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1自考英语(二)讲义完整版一讲义一TEXTAWHATISADECISIONI课文内容简介决策的目的是制定和实现组织目标。作决策的原因是有问题存在、目标和目的不正确、或者有某种东西防碍目标或目的的实现。作决策的过程对管理人员来说至关重要。决策者必须具备从多个可供选择的可能性中确定最佳选择的手段。而多种目标的顺序和重要性也部分地基于决策者的价值观。今天所作的决策可能会对将来产生深远的影响。因此,有经验的管理者能从当前决策看到将来的效果。段落大意课文分成三部分第一、二段决策的定义THEDEFINITIONOFDECISION第三、四段作决策的一般过程THEGENERALPROCESSOFMAKINGADECISION第五至九段在管理层次上,多种因素影响决策的制定VARIOUSFACTORSINFLUENCINGDECISIONMAKINGATTHEMANAGERIALLEVELIINEWWORDSORGANIZATIONALA组织上的GOALN目的,目标OBJECTIVEN/A目标,目的/客观的,真实的ACCOMPLISHVT完成(任务等)PREDICTVT/VI预言;预示ACCOMPANYVT伴随,陪同IMPLEMENTVT实现;完成CONSTRAINTN强制;强制因素PRECEDENTN先例,前例SIMPLIFYVT简化TENDENCYN趋势,倾向MANAGERIALA经理的,管理人的MAKERN制造者;制造商ACHIEVEMENTN完成,达到ATTAINVT达到;完成2OPTIMALA最适宜的,最理想的SUBOPTIMIZATIONN局部最优化TRADEOFFN权衡;物物交换ARGUEVT/VI争辩,争论BUDGETN/VT预算SCHEMEN/VT把编入预算DEFINEVT解释,给下定义MULTIPLEA/N多样的,复合的/倍数PROFITABILITYN赚钱,获利CORRECTNESSN正确,正确性UNINTENDEDA非计划中的,非故意的ONGOINGA进行中的,非故意的ENTITYN存在,实体SKILLEDA熟练的;有技能的INTHEWAY挡路、碍事TOMAKEAGUESSAT猜测ANDTHELIKE等等,诸如此类TOSEEKTO追求,争取INPART部分地,在某种程度上POINTOFVIEW观点词汇精讲1GOALN目标,进球,球门(同义词AIM,END,PURPOSE,OBJECTIVE)HERGOALISAPLACEATUNIVERSITY她的目标是在大学任教。2OBJECTIVEN/A目的;目标(尤指较长远的目标);宗旨/客观的,如实的派生词OBJECTN物体反义词SUBJECTIVEN/A主语;主观事物;/主观的,用法HEROBJECTIVEISTOGETACOLLEGEEDUCATION她的目标是接受大学教育。IFYOUDONTWORKHARD,YOULLNEVERACHIEVEYOUROBJECTIVES假如你不努力工作,你将永远达不到目的。ACHIEVE表示较难达到的目标。ITISANOBJECTIVEREPORT这是一篇如实的报道。33ACCOMPLISHV完成(任务)等THESTUDENTSACCOMPLISHEDTHETASKINLESSTHANTENMINUTES学生们在不到10分钟内完成了任务。4PREDICTV预言,预示,预告同义词FORECASTV预测,预报ITSHARDTOPREDICTWHENITWILLHAPPEN很难预见这件事何时发生。5ACCOMPANYV伴随,陪同THELONELYOLDMANISACCOMPANIEDBYHISDOG这位孤独的老人让他的狗做伴。ALLORDERSMUSTBEACCOMPANIEDWITHCASH所有的订货单必须随付现金。派生词COMPANYN公司;V陪伴6IMPLEMENTV实现,实施,履行(诺言)等THECOMMITTEESSUGGESTIONSWILLBEIMPLEMENTEDIMMEDIATELY委员会的意见将立即贯彻执行。THECHANGESTOTHENATIONALHEALTHSYSTEMWILLBEIMPLEMENTEDNEXTYEAR对全国医疗体系的改革将在明年进行。7CONSTRAINTN限制,约束THEYTOLDTHETRUTHBUTONLYUNDERCONSTRAINTCONSTRAINTONTHERULESOFGRAMMER他们说了实话但是有所保留(是被迫的)。