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大学英语自学教程(上)电子版1大学英语自学教程上01A.HowtobeasuccessfullanguagelearnerLearningalanguageiseasy,evenachildcandoitMostadultswhoarelearningasecondlanguagewoulddisagreewiththisstatement.Forthem,learningalanguageisaverydifficulttask.Theyneedhundredsofhoursofstudyandpractice,andeventhiswillnotguaranteesuccessforeveryadultlanguagelearner.Languagelearningisdifferentfromotherkindsoflearning.Somepeoplewhoareveryintelligentandsuccessfulintheirfieldsfinditdifficulttosucceedinlanguagelearning.Conversely,somepeoplewhoaresuccessfullanguagelearnersfinditdifficulttosucceedinotherfields.LanguageteachersoftenofferadvicetolanguagelearnersReadasmuchasyoucaninthenewlanguage.Practicespeakingthelanguageeveryday.Livewithpeoplewhospeakthelanguage.Donttranslatetrytothinkinthenewlanguage.Learnasachildwouldlearnplaywiththelanguage.ButwhatdoesasuccessfullanguagelearnerdoLanguagelearningresearchshowsthatsuccessfullanguagelearnersaresimilarinmanyways.Firstofall,successfullanguagelearnersareindependentlearners.Theydonotdependonthebookortheteachertheydiscovertheirownwaytolearnthelanguage.Insteadofwaitingfortheteachertoexplain,theytrytofindthepatternsandtherulesforthemselves.Theyaregoodguesserswholookforcluesandformtheirownconclusions.Whentheyguesswrong,theyguessagain.Theytrytolearnfromtheirmistakes.Successfullanguagelearningisactivelearning.Therefore,successfullearnersdonotwaitforachancetousethelanguagetheylookforsuchachance.Theyfindpeoplewhospeakthelanguageandtheyaskthesepeopletocorrectthemwhentheymakeamistake.Theywilltryanythingtocommunicate.Theyarenotafraidtorepeatwhattheyhearortosaystrangethingstheyarewillingtomakemistakesandtryagain.Whencommunicationisdifficult,theycanacceptinformationthatisinexactorincomplete.Itismoreimportantforthemtolearntothinkinthelanguagethantoknowthemeaningofeveryword.Finally,successfullanguagelearnersarelearnerswithapurpose.Theywanttolearnthe大学英语自学教程(上)电子版2languagebecausetheyareinterestedinthelanguageandthepeoplewhospeakit.Itisnecessaryforthemtolearnthelanguageinordertocommunicatewiththesepeopleandtolearnfromthem.Theyfinditeasytopracticeusingthelanguageregularlybecausetheywanttolearnwithit.WhatkindoflanguagelearnerareyouIfyouareasuccessfullanguagelearner,youhaveprobablybeenlearningindependently,actively,andpurposefully.Ontheotherhand,ifyourlanguagelearninghasbeenlessthansuccessful,youmightdowelltotrysomeofthetechniquesoutlinedabove.01B.LanguageWhenwewanttotellotherpeoplewhatwethink,wecandoitnotonlywiththehelpofwords,butalsoinmanyotherways.Forinstance,wesometimesmoveourheadsupanddownwhenwewanttosayyesandwemoveourheadsfromsidetosidewhenwewanttosayno.Peoplewhocanneitherhearnorspeakthatis,deafanddumbpeopletalktoeachotherwiththehelpoftheirfingers.Peoplewhodonotunderstandeachotherslanguagehavetodothesame.Thefollowingstoryshowshowtheysometimesdoit.AnEnglishmanwhocouldnotspeakItalianwasoncetravelinginItaly.Onedayheenteredarestaurantandsatdownatatable.Whenthewaitercame,theEnglishmanopenedhismouth,puthisfingersinit,tookthemoutagainandmovedhislips.Inthiswayhemeanttosay,Bringmesomethingtoeat.Thewaitersoonbroughthimacupoftea.TheEnglishmanshookhisheadandthewaiterunderstoodthathedidntwanttea,sohetookitawayandbroughthimsomecoffee.TheEnglishman,whowasveryhungrybythistimeandnotatallthirsty,lookedverysad.Heshookhisheadeachtimethewaiterbroughthimsomethingtodrink.Thewaiterbroughthimwine,thenbeer,thensodawater,butthatwasntfood,ofcourse.Hewasjustgoingtoleavetherestaurantwhenanothertravelercamein.Whenthismansawthewaiter,heputhishandsonhisstomach.Thatwasenoughinafewminutestherewasalargeplateofmacaroniandmeatonthetablebeforehim.Asyousee,theprimitivelanguageofsignsisnotalwaysveryclear.Thelanguageofwordsismuchmoreexact.Wordsconsistofsounds,buttherearemanysoundswhichhaveameaningandyetarenot大学英语自学教程(上)电子版3words.Forexample,wemaysayShshshwhenwemeankeepsilent.Whenbabieslaugh,weknowtheyarehappy,andwhentheycry,weknowtheyareillorsimplywantsomething.Itisthesamewithanimals.WhenadogsaysGrroracatsaysFffweknowtheyareangry.Butthesesoundsarenotlanguage.Languageconsistsofwordswhichweputtogetherintosentences.ButanimalscannotdothisadogcansayGrrwhenhemeansIamangry,buthecannotsayfirstIandthenamandthenangry.Aparrotcantalklikeamanitcanrepeatwholesentencesandknowswhattheymean.Wemaysaythataparrottalks,butcannotsaythatitreallyspeaks,becauseitcannotformnewsentencesoutofthewordsitknows.Onlymanhasthepowertodothis.02A.Taxes,Taxes,andMoreTaxesAmericansoftensaythatthereareonlytwothingsapersoncanbesureofinlifedeathandtaxes,Americansdonothaveacorneronthedeathmarket,butmanypeoplefeelthattheUnitedStatesleadstheworldwiththeworsttaxes.Taxesconsistofthemoneywhichpeoplepaytosupporttheirgovernment.TherearegenerallythreelevelsofgovernmentintheUnitedStatesfederal,state,andcitytherefore,therearethreetypesoftaxes.Salariedpeoplewhoearnmorethanafewthousanddollarsmustpayacertainpercentageoftheirsalariestothefederalgovernment.Thepercentagevariesfrompersontoperson.Itdependsontheirsalaries.Thefederalgovernmenthasagraduatedincometax,thatis,thepercentageofthetax14to70percentincreasesasapersonsincomeincreases.Withthehighcostoftaxes,peoplearenotveryhappyonApril15,whenthefederaltaxesaredue.ThesecondtaxisforthestategovernmentNewYork,California,NorthDakota,oranyoftheotherfortysevenstates.Somestateshaveanincometaxsimilartothatofthefederalgovernment.Ofcourse,thepercentageforthestatetaxislower.Otherstateshaveasalestax,whichisapercentagechargedtoanyitemwhichyoubuyinthatstate.Forexample,apersonmightwanttobuyapacketofcigarettesfortwentyfivecents.Ifthereisasalestaxofeight大学英语自学教程(上)电子版4percentinthatstate,thenthecostofthecigarettesistwentysevencents.Thisfigureincludesthesalestax.Somestatesuseincometaxinadditiontosalestaxtoraisetheirrevenues.Thestatetaxlawsarediverseandconfusing.Thethirdtaxisforthecity.Thistaxcomesintwoformspropertytaxpeoplewhoownahomehavetopaytaxesonitandexcisetax,whichischargedoncarsinacity.Thecitiesusethesefundsforeducation,policeandfiredepartments,publicworksandmunicipalbuildings.SinceAmericanspaysuchhightaxes,theyoftenfeelthattheyareworkingonedayeachweekjusttopaytheirtaxes.Peoplealwayscomplainabouttaxes.Theyoftenprotestthatthegovernmentusestheirtaxdollarsinthewrongway.Theysaythatitspendstoomuchonuselessandimpracticalprograms.AlthoughAmericanshavedifferentviewsonmanyissues,theytendtoagreeononesubjecttaxesaretoohigh.02B.AdvertisingAdvertisingisonlypartofthetotalsaleseffort,butitisthepartthatattractsthemostattention.Thisisnaturalenoughbecauseadvertisingisdesignedforjustthatpurpose.Innewspapers,inmagazines,inthemail,onradioandtelevision,weconstantlyseeandhearthemessagesforhundredsofdifferentproductsandservices.Forthemostpart,theyarethekindsofthingsthatwecanbepersuadedtobuy–foodanddrinks,carsandtelevisionsets,furnitureandclothing,travelandleisuretimeactivities.Thesimplestkindofadvertisingistheclassifiedad.EverydaythenewspaperscarryafewpagesoftheseadsinthelargeSundayeditionstheremaybeseveralsectionsofthem.Aclassifiedadisusuallyonlyafewlineslong.Itisreallyanoticeorannouncementthatsomethingisavailable.Newspapersalsocarryalargeamountofdisplayadvertising.Mostofitisforstoresorforvariousformsofentertainment.Newspapersgenerallyreachanaudienceonlyinalimitedarea.Tobringtheirmessagetoalargeraudience,manywhowanttoputouttheiradsusenationalmagazines.Manyofthetechniquesofmodernadvertisingweredevelopedinmagazineads.Theuseofbrightcolors,attractivepictures,andshortmessagesisallcharacteristicofmagazineads.Themostimportantpurposeistocatchtheeye.Themessageitselfisusuallyshort,oftennomorethanasloganwhichthepublicidentifieswiththeproduct.大学英语自学教程(上)电子版5Thesametechniqueshavebeencarriedoverintotelevisionadvertising.Voicesandmusichavebeenaddedtocolorandpicturestocatchtheearaswellastheeye.Televisionadsareshort–usuallyonly15,30,or60seconds,buttheyarerepeatedoverandoveragainsothattheaudienceseesandhearsthemmanytimes.Commercialtelevisionhasmixedentertainmentandadvertising.Ifyouwanttheentertainment,youhavetoputupwiththeadvertisingandmillionsofpeoplewanttheentertainment.Themenandwomeninthesalesdepartmentareresponsibleforthecompanysadvertising,Theymustdecideontheaudiencetheywanttoreach.Theymustalsodecideonthebestwaytogettheirmessagetotheirparticularaudience.Theyalsomakeanestimateofthecostsbeforemanagementapprovestheplan.Inmostlargecompaniesmanagementisdirectlyinvolvedinplanningtheadvertising.03A.TheAtlanticOceanTheAtlanticOceanisoneoftheoceansthatseparatetheOldWorldfromtheNew.ForcenturiesitkepttheAmericasfrombeingdiscoveredbythepeopleofEurope.ManywrongideasabouttheAtlanticmadeearlysailorsunwillingtosailfaroutintoit.Oneideawasthatitreachedouttotheedgeoftheworld.Sailorswereafraidthattheymightsailrightofftheearth.Anotherideawasthatattheequatortheoceanwouldbeboilinghot.TheAtlanticOceanisonlyhalfasbigasthePacific,butitisstillverylarge.Itismorethan4,000miles6,000kmwidewhereColumbuscrossedit.Evenatitsnarrowestitisabout2,000miles3,200kmwide.ThisnarrowestplaceisbetweenthebulgeofsouthAmericaandthebulgeofAfrica.TwothingsmaketheAtlanticOceanratherunusual.Forsolargeanoceanithasveryfewislands.Also,itistheworldssaltiestocean.ThereissomuchwaterintheAtlanticthatitishardtoimaginehowmuchthereis.Butsupposenomorerainfellintoitandnomorewaterwasbroughttoitbyrivers.Itwouldtaketheoceanabout4,000yearstodryup.Ontheaveragethewaterisalittlemorethantwomiles3.2kmdeep,butinplacesitismuchdeeper.ThedeepestspotisnearPuertoRico.Thisdeep30,246feetalmostsixmiles9.6km.