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英语(二)语法要点.doc.doc英语(二)语法要点.doc.doc -- 5 元

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英语(一)、(二)语法要点1.16种动词时态形式(以work为例)补充1)(现在)将来时间表达法awill/shall动词原形bam/is/aregoingto动词原形cam/is/areaboutto动词原形dam/is/areto动词原形e一般现在时f现在进行时现在完成时的两种用法a已完成用法短暂动词不可与for(一段时间)或since(时间点)连用可用结构Itis/hasbeen一段时间since主语did短暂动词如enter,join,open,close,comeback,go,die,finish,stop,begin,end,ect.b未完成用法延续性动词可与for(一段时间)或since(时间点)连用延续性动词如live,study,work,etc.2.被动语态基本结构be过去分词,时态由be体现,例如1Theclassroomiscleanedeveryday.2Theclassroomwascleanedyesterday.3Theclassroomwasbeencleanednow.4Theclassroomwillbecleanedtomorrow.5Theclassroomisbeingcleanednow.6Theclassroommustbecleanednow.3.12类型的虚拟语气1)非真实条件句A.If主语haddone,主语would(或could,might)havedone(过去)B.If主语didwere,主语would(或could,might)do(现在)weretodoC.If主语didwere,主语would(或could,might)do(未来)shoulddo例如Ifyouhadbeenhereyesterday,youwouldhaveseenhim.IfIwereyou,Iwouldntdothat.IfItherewerenowaterontheearth,therewouldbenolifeweretorainIfitrainedtomorrow,wewouldcalloffourplan.Shouldrain注意主语虚拟语气(1)If主语shoulddo主语陈述语气祈使句Ifitshouldraintomorrow,wewouldcalloffourplan.Ifitshouldraintomorrow,wewillcalloffourplan.Ifsomeoneshouldcometoseeme,tellhimtowaitamoment.(2)含蓄条件句/隐含条件句without,butfor,butthat,but,otherwiseWithouryourhelp,Iwouldnothavesucceeded.→Ifyouhadnthelpedme,Iwouldnothavesucceeded.Butforyourhelp,Iwouldnothavesucceeded.→Butthatyouhelpedme,Iwouldnothavesucceeded.Iwouldhavecometoseeyou,butIwastoobusyyesterday.→IwouldhavecometoseeyouifIhadntbeenbusyyesterday.Iwastoobusyyesterdayotherwise,Iwouldhavecometoseeyou.→IfIhadntbeenbusyyesterday,Iwouldhavecometoseeyou.(3)错综型/混合型Ifyouhadtakenmyadvice,youwouldnotbeintroblenow.(4)倒装Ifyouhadbeenhereyesterday,→Hadyoubeenhereyesterday,IfIwereyou,→WereIyou,Ifitweretoraintomorrow,→Wereittoraintomorrow,Haddone(先时性)2)wishthat主语didwere(同时性)would/coulddo(未来)ItiswishedthatMywishisthatMywishthathascometrue.例如IwishthatIhadnsaidthattohim.Iwishthatlwereasyoungasyou.Iwishthatitwouldntbesohottomorrow.Iwishthatyoucouldstayhere.Haddone(先时性)3asif/though主语didwere/weredoing(同时性)would/coulddo(未来)例如HetalksaboutParisasifhehadbeenthere.Idontlike,thatguybecausehealwaystalksashekneweverything.Itlooksasifhewereanactor.Itlooksasifhewereconsideringaproblem.Itlooksasifitwouldntrain.haddone(过去)4)Ifonly主语didwere(现在)would/coulddo(未来)例如Ifonlyyouhadbeenhereyesterday.Ifonlyhewereherenow.Ifonlyitwouldbecooltomorrow.Ifonlyyoucouldstayhere.5)动词suggest,bropose,move(动议),recommend,urge,askreauire,request,demand.insist,advise,order,command,decide,vote.prefer等that主语shoulddoItissuggestedthat主语shoulddo...Mysuggestionisthat主语shoulddo...Thesuggestionthat主语shoulddo...hasbeenadopted.