语法规则的限制(约束)8TENDENCYN趋势,倾向THEREISAGROWINGTENDENCYFORPEOPLETOWORKATHOMEINSTEADOFINOFFICES人们在家里而不是在办公室里工作的趋势日益增长。派生词TENDV趋向,倾向用法TENDTODOSTHHETENDSTOGETANGRYWHENPEOPLEDISAGREEWITHHIM当人们不同意他的意见时,他很容易生气。9ACHIEVEMENTN完成,成就,ANOLYMPICSILVERMEDALISAREMARKABLEACHIEVEMENTFORONESOYOUNG对一个如此年轻的人来说,获得奥运会银牌是个了不起的成就。派生词ACHIEVEV完成,做到,达到(目的),实现,获得HEWILLNEVERACHIEVEHISOBJECTIVESIFHEDOESNTWORKHARD如果他不努力,将会永远达不到目的。410ATTAINV达到;获得(长期努力后而获得)同义词OBTAIN,GET用法SHEHASMADEUPHERMINDTOATTAINHERGOALINLIFE她下定决心要达到生活中的目标。THEAPPLETREEHASATTAINEDTOAGREATHEIGHT苹果树已长得很高了。11OPTIMALADJ最佳的THESAILORSAREWAITINGFOROPTIMALWEATHERCONDITIONSBEFORETAKINGOFF船员们正在等待出航的最佳天气条件。12ARGUEVT/VI争辩,争论,辩论用法作不及物动词用时,后边可以接WITH,ABOUT或OVER(就争论),FOR(赞成)或AGAINST(反对)SHEISALWAYSREADYTOARGUEOVERTHESMALLESTISSUES她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。HEOFTENARGUESPHILOSOPHYWITHJAMES他常和詹姆斯讨论哲学。HEARGUEDFORIMMEDIATEACTION他主张立即行动。THEYARGUEDAGAINSTSUCHAPOLICY他们反对这种政策。作及物动词时,表示“说服、用辩论证明”的意思IARGUEDHIMOUTGOINGONSUCHADANGEROUSJOURNEY我说服他不做这样危险的旅行。HEARGUEDTHATMANWASDESCENDEDFROMAPES他论证人类的祖先是猿。13SCHEMEN计划方案HEHASGOTACRAZYSCHEMEFORGETTINGRICHBEFOREHEIS20他制定了一个在20岁之前发财的疯狂计划。14MULTIPLEADJ多样的复合的WHATTHEPERSONDOESNEXTISTHERESULTOFTHEMULTIPLEINFLUENCESTOWHICHTHEYHAVEBEENEXPOSED一个人下一步会做什么是他受到的多种影响的结果。15ONGOINGADJ进行中的,前进的NOAGREEMENTHASYETBEENREACHEDANDTHENEGOTIATIONSONESTILLONGOING目前还没有达成任何协议,谈判仍在进行。16ENTITYN存在实体HEREGARDEDTHENORTHOFTHECOUNTRYASASEPARATECULTURALENTITY5他把这个国家的北方看成一个单独的文化实体。17SKILLEDADJ熟练的,有技能的MYMOTHERISVERYSKILLEDAT/INDRESSMAKING我母亲非常擅长做衣服。PHRASESANDEXPRESSIONS1(STAND,GET,BE)INTHEWAY碍事,挡道的;妨碍人的IFYOUARENOTGOINGTOHELP,ATLEASTDONTGETINTHEWAY如果你不愿帮忙,至少别妨碍人家。THECHAIRISINTHEWAY,PLEASEMOVEITAWAY这把椅子挡着路,请把它移开。相关短语INAWAY在某种程度上;在某些方面;从某一点上看INNOWAY决不;一点也不;INTHEWAYOF按照;就。而言BYWAYOF取道,经由BYTHEWAY顺便问一下2TOMAKEAGUESSAT猜测YOUMIGHTHAVEBEENABLETOMAKEAGUESSATWHOSHEWAS你本来能够猜到她是谁。