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CHAPTER6PRAGMATICS语用学DEFINITIONPRAGMATICSCANBEDEFINEDINVARIOUSWAYSITISTHESTUDYOFHOWSPEAKERSOFALANGUAGEUSESENTENCESTOEFFECTSUCCESSFULCOMMUNICATION语言学研究语言使用者是如何运用语句进行成功交际的。PRAGMATICSCANALSOBEREGARDEDASAKINDOFMEANINGSTUDYPRAGMATICSISACOMPARATIVELYNEWBRANCHOFSTUDYINTHEAREAOFLINGUISTICS语用学也可看做是一种意义研究。语用学是语言学领域中一个比较新兴的研究分支。CONTEXTUALVIEW语境论CONTEXTUALVIEWPLACESTHESTUDYOFMEANINGINTHECONTEXTINWHICHLANGUAGEISUSEDPRAGMATICSVSSEMANTICS语用学语义学GRADUALLYLINGUISTSFOUNDTHATITWOULDBEIMPOSSIBLETOGIVEANADEQUATEDESCRIPTIONOFMEANINGIFTHECONTEXTWASLEFTUNCONSIDEREDONCETHENOTIONOFCONTEXTWASTAKENINTOCONSIDERATION,SEMANTICSSPILLEDOVERINTOPRAGMATICSWHATESSENTIALLYDISTINGUISHESSEMANTICSANDPRAGMATICSISWHETHERINTHESTUDYOFMEANINGTHECONTEXTOFUSEISCONSIDEREDIFISNOTCONSIDERED,THESTUDYISRESTRICTEDTOTHEAREAOFTRADITIONALSEMANTICS;IFITISCONSIDERED,THESTUDYISBEINGCARRIEDOUTINTHEAREAOFPRAGMATICS语义学和语用学的根本区别在于意义研究是否考虑语境。不考虑语境,语义研究属于传统的语义学范围;考虑语境,意义研究就成了语用学研究的范围。CONTEXTCONTEXTISGENERALLYCONSIDEREDASCONSTITUTEDBYTHEKNOWLEDGESHAREDBYTHESPEAKERANDTHEHEARERTHESHAREDKNOWLEDGEISOFTWOTYPESTHEKNOWLEDGEOFTHELANGUAGETHEYUSE,ANDTHEKNOWLEDGEABOUTTHEWORLD,INCLUDINGTHEGENERALKNOWLEDGEABOUTTHEWORLDANDTHESPECIFICKNOWLEDGEABOUTTHESITUATIONINWHICHLINGUISTICCOMMUNICATIONISTAKINGPLACE语境是语用研究的关键概念,一般指交际双方的共有知识。分为两类一类是交际者对所用语言本身的知识,另一类是对客观世界的知识,包括对客观世界的一般只是和对交际情景的具体知识。SENTENCEMEANINGUTTERANCEMEANINGASENTENCEISAGRAMMATICALCONCEPT,ANDTHEMEANINGOFASENTENCEISOFTENSTUDIEDASTHEABSTRACT,INTRINSICPROPERTYOFTHESENTENCEITSELFINTERMSOFAPREDICATION句子意义和话语意义句子是一个语法概念,从述谓结构上来说,句子意义经常被看做是句子本身所具有地抽象的内在特征。但是如果把句子看成人们在交际过程中实际所说的话,它就成了话语,话语应该在其实际应用的情景中予以考虑。EXTHEDOGISBARKINGIFWETAKEITASAGRAMMATICALUNITANDCONSIDERITASASELFCONTAINEDUNITINISOLATION,THENWEARETREATINGITASASENTENCEIFWETAKEITASSOMETHINGASPEAKERUTTERSINACERTAINSITUATIONWITHACERTAINPURPOSE,THENWEARETREATINGITASANUTTERANCE把它看成语法单位时,它就是句子;把它看做说话人在特定情景中所说的带有特定目的的话,它就是话语。WHILETHEMEANINGOFASENTENCEISABSTRACT,ANDDECONTEXTUALIZD,ANUTTERANCEISCONCRETE,ANDCONTEXTDEPENDENTUTTERANCEISBASEDONSENTENCEMEANING;ITISTHEREALIZATIONOFTHEABSTRACTMEANINGOFASENTENCEINAREALSITUATIONOFCOMMUNICATION句子意义是抽象的,不依赖语境;而话语意义是具体的,依赖语境。话语意义基于句子意义,是句子意义在特定交际情景或者语境中的具体体现。EXMYBAGISHEAVY句子属于PREDICATION述谓结构BAG(BEINGHEAVY)ITCOULDBEUTTEREDBYASPEAKERASASTRAIGHTFORWARDSTATEMENT,TELLINGTHEHEARERTHATHISBAGISHEAVYITCOULDALSOBEINTENDEDBYTHESPEAKERASANINDIRECT,POLITEREQUEST,ASKINGTHEHEARERTOHELPHIMCARRYTHEBAGANOTHERPOSSIBLEINTERPRETATIONOFTHEUTTERANCEISTHATTHESPEAKERISDECLININGSOMEONE’SREQUESTFORHELP这句句子的话语意义会随着语境的变化而变化。