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大学英语自学教程(下)电子版1大学英语自学教程(下)01A.WhatIsaDecisionAdecisionisachoicemadefromamongalternativecoursesofactionthatareavailable.Thepurposeofmakingadecisionistoestablishandachieveorganizationalgoalsandobjectives.Thereasonformakingadecisionisthataproblemexists,goalsorobjectivesarewrong,orsomethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthem.Thusthedecisionmakingprocessisfundamentaltomanagement.Almosteverythingamanagerdoesinvolvesdecisions,indeed,somesuggestthatthemanagementprocessisdecisionmaking.Althoughmanagerscannotpredictthefuture,manyoftheirdecisionsrequirethattheyconsiderpossiblefutureevents.Oftenmanagersmustmakeabestguessatwhatthefuturewillbeandtrytoleaveaslittleaspossibletochance,hutsinceuncertaintyisalwaysthere,riskaccompaniesdecisions.Sometimestheconsequencesofapoordecisionareslightatothertimestheyareserious.Choiceistheopportunitytoselectamongalternatives.Ifthereisnochoice,thereisnodecisiontobemade.Decisionmakingistheprocessofchoosing,andmanydecisionshaveabroadrangeofchoice.Forexample,astudentmaybeabletochooseamonganumberofdifferentcoursesinordertoimplementthedecisiontoobtainacollegedegree.Formanagers,everydecisionhasconstraintsbasedonpolicies,procedures,laws,precedents,andthelike.Theseconstraintsexistatalllevelsoftheorganization.Alternativesarethepossiblecoursesofactionfromwhichchoicescanbemade.Iftherearenoalternatives,thereisnochoiceand,therefore,nodecision.Ifnoalternativesareseen,oftenitmeansthatathoroughjobofexaminingtheproblemshasnotbeendone.Forexample,managerssometimestreatproblemsinaneither/orfashionthisistheirwayofsimplifyingcomplexproblems.Butthetendencytosimplifyblindsthemtootheralternatives.Atthemanageriallevel,decisionmakingincludeslimitingalternativesaswellasidentifyingthem,andtherangeisfromhighlylimitedtopracticallyunlimited.Decisionmakersmusthavesomewayofdeterminingwhichofseveralalternativesisbestthatis,whichcontributesthemosttotheachievementoforganizationalgoals.An大学英语自学教程(下)电子版2organizationalgoalisanendorastateofaffairstheorganizationseekstoreach.Becauseindividualsandorganizationsfrequentlyhavedifferentideasabouthowtoattainthegoals,thebestchoicemaydependonwhomakesthedecision.Frequently,departmentsorunitswithinanorganizationmakedecisionsthataregoodforthemindividuallybutthatarelessthanoptimalforthelargerorganization.Calledsuboptimization,thisisatradeoffthatincreasestheadvantagestooneunitorfunctionbutdecreasestheadvantagestoanotherunitorfunction.Forexample,themarketingmanagermayargueeffectivelyforanincreasedadvertisingbudget.Inthelargerschemeofthings,however,increasedfundingforresearchtoimprovetheproductsmightbemorebeneficialtotheorganization.Thesetradeoffsoccurbecausetherearemanyobjectivesthatorganizationswishtoattainsimultaneously.Someoftheseobjectivesaremoreimportantthanothers,buttheorderanddegreeofimportanceoftenvaryfrompersontopersonandfromdepartmenttodepartment.Differentmanagersdefinethesameproblemindifferentterms.Whenpresentedwithacommoncase,salesmanagerstendtoseesalesproblems,productionmanagersseeproductionproblems,andsoon.Theorderingandimportanceofmultipleobjectivesisalsobased,inpart,onthevaluesofthedecisionmaker.Suchvaluesarepersonaltheyarehardtounderstand,evenbytheindividual,becausetheyaresodynamicandcomplex.Inmanybusinesssituationsdifferentpeoplesvaluesaboutacceptabledegreesofriskandprofitabilitycausedisagreementaboutthecorrectnessofdecisions.Peopleoftenassumethatadecisionisanisolatedphenomenon.Butfromasystemspointofview,problemshavemultiplecauses,anddecisionshaveintendedandunintendedconsequences.Anorganizationisanongoingentity,andadecisionmadetodaymayhaveconsequencesfarintothefuture.Thustheskilledmanagerlookstowardthefutureconsequencesofcurrentdecisions.01B.SecretsofSuccessatanInterviewThesubjectoftodaystalkisinterviews.