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101A.WhatIsaDecisionAdecisionisachoicemadefromamongalternativecoursesofactionthatareavailable.Thepurposeofmakingadecisionistoestablishandachieveorganizationalgoalsandobjectives.Thereasonformakingadecisionisthataproblemexists,goalsorobjectivesarewrong,orsomethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthem.Thusthedecisionmakingprocessisfundamentaltomanagement.Almosteverythingamanagerdoesinvolvesdecisions,indeed,somesuggestthatthemanagementprocessisdecisionmaking.Althoughmanagerscannotpredictthefuture,manyoftheirdecisionsrequirethattheyconsiderpossiblefutureevents.Oftenmanagersmustmakeabestguessatwhatthefuturewillbeandtrytoleaveaslittleaspossibletochance,hutsinceuncertaintyisalwaysthere,riskaccompaniesdecisions.Sometimestheconsequencesofapoordecisionareslightatothertimestheyareserious.Choiceistheopportunitytoselectamongalternatives.Ifthereisnochoice,thereisnodecisiontobemade.Decisionmakingistheprocessofchoosing,andmanydecisionshaveabroadrangeofchoice.Forexample,astudentmaybeabletochooseamonganumberofdifferentcoursesinordertoimplementthedecisiontoobtainacollegedegree.Formanagers,everydecisionhasconstraintsbasedonpolicies,procedures,laws,precedents,andthelike.Theseconstraintsexistatalllevelsoftheorganization.Alternativesarethepossiblecoursesofactionfromwhichchoicescanbemade.Iftherearenoalternatives,thereisnochoiceand,therefore,nodecision.Ifnoalternativesareseen,oftenitmeansthatathoroughjobofexaminingtheproblemshasnotbeendone.Forexample,managerssometimestreatproblemsinaneither/orfashionthisistheirwayofsimplifyingcomplexproblems.Butthetendencytosimplifyblindsthemtootheralternatives.Atthemanageriallevel,decisionmakingincludeslimitingalternativesaswellasidentifyingthem,andtherangeisfromhighlylimitedtopracticallyunlimited.Decisionmakersmusthavesomewayofdeterminingwhichofseveralalternativesisbestthatis,whichcontributesthemosttotheachievementoforganizationalgoals.Anorganizationalgoalisanendorastateofaffairstheorganizationseekstoreach.Becauseindividualsandorganizationsfrequentlyhavedifferentideasabouthowtoattainthegoals,thebestchoicemaydependonwhomakesthedecision.Frequently,departmentsorunitswithinanorganizationmakedecisionsthataregoodforthemindividuallybutthatarelessthanoptimalforthelargerorganization.Calledsuboptimization,thisisatradeoffthatincreasestheadvantagestooneunitorfunctionbutdecreasestheadvantagestoanotherunitorfunction.Forexample,themarketingmanagermayargueeffectivelyforanincreasedadvertisingbudget.Inthelargerschemeofthings,however,increasedfundingforresearchtoimprovetheproductsmightbemorebeneficialtotheorganization.Thesetradeoffsoccurbecausetherearemanyobjectivesthatorganizationswishtoattainsimultaneously.Someoftheseobjectivesaremoreimportantthanothers,buttheorderanddegreeofimportanceoftenvaryfrompersontopersonandfromdepartmenttodepartment.Differentmanagersdefinethesameproblemindifferentterms.Whenpresentedwithacommoncase,salesmanagerstendtoseesalesproblems,productionmanagersseeproductionproblems,andsoon.Theorderingandimportanceofmultipleobjectivesisalsobased,inpart,onthevaluesofthedecisionmaker.Suchvaluesarepersonaltheyarehardtounderstand,evenbytheindividual,becausetheyaresodynamicandcomplex.Inmanybusinesssituationsdifferentpeoplesvaluesaboutacceptabledegreesofrisk2andprofitabilitycausedisagreementaboutthecorrectnessofdecisions.Peopleoftenassumethatadecisionisanisolatedphenomenon.Butfromasystemspointofview,problemshavemultiplecauses,anddecisionshaveintendedandunintendedconsequences.Anorganizationisanongoingentity,andadecisionmadetodaymayhaveconsequencesfarintothefuture.Thustheskilledmanagerlookstowardthefutureconsequencesofcurrentdecisions.01B.SecretsofSuccessatanInterviewThesubjectoftodaystalkisinterviews.Thekeywordsherearepreparationandconfidence,whichwillcarryyoufar.Doyourhomeworkfirst.Findoutallyoucanaboutthejobyouareapplyingforandtheorganizationyouhopetoworkfor.ManyoftheemployersIinterviewedmadethesamecriticismofcandidates.Theyhavenoideawhatthedaytodayworkofthejobbringsabout.Theyhavevaguenotionsoffurtheringthecompanysprospectsorofservingthecommunity,buthavenevertakenthetroubletofindouttheactualtaskstheywillberequiredtodo.Donotletthisbesaidofyou.Itshowsanunattractiveindifferencetoyouremployerandtoyourjob.Takethetimetoputyourselfintotheinterviewersplace.Hewantssomebodywhoishardworkingwithapleasantpersonalityandarealinterestinthejob.Anythingthatyoufindoutabouttheprospectiveemployercanbeusedtoyouradvantageduringtheinterviewtoshowthatyouhavebotheredtomastersomefactsaboutthepeoplewhoyouhopetoworkfor.Writedownandrememberthequestionsyouwanttoasktheinterviewerssothatyouarenotspeechlesswhentheyinviteyourquestions.Makesurethatholidaysandpayarenotthefirstthingsyouaskabout.Ifallyourquestionshavebeenansweredduringtheinterview,replyInfact,Ididhaveseveralquestions,butyouhavealreadyansweredthemall.Donotbeafraidtoaskforclarificationofsomethingthathasbeensaidduringtheinterviewifyouwanttobesurewhatwasimplied,butdobepolite.Justbeforeyougototheinterview,lookagainattheoriginaladvertisementthatyouanswered,anycorrespondencefromyourprospectiveemployer,photocopiesofyourletterofapplicationorapplicationformandyourresume.Thenyouwillrememberwhatyousaidandwhattheywant.Thisisveryimportantifyouhaveappliedformanyjobsinashorttimeasitiseasytobecomeconfusedandgiveanimpressionofinefficiency.Makesureyouknowwhereandwhenyouhavetoreportfortheinterview.Gotothebuildingbutnotinsidetheofficeadayortwobefore,ifnecessary,tofindouthowlongthejourneytakesandwhereexactlytheplaceis.Aimtoarrivefiveortenminutesearlyfortheactualinterview,thenyouwillhavealittletimeinhandandyouwillnotpanicifyouaredelayed.Youstartatadisadvantageifyouarriveworriedandtenminuteslate.Dressinclean,neat,conservativeclothes.NowisNOTthetimetoexperimentwiththepunklookorgirlstowearlowcutdresseswithminiskirts.Makesurethatyourshoes,handsandhairandteetharecleanandneat.Havetheletterinvitingyouforaninterviewreadytoshowincasethereisanydifficultyin3communication.Youmayfindyourselffacingoneinterviewerorapanel.Thelatterisfarmoreintimidating,butdonotletitworryyoutoomuch.Theinterviewerwillprobablyhaveatableinfrontofhim/her.Donotputyourthingsorarmsonit.Ifyouhaveabagoracase,putitonthefloorbesideyourchair.Donotclutchitnervouslyor,worsestill,dropit,spillingeverything.Shakehandsiftheintervieweroffershishandfirst.Thereislittlelikelihoodthatapaneloffivewantstogothoughtheprocessofallshakinghandswithyouinturn.Soyoudonotbeupsetifnooneoffers.Shakehandsfirmlyaweakhandsuggestsaweakpersonality,andacrushinggripisobviouslypainful.Donotdropthehandassoonasyourshastoucheditasthiswillseemtoshowyoudonotliketheotherperson.Speakpolitelyandnaturallyevenifyouarefeelingshy.Thinkbeforeyouansweranyquestions.Ifyoucannotunderstand,askWouldyoumindrephrasingthequestion,pleaseThequestionwillthenberepeatedindifferentwords.Ifyouarenotdefinitelyacceptedorturneddownonthespot,askWhenmayIexpecttoheartheresultsofthisinterviewIfyoudoreceivealetterofferingyouthejob,youmustreplybyletterkeepaphotocopyassoonaspossible.Goodluck02A.BlackHolesWhatisablackholeWell,itsdifficulttoanswerthisquestion,sincethetermswewouldnormallyusetodescribeascientificphenomenonareinadequatehere.Astronomersandscientiststhinkthatablackholeisaregionofspacenotathingintowhichmatterhasfallenandfromwhichnothingcanescapenotevenlight.Sowecantseeablackhole.Ablackholeexertsastronggravitationalpullandyetithasnomatter.Itisonlyspaceorsowethink.HowcanthishappenThetheoryisthatsomestarsexplodewhentheirdensityincreasestoaparticularpointtheycollapseandsometimesasupernovaoccurs.Fromearth,asupernovalookslikeaverybrightlightintheskywhichshineseveninthedaytime.Supernovaewerereportedbyastronomersintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.SomepeoplethinkthattheStarofBethlehemcouldhavebeenasupernova.ThecollapseofastarmayproduceaWhiteDwarforaneutronstarastar,whosematterissodensethatitcontinuallyshrinksbytheforceofitsowngravity.Butifthestarisverylargemuchbiggerthanoursunthisprocessofshrinkingmaybesointensethatablackholeresults.Imaginetheearthreducedtothesizeofamarble,butstillhavingthesamemassandastrongergravitationalpull,andyouhavesomeideaoftheforceofablackhole.Anymatterneartheblackholeissuckedin.Itisimpossibletosaywhathappensinsideablackhole.Scientistshavecalledtheboundaryareaaroundtheholetheeventhorizon.Weknownothingabouteventswhichhappenonceobjectspassthisboundary.Butintheory,mattermustbehaveverydifferentlyinsidethehole.Forexample,ifamanfellintoablackhole,hewouldthinkthathereachedthecenterofitveryquickly.Howeveranobserverattheeventhorizonwouldthinkthatthemanneverreachedthecenteratall.Ourspaceandtimelawsdontseemtoapplytoobjectsintheareaofablackhole.Einsteinsrelativitytheoryistheonly4onewhichcanexplainsuchphenomena.Einsteinclaimedthatmatterandenergyareinterchangeable,sothatthereisnoabsolutetimeandspace.Therearenoconstantsatall,andmeasurementsoftimeandspacedependonthepositionoftheobserver.Theyarerelative.WedonotyetfullyunderstandtheimplicationsoftherelativitytheorybutitisinterestingthatEinsteinstheoryprovidedabasisfortheideaofblackholesbeforeastronomersstartedtofindsomeevidencefortheirexistence.Itisonlyrecentlythatastronomershavebegunspecificresearchintoblackholes.InAugust1977,asatellitewaslaunchedtogatherdataaboutthe10millionblackholeswhicharethoughttobeintheMilkyWay.Andastronomersareplanninganewobservatorytostudytheindividualexplodingstarsbelievedtobeblackholes,Themostconvincingevidenceofblackholescomesfrownresearchintobinarystarsystems.Binarystars,astheirnamesuggests,aretwinstarswhosepositioninspaceaffectseachother.Insomebinarysystems,astronomershaveshownthatthereisaninvisiblecompanionstar,apartnertotheonewhichwecanseeinthesky.Matterfromtheonewhichwecanseeisbeingpulledtowardsthecompanionstar.Couldthisinvisiblestar,whichexertssuchagreatforce,beablackholeAstronomershaveevidenceofafewotherstarstoo,whichmighthaveblackholesascompanions.Thestoryofblackholesisjustbeginning.Speculationsaboutthem.areendless.Theremightbeamassiveblackholeatthecenterofourgalaxyswallowingupstarsataveryrapidrate.Mankindmayonedaymeetthisfate.Ontheotherhand,scientistshavesuggestedthatveryadvancedtechnologycouldonedaymakeuseoftheenergyofblackholesformankind.Thesespeculationssoundlikesciencefiction.Butthetheoryofblackholesinspaceisacceptedbymanyseriousscientistsandastronomers.Theyshowusaworldwhichoperatesinatotallydifferentwayfromourownandtheyquestionourmostbasicexperienceofspaceandtime.02B.WorldswithinWorldsFirstofallletusconsidertheearththatistosay,theworldasaplanetrevolvingroundthesun.Theearthisoneofnineplanetswhichmoveinorbitroundthesun.Thesenineplanets,togetherwiththesun,makeupwhatiscalledoursolarsystem.Howthiswonderfulsystemstartedandwhatkeptitworkingwithsuchwonderfulaccuracyislargelyamysterybutastronomerstellusthatitisonlyoneofmillionsofsimilarsystemsinspace,andoneofthesmallest.Thestarswhichweseeglitteringintheskyonadarkandcloudlessnightarealmostcertainlythesunsofothersolarsystemsmoreorlesslikeourown,buttheyaresofarawayinspacethatitisunlikelythatweshallevergettoknowverymuchaboutthem.Aboutourownsolarsystem,however,wearelearningmoreeveryday.BeforetheAmericanandRussianastronautsmadetheirthrillingjourneysintoouterspaceitwasdifficultforustorealisewhatourearthlookedlikefromhundredsofthousandsofmilesaway,butthephotographswhichtheastronautswereabletotakeshowustheearthinspacelookingnotverydifferentfromwhatthemoonlookslikewhenwelookatitfromtheearth.Theearthis,however,verydifferentfromthemoon,whichtheAmericanastronautshavefoundtobewithoutlifeorvegetation,whereasourearthisverymuchaliveineveryrespect.Themoon,bytheway,iscalledasatellitebecauseitgoesroundourearthaswellasroundthesun.Inotherwords,itgoesroundthesunwithourearth.Thesurfaceofourearthiscoveredbymassesoflandandlargerareasofwater.Letusconsiderthe5waterareasfirst.Thetotalwaterareaisaboutthreetimesaslargeasthelandarea.Theverylargeseparateareasofwaterarecalledoceansandthelesserareasarecalledseas.Inmostoftheoceansandseassomeofthewaterisfoundtobeflowinginaparticulardirectionthatistosay,fromoneparttowardsanotherpartoftheoceanorseaconcerned.Thewaterwhichisflowinginthismannerissaidtobemovingasacurrent.Therearemanythousandsofcurrentsinthewatersoftheoceansandseas,butonlycertainofthestrongerandbettermarkedcurrentsarespeciallynamedandofgreatimportance.Thesecurrentsareimportantbecausetheyaffecttheclimateofthelandareasclosetowheretheyflowandalsobecausetheycarrylargequantitiesofmicroscopicanimalandvegetablelifewhichformsalargepartofthefoodforfishes.Thenatureandcharacteristicsofthesurfaceofthelandareasoftheearthvaryagreatdealfromareatoareaandfromplacetoplace.Thesurfaceofsomeareasconsistslargelyofhighmountainsanddeepvalleyswhilst,inotherareas,mostofthesurfaceconsistsofplains.IfonemadeajourneyovertheContinentsonewouldfindeverykindofsurfaceincludingmountainranges,plains,plateaux,deserts,tropicalforestlandsandemptyareascoveredpermanentlybyiceandsnow.Whenthinkingandlearningabouttheworldweshouldnotforgetthatourworldisthehomeofaverygreatmanydifferentpeoplepeopleswithdifferentcolouredskins,livingverydifferentlivesandhavingverydifferentideasaboutagreatmanyimportantthingssuchasreligion,government,educationandsocialbehaviour.Thecircumstancesunderwhichdifferentpeoplelivemakeagreatdifferencebetweenthewayinwhichtheyliveandthewayinwhichwelive,anditoughttobeourbusinesstotrytounderstandthosedifferentcircumstancessothatwecanbetterunderstandpeopleofotherlands.Aboveall,weshouldavoiddecidingwhatwethinkaboutpeopledifferentfromourselveswithoutfirsthavinglearnedagreatdealaboutthemandthekindoflivestheyhavetolive.Itistruetosaythatthemorewelearnaboutotherpeople,thebetterweunderstandtheirideasand,asarule,thebetterwelikethosepeoplethemselves.03A.EuthanasiaForandAgainstWemustntdelayanylonger...swallowingisdifficult...andbreathing,thatsalsodifficult.Thosemusclesareweakeningtoo...wemustntdelayanylonger.ThesewerethewordsofDutchmanCeesvanWendeldeJoodeaskinghisdoctortohelphimdie.Affectedwithaseriousdisease,vanWendelwasnolongerabletospeakclearlyandheknewtherewasnohopeofrecoveryandthathisconditionwasrapidlydeteriorating.VanWendelslastthreemonthsoflifebeforebeinggivenafinal,lethalinjectionbyhisdoctorwerefilmedandfirstshownontelevisionlastyearintheNetherlands.Theprogrammehassincebeenboughtby20countriesandeachtimeitisshown,itstartsanationwidedebateonthesubject.TheNetherlandsistheonlycountryinEuropewhichpermitseuthanasia,althoughitisnottechnicallylegalthere.However,doctorswhocarryouteuthanasiaunderstrictguidelinesintroducedbytheDutchParliamenttwoyearsagoareusuallynotprosecuted.Theguidelinesdemandthatthepatientisexperiencingextremesuffering,thatthereisnochanceofacure,andthatthepatienthasmaderepeatedrequestsforeuthanasia.Inadditiontothis,aseconddoctormustconfirmthatthesecriteriahavebeenmetandthedeath6mustbereportedtothepolicedepartment.ShoulddoctorsbeallowedtotakethelivesofothersDr.WilfredvanOijen,CeesvanWendelsdoctor,explainshowhelooksatthequestionWell,itsnotasifImplanningtomurderacrowdofpeoplewithamachinegun.Inthatcase,killingistheworstthingIcanimagine.Butthatsentirelydifferentfrommyworkasadoctor.IcareforpeopleandItrytoensurethattheydontsuffertoomuch.Thatsaverydifferentthing.Manypeople,though,aretotallyagainstthepracticeofeuthanasia.Dr.AndrewFerguson,ChairmanoftheorganisationHealthcareOpposedtoEuthanasia,saysthatinthevastmajorityofeuthanasiacases,whatthepatientisactuallyaskingforissomethingelse.Theymaywantahealthprofessionaltoopenupcommunicationforthemwiththeirlovedonesorfamilytheresnearlyalwaysanotherquestionbehindthequestion.Britainalsohasastrongtraditionofhospicesspecialhospitalswhichcareonlyforthedyingandtheirspecialneeds.CicelySaunders,PresidentoftheNationalHospiceCouncilandafoundermemberofthehospicemovement,arguesthateuthanasiadoesnttakeintoaccountthattherearewaysofcaringforthedying.SheisalsoconcernedthatallowingeuthanasiawouldunderminetheneedforcareandconsiderationofawiderangeofpeopleItsveryeasyinsocietynowfortheelderly,thedisabledandthedependenttofeelthattheyareburdens,andthereforethattheyoughttooptout.Ithinkthatanythingthatlegallyallowstheshorteningoflifedoesmakethosepeoplemorevulnerable.Manyfindthisprohibitionofanindividualsrighttodiepaternalistic.Althoughtheyagreethatlifeisimportantandshouldberespected,theyfeelthatthequalityoflifeshouldnotbeignored.Dr.vanOijenbelievesthatpeoplehavethefundamentalrighttochooseforthemselvesiftheywanttodieWhatthosepeoplewhoopposeeuthanasiaaretellingmeisthatdyingpeoplehaventtheright.Andthatwhenpeopleareveryill,weareallafraidoftheirdeath.Buttherearesituationswheredeathisafriend.Andinthosecases,whynotButwhynotisaquestionwhichmightcausestrongemotion.ThefilmshowingCeesvanWendelsdeathwasbothmovingandsensitive.Hisdoctorwasclearlyafamilyfriendhiswifehadonlyherhusbandsinterestsatheart.Some,however,wouldarguethatitwouldbedangeroustousethisparticularexampletosupportthecaseforeuthanasia.Notallpatientswouldreceivesuchahighlevelofindividualcareandattention.03B.AdvantageUnfairAccordingtothewriterWalterEllis,authorofabookcalledtheOxbridgeConspiracy,Britainisstilldominatedbytheoldboynetworkitisntwhatyouknowthatmatters,butwhoyouknow.HeclaimsthatatOxfordandCambridgeUniversitiesOxbridgeforshortafewselectpeoplestartonanescalatorridewhich,overtheyears,carriesthemtothetopsofBritishprivilegeandpower.Hisresearchrevealedthatthetopprofessionsallcontinuetobedominated,ifnot90percent,then60or65percent,byOxbridgegraduates.Andyet,saysEllis,OxbridgegraduatesmakeuponlytwopercentofthetotalnumberofstudentswhograduatefromBritainsuniversities.OtherresearchesalsoseemtosupporthisbeliefthatOxbridgegraduatesstartwithanunfairadvantageintheemploymentmarket.Inthelaw,arecentlypublishedreportshowedthatoutof26seniorjudgesappointedtotheHighCourtlastyear,allofthemwenttoprivateschoolsand21of7themwenttoOxbridge.ButcanthisbesaidtoamounttoaconspiracyNotaccordingtoDr.JohnRae,aformerheadmasterofoneofBritainsleadingprivateschools,WestminsterIwouldacceptthattherewasabiasinsomekeyareasofBritishlife,butthatbiashasnowgone.Sometimeagointhe60sandbeforeentrytoOxfordandCambridgewasnotentirelyonmerit.Now,theresabsolutelynoquestioninanyobjectiveobserversmindthat,entrytoOxfordandCambridgeisfiercelycompetitive.However,manywoulddisagreewiththis.For,althoughoverthreequartersofBritishpupilsareeducatedinstateschools,overhalfthestudentsthatgotoOxbridgehavebeentoprivate,orpublicschools.IsthisbecausepupilsfromBritainsprivateschoolsaremoreintelligentthanthosefromstateschools,oraretheysimplybetterpreparedOnaverage,about5,000ayearisspentoneachprivateschoolpupil,morethantwicetheamountspentonstateschoolpupils.SohowcanthestateschoolsbeexpectedtocompetewiththeprivateschoolswhentheyhavefarfewerresourcesAndhowcantheypreparetheirpupilsforthespecialentranceexamtoOxfordUniversity,whichrequiresextrapreparation,andforwhichmanypublicschoolpupilstraditionallystayatschoolanddoanadditionaltermUntilrecently,manyblamedOxfordforthisbiasbecauseoftheuniversitysspecialentranceexamCambridgeabolisheditsentranceexamin1986.ButlastFebruary,OxfordUniversitydecidedtoabolishtheexamtoencouragemorestateschoolapplicants.Fromautumn1996,OxfordUniversityapplicants,likeapplicantstootheruniversities,willbejudgedonlyontheirAlevelresultsandontheirperformanceatinterviews,althoughsomedepartmentsmightstillsetspecialtests.However,somearguethattheresnothingwronginhavingeliteplacesoflearning,andthatbytheirverynature,theseplacesshouldnotbeeasilyaccessible.Mostcountriesarerunbyaneliteandhavecentresofacademicexcellencefromwhichtheelitearerecruited.WalterEllisacceptsthatthisistrueButinFrance,forexample,therearesomethinglike40equivalentsofuniversity,whichprovidethiselitethroughamuchbroaderbase.InAmericayouvegottheIvyLeague,centredonHarvardandYale,withPrincetonandStanfordandothers.Butagain,thoseuniversitiestogethertheeliteuniversitiesareabouttenorfifteeninnumber,andarebeingpushedalongfrombehindbyothergreatuniversitieslike,forexample,ChicagoandBerkeley.Soyoudonthavejustthisnarrowconcentrationoftwouniversitiesprovidingaconstantlyreplicatingelite.WhenitcomestoOxfordandCambridgebeingelitistbecauseofthenumberofprivateschoolpupilstheyaccept,ProfessorStoneofOxfordUniversityarguesthatthereisasimplefactheandhisassociatescannotignoreIfcertainschoolsdobetterthanothersthenwejusthavetoacceptit.Wecannotbeaplaceforremedialeducation.ItsnotwhatOxfordistheretodo.However,sinceacademicexcellencedoesappeartoberelatedtotheamountofmoneyspentperpupil,thisdoesseemtoimplythatPrimeMinisterJohnMajorsvisionofBritainasaclasslesssocietyisstillalongwayoff.AnditmaybeworthrememberingthatwhileJohnMajordidnthimselfgotoOxbridge,mostofhisministersdid.804A.SlaveryonOurDoorstepThereareestimatedtobemorethan20,000overseasdomesticservantsworkinginBritaintheexactfigureisnotknownbecausetheHomeOffice,theGovernmentdepartmentthatdealswiththis,doesnotkeepstatistics.Usually,theyhavebeenbroughtoverbyforeignbusinessmen,diplomatsorBritonsreturningfromabroad.Ofthese20,000,justunder2,000arebeingexploitedandabusedbytheiremployers,accordingtoaLondonbasedcampaigninggroupwhichhelpsoverseasservantsworkinginBritain.Theabusecantakeseveralforms.Oftenthedomesticsarenotallowedtogoout,andtheydonotreceiveanypayment.Theycanbephysically,sexuallyandpsychologicallyabused.Andtheycanhavetheirpassportsremoved,makingleavingorescapingvirtuallyimpossible.Thesadconditionofwomenworkingasdomesticsaroundtheworldreceivedmuchmediaattentionearlierthisyearinseveralhighlypublicisedcases.Inoneofthem,aFilipinomaidwasexecutedinSingaporeafterbeingconvictedofmurder,despiteprotestsfromvariousquartersthatherguilthadnotbeenadequatelyestablished.GroupslikeAntiSlaveryInternationalsayother,lessdramatic,casesareequallydeservingofattention,suchasthatofLydiaGarcia,aFilipinomaidworkinginLondonIwashiredbyaSaudidiplomatdirectlyfromthePhilippinestoworkinLondonin1989.Iwassupposedtobepaid120butIneverreceivedthatamount.Theyalwaysthreatenedthattheywouldsendmebacktomycountry.ThenthereisthecaseofKumarifromSriLanka.Themainbreadwinnerinherfamily,sheusedtoworkforaverylowwageatateafactoryinSriLanka.Becauseshefounditdifficulttofeedherfourchildren,sheacceptedajobworkingasadomesticinLondon.ShesaysshefeltlikeaprisonerattheLondonhousewheresheworkedNodaysoffever,nobreaksatall,noproperfood.IdidnthavemyownroomIsleptonashelfwithaspad0ofonlythreefeetaboveme.Iwasntallowedtotalktoanybody.Iwasntevenallowedtoopenthewindow.MyemployersalwaysthreatenedtoreportmetotheHomeOfficeorthepolice.Attheendof1994theBritishGovernmentintroducednewmeasurestohelpprotectdomesticworkersfromabusebytheiremployers.Thisincludedincreasingtheminimumageofemployeesto18,gettingemployeestoreadand,understandanadviceleaflet,gettingemployerstoagreetoprovideadequatemaintenanceandconditions,andtoputinwritingthemaintermsandconditionsofthejobofwhichtheemployeesshouldseeacopy.However,manypeopledoubtwhetherthiswillsuccessfullyreducetheincidenceofabuse.Forthemainproblemfacingoverseasmaidsanddomesticswhotrytocomplainaboutcruellivingandworkingconditionsisthattheydonothaveindependentimmigrantstatusandsocannotchangeemployer.TheyareallowedintheUnitedKingdomunderaspecialconcessionintheimmigrationruleswhichallowsforeignerstobringdomesticstaffwiththem.Soiftheydocomplain,theyriskbeingdeported.Allowingdomesticworkersthefreedomtoseekthesametypeofworkbutwithadifferentemployer,iftheysochoose,iswhatgroupslikeAntiSlaveryInternationalarecampaigningtheGovernmentfor.Itis,theysay,therighttochangeemployerswhichdistinguishesemploymentfromslavery.04B.ReturnofTheChainGangEyewitnessessayitwasascenestraightoutofablackandwhitemoviefromthe1950s.AsthesunroseoverthefieldsofHuntsville,Alabama,intheAmericanSouth,theconvictsgotdownfromthetrucksthathadbroughtthemthere.Watchedoverbyguardswithguns,theyraisedtheirlegsinunisonandmadetheir9waytotheedgeofthehighway,Interstate65.TheBBCsWashingtoncorrespondentClareBoldersonwasthereandshesentthisreportTheyworewhiteuniformswiththewordsChainGangontheirbacksand,ingroupsoffive,wereshackledtogetherinlegironsjoinedbyaneightfootchain.Theprisonerswillworkforupto90daysonthegangtheyllclearditchesofweedsandmendfencesalongAlabamasmainroads.Whiletheyareworkingonthegang,they抣lalsoliveinsomeoftheharshestprisonconditionsintheUnitedStates.Therellbenotelevisionsorphonecallsmanyotherdaytodayprivilegeswillbedenied.TheauthoritiesinAlabamasaythereisalotofsupportforthereintroductionofchaingangsintheStateafteragapof30yearsthelastgangswereabolishedinGeorgiaintheearly1960s.Manypeoplebelieveitisaneffectivewaytogetcriminalstopaybacktheirdebttosociety.Theprisonersstayshackledwhentheyusetoilets.TheyreactedsharplytothetreatmenttheyaregivenPrisoneroneThisislikeacircus.Azoo.Allchainedheretoazoo.Wereallanimalsnow.PrisonertwoItsdegrading.Itsembarrassing.PrisonerthreeInchains.ItsslaverySixoutofeverytenprisonersinchainsareblack,whichiswhythechaingangscallupimagesofslaveryincenturiesgoneby,whenblackpeoplewerebroughtfromAfricainlegironsandmadetoworkinplantationsownedbywhitemen.Notsurprisingly,althoughthreequartersofthewhitepopulationofAlabamasupportschaingangs,onlyasmallnumberofblackpeopledo.DonClaxton,spokesmanfortheStateGovernmentofAlabama,insiststhatthesystemisnotracistThisisntsomethingthatsdoneforracialreasons,forpoliticalreasons.ThisissomethingthatsgoingtohelpsavethepeopleofAlabamataxmoneybecausetheydonthavetopayasmanyofficerstoworkonthehighways.AnditsgoingtohelpcleanupourhighwaysanditsgoingtohelpcleanuptheState.However,thereintroductionofthesemeasureshascausedagreatdealofstrongdisagreement.Humanrightsorganizationssaythatputtingprisonersinchainsisnotonlyinhumanebutalsoineffective.AlvinBronstein,memberoftheCivilLibertiesUnion,saysthatstudyafterstudyhasshownthatyoucannotpreventpeoplefromcommittingcrimesbypunishmentorthethreatofpunishmentWhattheywilldoismakeprisonersmoreangry,morehostile,sothatwhentheygetoutofprison,theywillincreasetheleveloftheircriminalbehaviour.Civillibertiesgroupssaythatchainingpeopletogetherdoesntsolvethecausesofcrime,suchaspovertyordisaffectionwithinsociety.Whatitdoesispunishprisonersfortheillsofsociety.TheysaythepracticetakestheUnitedStatesbacktotheMiddleAges,andthatitisashametoAmericansociety.Butthat抯notanargumentlikelytowinfavouramongmanypeopleintheDeepSouthoftheUnitedStates.Alabamasexperimentistobewidenedtoincludemoreprisoners,andotherStates,suchasArkansasandArizona,willveryprobablyintroducetheirownchaingangschemes.05A.TheNewMusicThenewmusicwasbuiltoutofmaterialsalreadyinexistenceblues,rocknroll,folkmusic.Butalthoughtheformsremained,somethingcompletelynewandoriginalwasmadeoutoftheseolderelementsmoreoriginal,perhaps,thaneventhenewmusiciansthemselvesyetrealize.Thetransformationtookplacein19661967.Uptothattime,theblueshadbeenanessentiallyblackmedium.Rocknroll,abluesderivative,wasrhythmicdancemusic.Folkmusic,oldandmodern,waspopularamongcollegestudents.Thethreeformsremainedmusicallyandculturallydistinct,andevenaslateas1965,noneofthemwere
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