例如Theyproposedthatthemeetingshouldbepostponedtillnextweek.Itwasproposedthatthemeetingshouldbepostponedtillnextweek.Theirproposalwasthatthemeetingshouldbepostponedtillnextweek.Theirproposalthatthemeetingshouldbepostponedtillnextweekisreasonal.HeinsistedthatI_______wrong.A.amB.wasC.beD.were答案B(该句不可用虚拟语气,因为insist表示坚持认为)6)形容词important,neccssary,essential,imperative,advisable,natural,desirable用于下列结构Itisimportantthat主语shoulddo...例如Itisnecessarythatthemeetingshouldbeputofftillnextweek.7)Itisabout/hightimethat主语didwere例如Itistimethatyouwenthome.Itistimethatthefenceweremended.8lest,incase,forfearthat以防、以免、免得主语shoulddo...例如Takeanumbrellawithyoulestitshouldrain.Takeanumbrellawithyouincaseitshouldrain/willrain.9fear,beafraid,dreah,worrylest主语shoulddo...比较fear.beafraid.dread.worrythat主语陈述语气例如Thechildisafraidthattheteacherwillcriticizehim.Thechildisafraidlesttheteachershouldcriticizehim.10)wouldratherwouldsoonerhaddone(过去)that主语wouldassoondid(现在或未来)wouldprefer例如Iwouldratheryouhadntsaidthattohim.Iwouldratheryoudidntmentionittohim.IwouldratherIworkedinthesamecityasyou.11shouldhavedone本应该shouldnthavedone本不该例如Youshouldhaveaskedmeforpermissionbeforeyouleft.Youshouldnthavetalkedtoyourratherlikethat.12Itisstrange/surprising/incredible/unbelievable/inconceivable/ridiculousthat主语shouldhavedone/shoulddo例如Itisunbelievablethatheshouldhavehadthreeaccidentsinthepastweek.4.11个动词宾语不定式补语,to必须省略see,lookat,watch,observe,noticehear,listentolet,havemakefeel注意被动语态的时候仍然保留to。11组动词后接todo还是doing之区别1)decide,plan,desire,expect,hope,wish,pretend,promise,refuse.afford,agree,ask,fail.tend,prepare,manage,intend,offer,happen,chance,learn等十todo作宾语。2)finish,mind,suggest,enjoy,giveup,canthelp,avoid,escape,consider,delay,putoff,postpone,admit,deny,practise/practice,excuse,fancy,imagine,keep,miss,risk,appreciate,include,involve等十doing作宾语。todo(do表示的动作没有发生)3)forget,remember,regretdoing/havingdone(do表示的动作已经发生)todo(具体行为)4)hate,like,dislike,love,prefer,favordoing(一贯行为)todo(尽力、努力做某事)5)trydoing(试试做某事)todo(停下来去做某事)6)stopdoing(停止做某事)todo(想、打算做某事)7)meandoing(意味着)doing8)want,need,require(两个结构意思想同需要被做)tobedonetodo(继续做另一件事情)9)continue,goondoing(继续做同一件事情)todo10)begin,start(通常todo与doing可替换使用,无区别)doing但在以下三种情况下,begin和start后面只能跟todo作宾语A.主语非人Itbegantorain.B.谓语动词begin,start本身为进行体Sheisbeginningtocook.C.宾语动作表示情感、思想、意念Ibegantoloveher/likeher.Hebegantorealizehismistakes.HebegantounderstandwhatImeant.beworthdoingbeworthytobedone[三种结构意思相同,表示值得一做(被动)]beworthyofbeingdone.6.部分情态动词用法1)can/couldA.能力B.许可havedone(过去)C.可能性(主要用于否定、疑问句)canbe(现在状态)bedoing(现在动作)2)may/mightA.