CANYOUMAKEAGUESSATTHEPRICE你猜得出价钱吗3TOSEEKTO(INF)寻求,争取POWERSTATIONSARESEEKINGTOREDUCETHEIRUSEOFOIL发电站正在设法减少石油的使用4INPART部分地;有些部分;在某种程度上THISWASINPARTDUETOFINANCIALDIFFICULTIES部分是由于财政困难。THERESPONSIBILITYWASINPARTBECAUSEOFME部分责任在我。5POINTOFVIEW视点,视角THEBOOKLOOKSATCOLLEGELIFEFROMASTUDENTSPOINTOFVIEW这本书从一个学生的视角来看大学生活。6TOVARYFROMTO从到不同,因而异SALARYSCALESVARYFROMSTATETOSTATE工资级别因州而异。67CONTRIBUTETO把贡献给。WELLCONTRIBUTEOURSELVESTOTHISCAREERAFTERWEGRADUATE我们毕业后将为此事业作贡献。CONTRIBUTETO导致SMOKINGISTHEMAINFACTORCONTRIBUTINGTOLUNGCANCER吸烟是导致肺癌的主要因素。8BEBENEFICIALTO对有利JOGGINGISBENEFICIALTOOURHEALTH慢跑有利于我们的健康。RECITINGPASSAGESISBENEFICIALTOIMPROVINGORALENGLISH朗读(背诵)短文段落对提高英语口语有利。III课文精讲第一部分PARA1ADECISIONISACHOICEMADEFROMAMONGALTERNATIVECOURSESOFACTIONTHATAREAVAILABLETHEPURPOSEOFMAKINGADECISIONISTOESTABLISHANDACHIEVEORGANIZATIONALGOALSANDOBJECTIVESTHEREASONFORMAKINGADECISIONISTHATAPROBLEMEXISTS,GOALSOROBJECTIVESAREWRONG,ORSOMETHINGISSTANDINGINTHEWAYOFACCOMPLISHINGTHEM1MADEFROMAMONGALTERNATIVECOURSESOFACTION是过去分词短语作定语COURSESOFACTION行动方针THATAREAVAILABLE是定语从句,修饰概念短语“行动方针”2THEREASONFORMAKINGADECISIONISTHATAPROBLEMEXISTS,GOALSOROBJECTIVESAREWRONG,ORSOMETHINGISSTANDINGINTHEWAYOFACCOMPLISHINGTHEM此句是由THAT引导的表语从句,表语从句由APROBLEMEXIST;GOALSOFOBJECTIVESAREWRONG;及SOMETHINGISSTANDINGINTHEWAYOFACCOMPLISHINGTHEM三个并列句构成。THEREASONFORISTHAT是一个常用的句子。例THEREASONFORCANCELINGTHETRAVELISTHATTHEYLACKOFMONEY取消旅行的原因是他们手头缺钱。THEREASONWHY是另外一个常用的句子。例THEREARE3REASONSWHYTHEYAREUNWILLINGTODISCUSSINSURANCE他们不愿意谈论保险的原因有三个。PARA2THUSTHEDECISIONMAKINGPROCESSISFUNDAMENTALTOMANAGEMENTALMOSTEVERYTHINGA7MANAGERDOESINVOLVESDECISIONS,INDEED,SOMESUGGESTTHATTHEMANAGEMENTPROCESSISDECISIONMAKINGALTHOUGHMANAGERSCANNOTPREDICTTHEFUTURE,MANYOFTHEIRDECISIONSREQUIRETHATTHEYCONSIDERPOSSIBLEFUTUREEVENTSOFTENMANAGERSMUSTMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBEANDTRYTOLEAVEASLITTLEASPOSSIBLETOCHANCE,BUTSINCEUNCERTAINTYISALWAYSTHERE,RISKACCOMPANIESDECISIONSSOMETIMESTHECONSEQUENCESOFAPOORDECISIONARESLIGHT;ATOTHERTIMESTHEYARESERIOUS3AMANAGERDOES是省略THAT的定语从句,修饰先行词EVERYTHING当先行词为EVERYTHING,SOMETHING,ANYTHING,NOTHING等不定代词时定语从句引导词不可用WHICH,此句的后半部分SOMESUGGESTTHAT是宾语从句SUGGESTV认为,提出,建议(其后的宾语从句多用于虚拟语气)4ALTHOUGHCONJ“虽然,尽管”引导让步状语从句例如ALTHOUGHMYCARISVERYOLD,ITSTILLRUNSVERYWELL虽然我的汽车很旧,但是仍然跑得很好。REQUIREVT要求,需要后边由THAT引导一个宾语从句5OFTENMANAGERSMUSTMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBEANDTRYTOLEAVEASLITTLEASPOSSIBLETOCHANCE,BUTSINCEUNCERTAINTYISALWAYSTHERE,RISKACCOMPANIESDECISIONSMAKEABESTGUESSAT作出最佳猜测,AT表示动作或行为的方向和目标,如LOOKAT(看),AIMAT(瞄准,目的是),THROW(ASTONE)AT(向掷石头),SHOOTAT(射击),LAUGHAT(嘲笑)本句中WHATTHEFUTUREWILLBE是一个介词宾语从句,(作介词AT的宾语);TOLEAVESTHTOCHANCE“凭运气,听任命运的安排,听其自然发展”“AS形容词(或副词)ASPOSSIBLE”意思是“尽可能地;尽量”。ASLITTLEASPOSSIBLE尽可能少ITRIEDTOBEASFRIENDLYASPOSSIBLE我尽量地表示友好。COMEASQUICKLYASPOSSIBLE尽快来。SINCEUNCERTAINTYISALWAYSTHERE是一个原因状语从句。RISKACCOMPANIESDECISIONS风险伴随着决策6SOMETIMESATOTHERTIMES有时,而有时则APOORDECISION一个不良决策第二部分8PARA3CHOICEISTHEOPPORTUNITYTOSELECTAMONGALTERNATIVESIFTHEREISNOCHOICE,THEREISNODECISIONTOBEMADEDECISIONMAKINGISTHEPROCESSOFCHOOSING,ANDMANYDECISIONSHAVEABROADRANGEOFCHOICEFOREXAMPLE,ASTUDENTMAYBEABLETOCHOOSEAMONGANUMBEROFDIFFERENTCOURSESINORDERTOIMPLEMENTTHEDECISIONTOOBTAINACOLLEGEDEGREEFORMANAGERS,EVERYDECISIONHASCONSTRAINTSBASEDONPOLICIES,PROCEDURES,LAWS,PRECEDENTS,ANDTHELIKETHESECONSTRAINTSEXISTATALLLEVELSOFTHEORGANIZATION7“选择”三个词的区别ALTERNATIVEADJ两者或多于两者选一个,供选择的,N替代物CHOICE选自己喜欢的,挑出,选出SELECT选出最好的,筛选、精选8由IF引导的条件状语从句,主句中的不定式被动态TOBEMADE作定语,修饰DECISION9RANGEN范围ABROADRANGEOFCHOICE一个很广的选择范围10FORMANAGERS,EVERYDECISIONHASCONSTRAINTSBASEDONPOLICIES,PROCEDURES,LAWS,PRECEDENTS,ANDTHELIKE本句中BASEDON是一个过去分词作定语修饰CONSTRAINTSBEBASEDON表示“建立在基础上例THEBOOKISBASEDONATRUESTORY这本书是以一个真实的故事为依据的。HEWASTHEFIRSTTODRAWAMAPTHATWASBASEDONALLAVAILABLEKNOWLEDGE,RATHERTHANGUESSORIMAGINATION他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图,而不是基于猜测和想象。