有两种解释一种是直截了当的陈述;另一种就是希望别人能帮他拎包。言语行为理论(SPEECHACTTHEORY)SPEECHACTTHEORYISANIMPORTANTTHEORYINTHEPRAGMATICSTUDYOFLANGUAGEITWASORIGINATEDWITHTHEBRITISHPHILOSOPHERJOHNAUSTININTHELATE50’SOFTHE20THCENTURYITISAPHILOSOPHICALEXPLANATIONOFTHENATUREOFLINGUISTICCOMMUNICATION言语行为理论是语用学研究的一个重要理论。它是英国哲学家约翰奥斯丁在20世纪50年代提出。从哲学意义上对语言交际的本质进行解释,目的在于回答“用语言干什么”这个问题。WHATDOWEDOWHENUSINGLANGUAGEAUSTINMADEADISTINCTIONBETWEENWHATHECALLED“CONSTATIVES”AND“PERFORMATIVES”CONSTATIVESWERESTATEMENTSTHATEITHERSTATEORDESCRIBE,ANDWERETHUSVERIFIABLE;PERFORMATIVESWERESENTENCESTHATDIDNOTSTATEAFACTORDESCRIBEASTATE,ANDWERENOTVERIFIABLE奥斯丁对表述句和施为句进行区分。表述句用来陈述和描述;施为句不陈述事实,也不描述情况,且不能验证。四句典型IDOINAMETHISSHIPELIZABETHIGIVEANDBEQUEATHMYWATCHTOMYBROTHERIBETYOUSIXPENCEITWILLRAINTOMORROW这四个例子都是规约化的例子。但是说话是通过讲话来实施某种行为的这个理论,把所有非规约化的行为包括进来,比如陈述,许诺,请求和建议。这种理论被成为言语行为理论。LATERON,AUSTINGAVEUPHISINITIALDISTINCTIONBETWEENCONSTATIVESANDPERFORMATIVESHESETANEWMODEL,ASPEAKERMIGHTBEPERFORMINGTHREEACTSSIMULTANEOUSLYWHENSPEAKINGLOCUTIONARYACT,ILLOCUTIONARYACT,ANDPERLOCUTIONARYACTALOCUTIONARYACTISTHEACTOFUTTERINGWORDS,PHRASES,CLAUSESITISTHEACTOFCONVEYINGLITERALMEANINGBYMEANSOFSYNTAX,LEXICONANDPHONOLOGYANILLOCUTIONARYACTISTHEACTOFEXPRESSINGTHESPEAKER’SINTENTION;ITISTHEACTPERFORMEDINSAYINGSOMETHINGAPERLOCUTIONARYACTISTHEACTPERFORMEDBYORRESULTINGFROMSAYINGSOMETHING;ITISTHECONSEQUENCEOF,ORTHECHANGEBROUGHTABOUTBYTHEUTTERANCE;ITISTHEACTPERFORMEDBYSAYINGSOMETHING之后奥斯丁建立了三种行为的新模式。“言内行为,言外行为,言后行为。”言内行为是说出词,短语,分句的行为,是通过句法,词汇和音位等手段表达字面意义的行为。言外行为是表达说话人意图的行为,是在说话过程中所完成的行为。言后行为是通过说话完成或通过说话所产生的行为,是由话语所带来的结果或变化。EXYOUHAVELEFTTHEDOORWIDEOPENTHELOCUTIONARYACTPERFORMEDBYTHESPEAKERISTHATHEHASUTTEREDALLTHEWORDSANDEXPRESSEDWHATTHEWORDSLITERALLYMEAN此句的言后行为就是让人关门。THEILLOCUTIONARYACTPERFORMEDBYTHESPEAKERISTHATBYMAKINGSUCHANUTTERANCEHEHASEXPRESSEDHISINTENTIONOFSPEAKING,ASKINGSOMEONETOCLOSETHEDOORTHEPERLOCUTIONARYACTREFERSTOTHEEFFECTOFTHEUTTERANCEIFTHEHEARERGETSTHESPEAKER’SMESSAGEANDSEESTHATTHESPEAKERMEANSTOASKSOMEONETOCLOSETHEDOOR,THESPEAKERHASSUCCESSFULLYBROUGHTABOUTTHECHANGEINTHEREALWORLDHEHASINTENDEDTO;THENTHEPERLOCUTIONARYACTISSUCCESSFULLYPERFORMEDLINGUISTSAREMOSTINTERESTEDINTHEILLOCUTIONARYACTBECAUSETHISKINDOFSPEECHACTISIDENTICALWITHTHESPEAKER’SINTENTIONJOHNSEARLEHASMADEHISCLASSIFICATIONOFILLOCUTIONARYACTSSPEECHACTSFALLINTOFIVEGENERALCATEGORIES语言学家在上述言语行为中最感兴趣的是言外行为,是说话人如何表达他的意图和听说人如何识别说话人的意图。