许可havedone(过去)B.可能性maybe(现在状态)bedoing(现在动作)3)mustA.必要性(否定式neednt)MustIstayhereYes,youmust.//No,youneednt.havedoneB.推测mustbe(否定式cant)bedoing4)表示禁止、不允许、不可以的表达法mustnt,maynot,cant5)可能性的否定形式maynot(部分否定),cant(完全否定)6)need既可作实义动词,又可作情态动词肯定句Ineedtobuyacar.Heneedstobuyacar.Ineedacar.Heneedsacar.否定句Ineedntbuyacar.Idontneedtobuyacar.Idontneedacar.疑问句NeedyoubuyacarYes,Imust.//No,Ineednt比较MustyoubuyacarYes,Imust.//No,Ineednt.DoyouneedtobuyacarYes,Ido.//No,Idont.DoyouneedacarYe,Ido.//No,Idont.条件句Ifyouneedbuyacar...Ifyouneedtobuyacar,...Ifyouneedacar,...7)比较neednthavedone本不必做某事(事实上做了)didntneedtodo没有必要做某事(事实上也没有做)区别1情态动词、实义动词区别2本不必做某事、没有必要做某事共同之处都表示过去时间8)比较neednthavedone本不必做某事(事实上做了)shouldnthavedone本不该做某事(事实上做了)9)shallA.作助动词。用于第一人称,构成将来时态B.作情态动词,用于二、三人称的陈述句,表示许诺、命令、规定、决心、告戒等C.作情态动词,用于一、三人称的疑问句,表示征求对方意见。10)willA.作助动词,用于所有人称,构成将来时态B.作情态动词,用于所有人称的陈述句,表示意志、意愿和习惯等C.作情态动词,用于第二人称的疑问句,表示征求对方意见。11)should/oughttoA.表示应该B.表示本应该shouldhavedone12)wouldA.作助动词,用于所有人称,构成过去将米时态B.作情态动词,用于所有人称的陈述句,表示过去的意志、意愿和习惯等C.作情态动词,用于第二人称的疑问句,表示征求对方意见。比will语气婉转。不表示过去。7.非谓语形式作名词后置定语的判断1)名词与非谓语动词之间无逻辑主谓关系n.十todo例如Sundayisanexcellentdaytomakeupyourscheduleforthefollowingweek.Hegotachancetogoabroad.2)名词与非谓语动词之间有逻辑主谓关系(1)主动havingdone(完成)n.+doing(进行、一般性)todo(将来)例如TheLabradorCurrentiscoldwatercomingfromtheArctic.Thestudenthavingfinishedhishomeworkwasallowedtogobackhomebytheteacher.WhoisthemantalkingtoourteacheroverthereYoucanneverpredicteverythingtohappeninthefuture.(2)被动done(完成、一般性)n.+beingdone(进行)tobedone(将来)例如Today,mostdiamondsusedinindustrycomefromRussia.Theproblemdiscussedatlastweeksmeetingisveryimportant.Theproblembeingdiscussednowisveryimportant.Theproblemtobediscussedatnestweeksmeetingisveryimportant.3)在下列结构中,一般用todo作后置定语(1)某人十have(意思是有)+sth+todo例如Hehasabooktoread.(2)Therebesthforsbtodo例如Thereisabookforhimtoread.(3)only/last/next/序数词十n.+todo例如Shewastheonlyonetolookafterthechild.8.倍数的表达法有Ais十数词十times、as+adj.+asB.Ais十数词十times十比较级十thanB.Ais十数词十times+the十名词十ofB.◆如Thisbuildingis4timesashighasthatone.Thisbuildingis3timeshigherthanthatone.Thisbuildingis4timestheheightofthatone.Thisstreetis4timesaswideasthatone.Thisstreetis3timeswiderthanthatone.Thisstreetis4timesthewidthofthatone.Thisriveris4timesasdeepasthatone.Thisriveris3timesdeeperthanthatone.Thisriveris4timesthedepthofthatone.类似的转换4timesaslongas→3timeslongerthan→4timesthelengthof4timesasstrongas→3timesstrongerthan→4timesthestrengthof4timesaslargeas→3timeslargerthan→4timesthesizeof9.部分否定与完全否定Notallthestudentswenttothecinema.(部分否定)Allthestudentsdidntgotothecinema.(部分否定)Noneofthestudentswenttothecinema.