大学英语自学教程(下)电子版3Thekeywordsherearepreparationandconfidence,whichwillcarryyoufar.Doyourhomeworkfirst.Findoutallyoucanaboutthejobyouareapplyingforandtheorganizationyouhopetoworkfor.ManyoftheemployersIinterviewedmadethesamecriticismofcandidates.Theyhavenoideawhatthedaytodayworkofthejobbringsabout.Theyhavevaguenotionsoffurtheringthecompanysprospectsorofservingthecommunity,buthavenevertakenthetroubletofindouttheactualtaskstheywillberequiredtodo.Donotletthisbesaidofyou.Itshowsanunattractiveindifferencetoyouremployerandtoyourjob.Takethetimetoputyourselfintotheinterviewersplace.Hewantssomebodywhoishardworkingwithapleasantpersonalityandarealinterestinthejob.Anythingthatyoufindoutabouttheprospectiveemployercanbeusedtoyouradvantageduringtheinterviewtoshowthatyouhavebotheredtomastersomefactsaboutthepeoplewhoyouhopetoworkfor.Writedownandrememberthequestionsyouwanttoasktheinterviewerssothatyouarenotspeechlesswhentheyinviteyourquestions.Makesurethatholidaysandpayarenotthefirstthingsyouaskabout.Ifallyourquestionshavebeenansweredduringtheinterview,replyInfact,Ididhaveseveralquestions,butyouhavealreadyansweredthemall.Donotbeafraidtoaskforclarificationofsomethingthathasbeensaidduringtheinterviewifyouwanttobesurewhatwasimplied,butdobepolite.Justbeforeyougototheinterview,lookagainattheoriginaladvertisementthatyouanswered,anycorrespondencefromyourprospectiveemployer,photocopiesofyourletterofapplicationorapplicationformandyourresume.Thenyouwillrememberwhatyousaidandwhattheywant.Thisisveryimportantifyouhaveappliedformanyjobsinashorttimeasitiseasytobecomeconfusedandgiveanimpressionofinefficiency.Makesureyouknowwhereandwhenyouhavetoreportfortheinterview.Gotothebuildingbutnotinsidetheofficeadayortwobefore,ifnecessary,tofindouthowlongthejourneytakesandwhereexactlytheplaceis.大学英语自学教程(下)电子版4Aimtoarrivefiveortenminutesearlyfortheactualinterview,thenyouwillhavealittletimeinhandandyouwillnotpanicifyouaredelayed.Youstartatadisadvantageifyouarriveworriedandtenminuteslate.Dressinclean,neat,conservativeclothes.NowisNOTthetimetoexperimentwiththepunklookorgirlstowearlowcutdresseswithminiskirts.Makesurethatyourshoes,handsandhairandteetharecleanandneat.Havetheletterinvitingyouforaninterviewreadytoshowincasethereisanydifficultyincommunication.Youmayfindyourselffacingoneinterviewerorapanel.Thelatterisfarmoreintimidating,butdonotletitworryyoutoomuch.Theinterviewerwillprobablyhaveatableinfrontofhim/her.Donotputyourthingsorarmsonit.Ifyouhaveabagoracase,putitonthefloorbesideyourchair.Donotclutchitnervouslyor,worsestill,dropit,spillingeverything.Shakehandsiftheintervieweroffershishandfirst.Thereislittlelikelihoodthatapaneloffivewantstogothoughtheprocessofallshakinghandswithyouinturn.Soyoudonotbeupsetifnooneoffers.Shakehandsfirmlyaweakhandsuggestsaweakpersonality,andacrushinggripisobviouslypainful.Donotdropthehandassoonasyourshastoucheditasthiswillseemtoshowyoudonotliketheotherperson.Speakpolitelyandnaturallyevenifyouarefeelingshy.Thinkbeforeyouansweranyquestions.Ifyoucannotunderstand,askWouldyoumindrephrasingthequestion,pleaseThequestionwillthenberepeatedindifferentwords.Ifyouarenotdefinitelyacceptedorturneddownonthespot,askWhenmayIexpecttoheartheresultsofthisinterviewIfyoudoreceivealetterofferingyouthejob,youmustreplybyletterkeepaphotocopyassoonaspossible.Goodluck大学英语自学教程(下)电子版502A.BlackHolesWhatisablackholeWell,itsdifficulttoanswerthisquestion,sincethetermswewouldnormallyusetodescribeascientificphenomenonareinadequatehere.Astronomersandscientiststhinkthatablackholeisaregionofspacenotathingintowhichmatterhasfallenandfromwhichnothingcanescapenotevenlight.Sowecantseeablackhole.Ablackholeexertsastronggravitationalpullandyetithasnomatter.Itisonlyspaceorsowethink.HowcanthishappenThetheoryisthatsomestarsexplodewhentheirdensityincreasestoaparticularpointtheycollapseandsometimesasupernovaoccurs.Fromearth,asupernovalookslikeaverybrightlightintheskywhichshineseveninthedaytime.Supernovaewerereportedbyastronomersintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.SomepeoplethinkthattheStarofBethlehemcouldhavebeenasupernova.ThecollapseofastarmayproduceaWhiteDwarforaneutronstarastar,whosematterissodensethatitcontinuallyshrinksbytheforceofitsowngravity.Butifthestarisverylargemuchbiggerthanoursunthisprocessofshrinkingmaybesointensethatablackholeresults.Imaginetheearthreducedtothesizeofamarble,butstillhavingthesamemassandastrongergravitationalpull,andyouhavesomeideaoftheforceofablackhole.Anymatterneartheblackholeissuckedin.Itisimpossibletosaywhathappensinsideablackhole.Scientistshavecalledtheboundaryareaaroundtheholetheeventhorizon.Weknownothingabouteventswhichhappenonceobjectspassthisboundary.Butintheory,mattermustbehaveverydifferentlyinsidethehole.Forexample,ifamanfellintoablackhole,hewouldthinkthathereachedthecenterofitveryquickly.Howeveranobserverattheeventhorizonwouldthinkthatthemanneverreachedthecenteratall.Ourspaceandtimelawsdontseemtoapplytoobjectsintheareaofablackhole.Einsteinsrelativitytheoryistheonlyonewhichcanexplainsuchphenomena.Einsteinclaimedthatmatterandenergyareinterchangeable,sothatthereisnoabsolutetimeandspace.Therearenoconstantsatall,andmeasurementsoftimeandspacedependonthepositionoftheobserver.Theyarerelative.WedonotyetfullyunderstandtheimplicationsoftherelativitytheorybutitisinterestingthatEinsteinstheoryprovidedabasisfortheideaofblackholes大学英语自学教程(下)电子版6beforeastronomersstartedtofindsomeevidencefortheirexistence.Itisonlyrecentlythatastronomershavebegunspecificresearchintoblackholes.InAugust1977,asatellitewaslaunchedtogatherdataaboutthe10millionblackholeswhicharethoughttobeintheMilkyWay.Andastronomersareplanninganewobservatorytostudytheindividualexplodingstarsbelievedtobeblackholes,Themostconvincingevidenceofblackholescomesfrownresearchintobinarystarsystems.Binarystars,astheirnamesuggests,aretwinstarswhosepositioninspaceaffectseachother.Insomebinarysystems,astronomershaveshownthatthereisaninvisiblecompanionstar,apartnertotheonewhichwecanseeinthesky.Matterfromtheonewhichwecanseeisbeingpulledtowardsthecompanionstar.Couldthisinvisiblestar,whichexertssuchagreatforce,beablackholeAstronomershaveevidenceofafewotherstarstoo,whichmighthaveblackholesascompanions.Thestoryofblackholesisjustbeginning.Speculationsaboutthem.areendless.Theremightbeamassiveblackholeatthecenterofourgalaxyswallowingupstarsataveryrapidrate.Mankindmayonedaymeetthisfate.Ontheotherhand,scientistshavesuggestedthatveryadvancedtechnologycouldonedaymakeuseoftheenergyofblackholesformankind.Thesespeculationssoundlikesciencefiction.Butthetheoryofblackholesinspaceisacceptedbymanyseriousscientistsandastronomers.Theyshowusaworldwhichoperatesinatotallydifferentwayfromourownandtheyquestionourmostbasicexperienceofspaceandtime.02B.WorldswithinWorldsFirstofallletusconsidertheearththatistosay,theworldasaplanetrevolvingroundthesun.Theearthisoneofnineplanetswhichmoveinorbitroundthesun.Thesenineplanets,togetherwiththesun,makeupwhatiscalledoursolarsystem.Howthiswonderfulsystemstartedandwhatkeptitworkingwithsuchwonderfulaccuracyislargelyamysterybutastronomerstellusthatitisonlyoneofmillionsofsimilarsystemsinspace,andoneofthesmallest.Thestarswhichweseeglitteringintheskyonadarkandcloudlessnightarealmost大学英语自学教程(下)电子版7certainlythesunsofothersolarsystemsmoreorlesslikeourown,buttheyaresofarawayinspacethatitisunlikelythatweshallevergettoknowverymuchaboutthem.Aboutourownsolarsystem,however,wearelearningmoreeveryday.BeforetheAmericanandRussianastronautsmadetheirthrillingjourneysintoouterspaceitwasdifficultforustorealisewhatourearthlookedlikefromhundredsofthousandsofmilesaway,butthephotographswhichtheastronautswereabletotakeshowustheearthinspacelookingnotverydifferentfromwhatthemoonlookslikewhenwelookatitfromtheearth.Theearthis,however,verydifferentfromthemoon,whichtheAmericanastronautshavefoundtobewithoutlifeorvegetation,whereasourearthisverymuchaliveineveryrespect.Themoon,bytheway,iscalledasatellitebecauseitgoesroundourearthaswellasroundthesun.Inotherwords,itgoesroundthesunwithourearth.Thesurfaceofourearthiscoveredbymassesoflandandlargerareasofwater.Letusconsiderthewaterareasfirst.Thetotalwaterareaisaboutthreetimesaslargeasthelandarea.Theverylargeseparateareasofwaterarecalledoceansandthelesserareasarecalledseas.Inmostoftheoceansandseassomeofthewaterisfoundtobeflowinginaparticulardirectionthatistosay,fromoneparttowardsanotherpartoftheoceanorseaconcerned.Thewaterwhichisflowinginthismannerissaidtobemovingasacurrent.Therearemanythousandsofcurrentsinthewatersoftheoceansandseas,butonlycertainofthestrongerandbettermarkedcurrentsarespeciallynamedandofgreatimportance.Thesecurrentsareimportantbecausetheyaffecttheclimateofthelandareasclosetowheretheyflowandalsobecausetheycarrylargequantitiesofmicroscopicanimalandvegetablelifewhichformsalargepartofthefoodforfishes.Thenatureandcharacteristicsofthesurfaceofthelandareasoftheearthvaryagreatdealfromareatoareaandfromplacetoplace.Thesurfaceofsomeareasconsistslargelyofhighmountainsanddeepvalleyswhilst,inotherareas,mostofthesurfaceconsistsofplains.IfonemadeajourneyovertheContinentsonewouldfindeverykindofsurfaceincludingmountainranges,plains,plateaux,deserts,tropicalforestlandsandemptyareascoveredpermanentlybyiceandsnow.Whenthinkingandlearningabouttheworldweshouldnotforgetthatourworldisthehomeofaverygreatmanydifferentpeoplepeopleswithdifferentcolouredskins,livingvery大学英语自学教程(下)电子版8differentlivesandhavingverydifferentideasaboutagreatmanyimportantthingssuchasreligion,government,educationandsocialbehaviour.Thecircumstancesunderwhichdifferentpeoplelivemakeagreatdifferencebetweenthewayinwhichtheyliveandthewayinwhichwelive,anditoughttobeourbusinesstotrytounderstandthosedifferentcircumstancessothatwecanbetterunderstandpeopleofotherlands.Aboveall,weshouldavoiddecidingwhatwethinkaboutpeopledifferentfromourselveswithoutfirsthavinglearnedagreatdealaboutthemandthekindoflivestheyhavetolive