ANDTHELIKE意思是“等等(之类的东西)”。例HESTUDIEDPAINTING,MUSIC,ENGLISHANDTHELIKE他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。11ATALLLEVELS“在各个层次”PARA4ALTERNATIVESARETHEPOSSIBLECOURSESOFACTIONFROMWHICHCHOICESCANBEMADEIFTHEREARENOALTERNATIVES,THEREISNOCHOICEAND,THEREFORE,NODECISIONIFNOALTERNATIVESARESEEN,OFTENITMEANSTHATATHOROUGHJOBOFEXAMININGTHEPROBLEMSHASNOTBEENDONEFOREXAMPLE,MANAGERSSOMETIMESTREATPROBLEMSINANEITHER/ORFASHION;THISISTHEIRWAYOFSIMPLIFYINGCOMPLEXPROBLEMSBUTTHETENDENCYTOSIMPLIFYBLINDSTHEMTOOTHERALTERNATIVES912FROMWHICH引导定语从句,修饰COURSESOFACTION行动方针13ATHOROUGHJOBOFEXAMINING一个彻底的考察工作ATHOROUGHJOB是主语,OFEXAMININGTHEPROBLEMS修饰JOB,HASNOTBEENDONE是句子的谓语。THOROUGHA彻底的THROUGHPREP通过,穿过THOUGHCONJ虽然,尽管(同ALTHOUGH)THOUGHTN思想14FOREXAMPLE,MANAGERSSOMETIMESTREATPROBLEMSINANEITHER/ORFASHIONEITHER/OR意思是“非此即彼;二者择一”。例WEFIGHT,ORWEDONTITSANEITHER/ORDECISION我们战斗或不战斗这是二者择一的决定。第三部分PARA5ATTHEMANAGERIALLEVEL,DECISIONMAKINGINCLUDESLIMITINGALTERNATIVESASWELLASIDENTIFYINGTHEM,ANDTHERANGEISFROMHIGHLYLIMITEDTOPRACTICALLYUNLIMITED15ATTHEMANAGERIALLEVEL,DECISIONMAKINGINCLUDESLIMITINGALTERNATIVESASWELLASIDENTIFYINGTHEM,ANDTHERANGEISFROMHIGHLYLIMITEDTOPRACTICALLYUNLIMITED在ASWELLAS结构中,强调前者LIMITINGALTERNATIVES,不强调后者译为作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)PRACTICALLYAD实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简直)在本文中是几乎的意思。例如几乎是不可能PRACTICALLYIMPOSSIBLEPARA6DECISIONMAKERSMUSTHAVESOMEWAYOFDETERMININGWHICHOFSEVERALALTERNATIVESISBESTTHATIS,WHICHCONTRIBUTESTHEMOSTTOTHEACHIEVEMENTOFORGANIZATIONALGOALSANORGANIZATIONALGOALISANENDORASTATEOFAFFAIRSTHEORGANIZATIONSEEKSTOREACHBECAUSEINDIVIDUALS(ANDORGANIZATIONS)FREQUENTLYHAVEDIFFERENTIDEASABOUTHOWTOATTAINTHEGOALS,THEBESTCHOICEMAYDEPENDONWHOMAKESTHEDECISIONFREQUENTLY,DEPARTMENTSORUNITSWITHINANORGANIZATIONMAKEDECISIONSTHATAREGOODFORTHEMINDIVIDUALLYBUTTHATARELESSTHANOPTIMALFORTHELARGER
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