(完全否定)Notbothofthemwenttothecinema.(部分否定)Bothofthemdinnotgotothecinema.(部分否定)Neitherofthemwenttothecinema.(完全否定)下部分请关注。。。Notbothofthemwenttothecinema.(部分否定)Bothofthemdinnotgotothecinema.(部分否定)Neitherofthemwenttothecinema.(完全否定)10.表示是否的词有whether和if,但在下列5种情况下,宜用whether,而不可用if1)引导主语从句WhetherIcanstaywithmymotherisanothermatter(我是否能和母亲住在一起,则是另一回事。)2)介宾IhaventsettledthequestionofwhetherIllgobackhome.(我是否回家,还没有定。)3)与todo连用Shedoesntknowwhethertogetmarriednoworwait.(她不知道该现在就结婚,还是等等再说。)4)与or(not)连用Itsdifficulttosaywhetheryoucangetaticketornot.(很难说你能不能得到一张票。)Heissuretoarrivenextweek,whetherhecomesbywaterorbyair.(不管他乘船还是乘飞机来,他下周一定到。)5)在名词后面Hecouldfindnowordswhetherofprotestorwelcome.(无论是抗议的话还是欢迎的话他都说不出来。)Theproblemwhetherwewillgetenoughfinancialsupportisnotsettledyet.(我们是否会得到足够的经济支持这一问题还没解决。)11.动词have作让讲,可用于以下句型1)havesbdosth(让某人做某事)例如Shehadmebuyabookforher.2)havesbdoingsth(让某人做某事)(与)相比,2)强调一直做个不停)例如Hisjokeshaduslaughingallthetimeattheparty.3)havesthdoing(让某物做某事)例如havethelamplighting/havethefireburning/havethemachineworking4)havesthdone(让某事被做)例如Hehadhishaircutyesterday/Hehadhiscarrepairedthismorning.12.常见倒装类型有1)否定副词位于句首(否定副词包括hardlyscarcely,rarely,never,seldom,little,innocase,undernocircumstancenotuntil,notonly,bynomeans,)例如NeverhaveIsaidthatbeforeHehadhardly/scarcelyenteredtheroomwhenthetelephonerang.→Hardy/scarcelyhadheenteredtheroomwhenHehadnosoonerenteredthefoomthanthetelephonerang.→Nosoonerhadheenteredtheroomthan2)only十状语位于句首例如OnlyafterIcomebackcanyouleave.3)so(也),neither(也不),nor(也不)位于句首例如Shecanplaythepiano.SocanI.4)sothat和suchthat结构中,so十形容词/副词或such十名词短语位于句首例如Solovelyisthegirlthateverybodylikesher.5)if引导的非真实条件句中,将if省略例如Shoulditraintomorrow,wewouldcancelourplan.6)as表示虽然、尽管例如Youngasheis,(=Althoughheisyoung,)Famousasheis,(=Althoughheisfamous,)Childasheis,(=Althoughheisachild,)Bravelyastheyfought,(=Althoughtheyfoughtbravely)Tryastheymight,(=Althoughtheymighttry,)7)whether十主语十is/areor→be十主语+or例如Whetheryouareastudentorateacher,→Beyouastudentorateacher,13.sotooadj.ann.ashow例如Itissobeautifulaflowerthateverybodylikesit.Thisistoodifficultaquestion.HeisasfamousascientistasNewton.Howlovelyachildheis14.有关宁愿做而不愿做的表达法sthtosthpreferdoingsthtodoingsthtodosthratherthandosth例如Ipreferteatocoffee.Ipreferstayingathometogoingoutinsuchhotweather.Iprefertostayathomefatherthangooutinsuchhotweather.wouldratherdosththandosthwouldsoonerdosththandosthwouldassoondosthasdosth例如Iwouldratherstayathomethangooutinsuchhotweather.Iwouldsoonerstayathomethangooutinsuchhotweather.Iwouldassoonstayathomeasgooutinsuchhotweather.另外,注意以下结构中的虚拟语气wouldrather
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