAP25THELASTPARAGRAPHDESCRIBESMAINLY________AHOWMAPSARECREATEDBWHATTHECOMMUNICATIONBETWEENTHEMAPMAKERANDTHEREADERISCHOWTHEMAPMAKERTRANSLATESREALITYINTOAPICTUREDHOWTHEREADERCONVERTSTHEPICTUREBACKINTOREALITYPASSAGETWOQUESTIONS26TO30AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGEMUSICWHICHISORIGINALISINDIVIDUALANDPERSONALTHATISTOSAY,ITCANBEIDENTIFIEDASBELONGINGTOAPARTICULARCOMPOSERITHASPARTICULARQUALITIES,ORASTYLE,WHICHARENOTCOPIEDFROMANOTHERIFYOUCANRECOGNIZETHESTYLEOFACOMPOSER,YOUWILLPROBABLYBEABLETOTELLTHATACERTAINCOMPOSITIONBELONGSTOHIMORHEREVENTHOUGHYOUHAVENEVERHEARDITBEFOREABASKETMAKERHASTHESKILLOFWEAVINGANDINTERWEAVINGHISMATERIALSTOCREATECOLORFULPATTERNS,ANDANEXPERTCARPENTER(木匠)HASTHESKILLOFJOININGTOGETHERDIFFERENTSHAPESANDSIZESOFWOODTOMAKEABEAUTIFULPIECEOFFURNITURETHESESKILLSMAYBEREFERREDTOASWORKMANSHIP(技艺)SIMILARLY,INMUSICACOMPOSERORGANIZESHISMELODIES(旋律)ANDRHYTHMSANDCOMBINESSOUNDSTOCREATEHARMONYACOMPOSERMAYBECAPABLEOFTHINKINGUPVERYGOOD,ORIGINALTUNES,YETIFTUNESAREPOORLYORGANIZED,THATIS,IFTHEWORKMANSHIPISPOOR,THEFINALRESULTWILLNOTBETOSTANDARDGOODMUSICEXPRESSESFEELINGSINAWAYTHATISSUITABLETOTHOSEFEELINGSTHEREMAYEJOY,SORROW,FEAR,LOVE,ANGER,ORWHATEVERBADMUSIC,ONTHEOTHERHAND,MAYCONFUSEUNRELATEDFEELINGS,ITMAYNOTEXPRESSANYIMPORTANTFEELINGATALL,ORITMAYEXAGGERATESOMEFEELINGSANDMAKETHEMVULGAR,THATIS,CHEAPANDUGLYGOODMUSICWILLSTANDTHETESTOFTIMEITWILLNOTGOOUTOFFASHIONBUTWILLCONTINUETOBEENJOYEDANDRESPECTEDLONGAFTERITISFIRSTINTRODUCEDITWILLGAINAKINDOFPERMANENTSTATUSWHILEBADMUSICWILLDISAPPEARANDBEFORGOTTENQUICKLYINPOPMUSIC,WHERETHEGENERALRULESEEMSTOBE“THENEWERTHEBETTER”,THETESTOFTIMEISTHEHARDESTTESTOFALLTOPASS26APIECEOFORIGINALMUSIC________AHASAPERSONALSTYLEBSOUNDSVERYFAMILIARTOOUREARSCISONEWHOSESTYLEYOUCANNOTRECOGNIZEDCANNOTBERECOGNIZEDASBELONGINGTOANYCOMPOSER27WECANSEEGOODWORKMANSHIPIN________ADIFFERENTSHAPESANDSIZEOFFURNITUREBMATERIALSFORCREATINGCOLOURFULPATTERNSCAPIECEOFMUSICWITHITSMELODIESANDRHYTHMSORGANIZEDINHARMONYDAPIECEOFMUSICWITHVERYGOOD,ORIGINALTUNESMIXEDTOGETHER28APIECEOFMUSICCANBESAIDTOBEGOODIF_________AITHELPSTOWHILEAWAYTHEHOURSBITCOMBINESDIFFERENTRHYTHMSANDSOUNDSCITMAKESPEOPLEFORGETTHEIRSORROWSANDWORRIESQUICKLYDITEXPRESSESACERTAINFEELINGINAPROPERWAY29ACCORDINGTOTHELASTPARAGRAPH,“THETESTOFTIMEISTHEHARDESTOFALLTOPASS”SUGGESTSTHAT________ATHENEWERTHEMUSICIS,THEHARDERITCANPASSTHETESTOFTIMEBITISMOSTDIFFICULTFORMUSICTOGAINAKINDOFPERMANENTSTATUSCPOPMUSICWILLCEASETOBEENJOYEDSOONAFTERITISINTRODUCEDDGOODMUSICNEEDNTPASSTHETESTOFTIME30THISPASSAGEISCONCERNEDWITH________AHOWTOCOMPOSEMUSICBHOWTOENJOYMUSICCHOWTOJUDGEMUSICDHOWTOPERFORMMUSICPASSAGETHREEQUESTIONS31TO35AREBASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGPASSAGETOBE“HISTORICALLYMINDED”ISTOSEETHINGSIRELATIONANDINPERSPECTIVE,ANDTOJUDGETOLERANTLYWEMUSTREMEMBERHOWDIFFERENTLYMENHAVETHOUGHTANDACTEDINDIFFERENTTIMESWEMUSTALWAYSKEEPANOPENMIND,READYTORECEIVEANDWEIGHNEWEVIDENCEIFWEGRASPTHISIDEA,WEWILLNEVERTHINKTHATAHISTORIAN(历史学家)ISSOMEONEWHOCANREMEMBERDATESTHATCHILDISHIDEAISLIKECALLINGAMANASTATESMAN(政治家)BECAUSEHECANREMEMBERTHENAMESOFVOTERSINHISDISTRICTAWAITERCOULDREMEMBERMORENAMESANDATELEPHONEOPERATORMORENUMBERSTHANTHEGREATESTHISTORIANTHETRUEHISTORIANISNOTCONTENTTOTAKEALLHISFACTSFROMOTHERHISTORIANSTODAYHEMAKESSURETHATHISSTATEMENTSAREBASEDONSOUND“DOCUMENTS”OR“SOURCES”WHICHGOBACKTOTHETIMEOFTHEFACTSTHEMSELVESBUTTHEHISTORIANNEEDSALWAYSTOBEINHISGUARDNOTTOBEMISLEDBYHISSOURCESADOCUMENTMAYNOTBEAREALONEITSAUTHORMAYBELYINGONPURPOSEFORSOMEREASONHEMAYBESOGREATLYINFLUENCEDBYNATIONAL,RELIGIOUS,PARTY,ORPERSONALBACKGROUNDSASTOBETOTALLYUNFAIRTOTHEOTHERSIDEIFHONEST,HEMAYBEMISINFORMEDASTOTHEFACTSANDMISTAKENINHISINFERENCESANYONEWHOREADSTHEACCOUNTSPUBLISHEDINTHEDIFFERENTCOUNTRIESCONCERNINGTHECAUSESANDRESULTSOFWARSWILLREALIZETHATTHEHISTORIANNEEDSCAUTIONANDTRAININGINHANDLINGTHESESOURCESTHETRAINEDHISTORIANASKSFIRST“DIDTHISWRITERMEANTOTELLTHETRUTH”ANDSECOND“WASHEINAPOSITIONORFRAMEOFMINDTOTELLTHETRUTHEVENIFHEWANTSTO”EVERYSTATEMENTMUSTBEPATIENTLYWEIGHEDANDTESTEDANDCOMBINEDWITHALLOTHERAVAILABLEINFORMATIONINORDERTOGETATTHETRUTH31A“HISTORICALLYMINDED”RESEARCHER_________AALWAYSKEEPSANOPENMINDTOHISTORYBLOOKSATONEHISTORICALEVENTWITHOUTRELATINGITTOANOTHERCSEESTHINGSFROMASINGLEPOINTOFVIEWDREFUSESTOACCEPTNEWEVIDENCE32INPARAGRAPH1THEAUTHORMEANSTOILLUSTRATETHAT________ADIFFERENTMENTHINKANDACTDIFFERENTLYBTHESTUDYOFHISTORYISNOTMERELYAMATTEROFREMEMBERINGDATESCASTATESMANCANREMEMBERTHENAMESOFVOTERSINHISDISTRICTDAWAITERCANREMEMBERMORENAMESTHANTHEGREATHISTORIANS33THETRUEHISTORIANSHOULDBASEHISSTATEMENTSON________AFINDINGSOFOTHERHISTORIANSBDOCUMENTSCREATEDATTHEPRESENTTIMECHISOWNINFERENCESDSOUNDHISTORICALMATERIALS34WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTHETOPICOFPARAGRAPH3ASOMEHISTORICALDOCUMENTSMAYNOTBEREALBSOMEAUTHORSMAYNOTBEHONESTCHISTORIANSSHOULDBECAREFULABOUTTHEIRSOURCESDHISTORIANSMAYBEINFLUENCEDBYTHEIROWNBACKGROUND35ITISEMPHASIZEDINTHELASTPARAGRAPHTHAT________AWARSAREACCOUNTEDFORDIFFERENTLYINDIFFERENTCOUNTRIESBTHEHISTORIANNEEDSCAUTIONANDTRAININGINDEALINGWITHHISSOURCESCSOMEWRITERSMAYNOTBETELLINGTHETRUTHDSOMEWRITERSMAYNOTBEINAPOSITIONORFRAMEOFMINDTOTELLTHETRUTHPARTTWOⅣWORDSPELLING(10POINTS,1POINTFORTWOWORDS)将下列汉语单词译成英语并写在答题纸上。每个词的词类和第一字母已在答题纸上给出。首字线后的每条短线上只写一个字母。36修理37科学38温度39政府40制服,军服41必要的42字典43旅行,行程44有价值的45丈夫46警告47呼吸48实验室49控制50量,数量51接受52秘书53金融的54化学55多数ⅤWORDFORM(10POINT,1POINTFOREACH)将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白。答案写在答题纸上。56MUCHOFTHECARBONINTHEEARTH________(COME)FROMTHINGSTHATONCELIVED57CHINAISNOTWHATSHE________(USE)TOBE58INTHEPASTTWODECADES,RES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