美国哲学语言学家约翰舍尔对言语行为理论作出了很大的贡献。他将言外行为分成了五种基本类型1阐述类(REPRESENTATIVES)ISTATEIHAVENEVERSEENTHEMANBEFORE2指令类(DIRECTIVES)OPENTHEWINDOW3承诺类(COMMISIVES)IPROMISETOCOME4表达类(EXPRESSIVES)IT’SREALLYKINDOFYOUTOHAVETHOUGHTOFME5宣告类(DECLARATIONS)INOWDECLARETHEFLOORISOPENTHEILLOCUTIONARYPOINTOFTHEREPRESENTATIVESISTOCOMMITTHESPEAKERTOSOMETHING’SBEINGTHETRUTHOFWHATHASBEENSAIDSTATING,BELIEVING,SWEARING,HYPOTHESIZINGAREAMONGTHEMOSTTYPICALOFTHEREPRESENTATIVESALLTHEACTSTHATBELONGTOTHESAMECATEGORYSHARETHESAMEPURPOSEORTHESAMEILLOCUTIONARYPOINT,BUTTHEYDIFFERINTHEIRSTRENGTHORFORCESWEARGUESSBELIEVE会话原则PRINCIPLEOFCONVERSATIONASTHEOBJECTIVEOFPRAGMATICSTUDYISTOEXPLAINHOWLANGUAGEISUSEDTOEFFECTSUCCESSFULCOMMUNICATIONANDCONVERSATION,ASTHEMOSTCOMMONANDNATURALFORMOFCOMMUNICATIONHASBECOMETHEFOCUSOFINTERESTFORMANYSCHOLARS语用学研究的目的是要解释语言是如何用来进行成功交际的。PAULGRICEFOUNDTHATFORMALLOGICCOULDN’TBEAPPLIEDTONATURALLANGUAGE,ANDTHUSCONCLUDEDTHATNATURALLANGUAGEHASITSOWNLOGIC保罗格赖斯发现形式逻辑对自然语言不适用并因此得出结论自然语言有自己的逻辑。HISIDEAISTHATINMAKINGCONVERSATION,THEPARTICIPANTSMUSTFIRSTOFALLBEWILLINGTOCOOPERATE;OTHERWISE,ITWOULDNOTBEPOSSIBLEFORTHEMTOCARRYONTHETALKTHISGENERALPRINCIPLEISCALLEDTHECOOPERATIONPRINCIPLE合作原则其观点在会话中,参与会话的人首先得愿意合作,否则会话无法进行。此基本原则称为合作原则,简称CP。THEREAREFOURMAXIMSUNDERTHISGENERALPRINCIPLE这条基本原则包括四种准则THEMAXIMOFQUANTITY数量准则1所说的话应包含(当前交谈目的)所需要的信息。2所说的话不包含超出需要的信息。THEMAXIMOFQUALITY质量原则1不要说自知是虚假的话。2不要说缺乏足够证据的话。THEMAXIMOFRELATION关联准则要有关联THEMAXIMOFMANNER方式准则1避免晦涩2避免歧义3说话要简练4要有条理EXDOYOUKNOWWHEREMRXLIVESSOMEWHEREINTHESOUTHERNSUBURBSOFTHECITY违反了数量原则WOULDYOULIKETOCOMETOOURPARTYTONIGHTIMAFRAIDIMNOTFEELINGSOWELLTODAYTHEYBOTHKNEWTHATBFEELINGSOWELL,BUTBCHEATEDABBREAKSQUALITYPRINCIPLE违反质量原则THEHOSTESSISANAWFULBOREDONTYOUTHINKTHEROSESINTHEGARDENAREBEAUTIFUL,ARENTTHEY违反关联准则SHALLWEGETSOMETHINGFORTHEKIDSYESBUTIVETOICECREAM违反方式准则WHILECONVERSATIONPARTICIPANTSNEARLYALWAYSOBSERVETHECP,THEYDON’TALWAYSOBSERVETHESEMAXIMSSTRICTLYFORVARIOUSREASONSTHESEMAXIMSAREVIOLATEDMOSTOFTHESEVIOLATIONSGIVERISETOWHATGRICECALLED“CONVERSATIONALIMPLICATURES”THATIS,WHENWEVIOLATEANYOFTHESEMAXIMS,OURLANGUAGEBECOMESINDIRECTTHESIGNIFICANCEOFGRICE’SCPLIESINTHATITEXPLAINSHOWITISPOSSIBLEFORTHEAPEAKERTOCONVEYMORETHANISLITERALLYSAIDASPRAGMATICSFOCUSESONTHECONVEYANCEOFMEANINGINTHECOURSEOFCOMMUNICATION,CPISUNDOUBTEDLYANIMPORTANTTHEORYINTHEAREA格赖斯合作原则意义在于,它解释了说话人为何能够表达出超出字面意义的信息。由于语言学要关注交际过程中的意义传递,合作原则无疑是这一领域的重要理论。
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