.Itistruetosaythatthemorewelearnaboutotherpeople,thebetterweunderstandtheirideasand,asarule,thebetterwelikethosepeoplethemselves.03A.EuthanasiaForandAgainstWemustntdelayanylonger...swallowingisdifficult...andbreathing,thatsalsodifficult.Thosemusclesareweakeningtoo...wemustntdelayanylonger.ThesewerethewordsofDutchmanCeesvanWendeldeJoodeaskinghisdoctortohelphimdie.Affectedwithaseriousdisease,vanWendelwasnolongerabletospeakclearlyandheknewtherewasnohopeofrecoveryandthathisconditionwasrapidlydeteriorating.VanWendelslastthreemonthsoflifebeforebeinggivenafinal,lethalinjectionbyhisdoctorwerefilmedandfirstshownontelevisionlastyearintheNetherlands.Theprogrammehassincebeenboughtby20countriesandeachtimeitisshown,itstartsanationwidedebateonthesubject.TheNetherlandsistheonlycountryinEuropewhichpermitseuthanasia,althoughitisnottechnicallylegalthere.However,doctorswhocarryouteuthanasiaunderstrictguidelinesintroducedbytheDutchParliamenttwoyearsagoareusuallynotprosecuted.Theguidelinesdemandthatthepatientisexperiencingextremesuffering,thatthereisnochanceofacure,andthatthepatienthasmaderepeatedrequestsforeuthanasia.Inadditiontothis,aseconddoctormustconfirmthatthesecriteriahavebeenmetandthedeathmustbereportedtothepolicedepartment.大学英语自学教程(下)电子版9ShoulddoctorsbeallowedtotakethelivesofothersDr.WilfredvanOijen,CeesvanWendelsdoctor,explainshowhelooksatthequestionWell,itsnotasifImplanningtomurderacrowdofpeoplewithamachinegun.Inthatcase,killingistheworstthingIcanimagine.Butthatsentirelydifferentfrommyworkasadoctor.IcareforpeopleandItrytoensurethattheydontsuffertoomuch.Thatsaverydifferentthing.Manypeople,though,aretotallyagainstthepracticeofeuthanasia.Dr.AndrewFerguson,ChairmanoftheorganisationHealthcareOpposedtoEuthanasia,saysthatinthevastmajorityofeuthanasiacases,whatthepatientisactuallyaskingforissomethingelse.Theymaywantahealthprofessionaltoopenupcommunicationforthemwiththeirlovedonesorfamilytheresnearlyalwaysanotherquestionbehindthequestion.Britainalsohasastrongtraditionofhospicesspecialhospitalswhichcareonlyforthedyingandtheirspecialneeds.CicelySaunders,PresidentoftheNationalHospiceCouncilandafoundermemberofthehospicemovement,arguesthateuthanasiadoesnttakeintoaccountthattherearewaysofcaringforthedying.SheisalsoconcernedthatallowingeuthanasiawouldunderminetheneedforcareandconsiderationofawiderangeofpeopleItsveryeasyinsocietynowfortheelderly,thedisabledandthedependenttofeelthattheyareburdens,andthereforethattheyoughttooptout.Ithinkthatanythingthatlegallyallowstheshorteningoflifedoesmakethosepeoplemorevulnerable.Manyfindthisprohibitionofanindividualsrighttodiepaternalistic.Althoughtheyagreethatlifeisimportantandshouldberespected,theyfeelthatthequalityoflifeshouldnotbeignored.Dr.vanOijenbelievesthatpeoplehavethefundamentalrighttochooseforthemselvesiftheywanttodieWhatthosepeoplewhoopposeeuthanasiaaretellingmeisthatdyingpeoplehaventtheright.Andthatwhenpeopleareveryill,weareallafraidoftheirdeath.Buttherearesituationswheredeathisafriend.Andinthosecases,whynotButwhynotisaquestionwhichmightcausestrongemotion.ThefilmshowingCeesvanWendelsdeathwasbothmovingandsensitive.Hisdoctorwasclearlyafamilyfriendhiswifehadonlyherhusbandsinterestsatheart.Some,however,wouldarguethatitwouldbedangeroustousethisparticularexampletosupportthecaseforeuthanasia.Notallpatientswouldreceivesuchahighlevelofindividualcareandattention.
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