大学英语自学教程(上)电子版6OneofthelongestmountainrangesoftheworldrisestheflooroftheAtlantic.Thismountainrangerunsnorthandsouthdownthemiddleoftheocean.Thetopsofafewofthemountainsreachupabovetheseaandmakeislands.TheAzoresarethetopsofpeaksinthemidAtlanticmountainrange.SeveralhundredmileseastwardfromFloridathereisapartoftheoceancalledtheSargassoSea.Herethewaterisquiet,forthereislittlewind.Inthedaysofsailingvesselsthecrewwereafraidtheywouldbebecalmedhere.Sometimestheywere.Oceancurrentsaresometimecalledriversinthesea.OneoftheseriverintheAtlanticiscalledtheGulfStream.Itisacurrentofwarmwater.AnotheristheLabradorCurrentcoldwatercomingdownfromtheArctic.Oceancurrentsaffecttheclimatesofthelandsnearwhichtheyflow.TheAtlanticfurnishesmuchfoodforthepeopleonitsshores.Oneofitsmostfamousfishingregions,theGrandBanks,isnearNewfoundland.TodaytheAtlanticisagreathighway.Itisnot,however,alwaysasmoothandsafeone.Stormssweepacrossitandpileupgreatwaves.IcebergsfloatdownfromtheFarNorthacrossthepathsofships.Wenowhavesuchfastwaysoftravelingthatthisbigoceanseemstohavegrownsmaller.Columbussailedformorethantwomonthstocrossit.Afastmodernsteamshipcanmakethetripinlessthanfourdays.AirplanesflyfromNewYorktoLondoninonlyeighthoursandfromSouthAmericatoAfricainfour03B.TheMoonWefindthatthemoonisabout239,000miles384,551kmawayfromtheearth,and,towithinafewthousandmiles,itsdistancealwaysremainsthesame.Yetaverylittleobservationshowsthatthemoonisnotstandingstill.Itsdistancefromtheearthremainsthesame,butitsdirectioncontinuallychanges.Wefindthatitistravelinginacircleorverynearlyacircleroundtheearth,goingcompletelyroundonceamonth,or,moreexactly,onceevery271/3days.Itisournearestneighbourinspace,andlikeourselvesitiskepttiedtotheearthbytheearthsgravitationalpull.大学英语自学教程(上)电子版7Exceptforthesun,themoonlooksthebiggestobjectinthesky.Actuallyitisoneofthesmallest,andonlylooksbigbecauseitissoneartous.Itsdiameterisonly2,160miles3,389km,oralittlemorethanaquarterofthediameteroftheearth.Onceamonth,or,moreexactly,onceevery291/2days,atthetimewecallfullmoon,itswholedisclooksbright.Atothertimesonlypartofitappearsbright,andwealwaysfindthatthisisthepartwhichfacestowardsthesun,whilethepartfacingawayfromthesunappearsdark.Artistscouldmaketheirpicturesbetteriftheykeptinmindonlythosepartsofthemoonwhicharelightedupbythesunarebright.Thisshowsthatthemoongivesnolightofitsown.Itmerelyreflectsthelightofthesun,likeahugemirrorhunginthesky.Yetthedarkpartofthemoonssurfaceisnotabsolutelyblackgenerallyitisjustlightenoughforustobeabletoseeitsoutline,sothatwespeakofseeingtheoldmooninthenewmoonsarms.Thelightbywhichweseetheoldmoondoesnotcomefromthesun,butfromtheearth.weknowswellhowthesurfaceoftheseaorofsnow,orevenofawetroad,mayreflectuncomfortablymuchofthesunslightontoourfaces.Inthesamewaythesurfaceofthewholeearthreflectsenoughofthesunslightontothefaceofthemoonforustobeabletoseethepartsofitwhichwouldotherwisebedark.Iftherewereanyinhabitantsofthemoon,theywouldseeourearthreflectingthelightofthesun,againlikeahugemirrorhunginthesky.Theywouldspeakofearthlightjustaswespeakofmoonlight.Theoldmooninthenewmoonsarmsisnothingbutthatpartofthemoonssurfaceonwhichitisnight,lightedupbyearthlight.Inthesameway,thelunarinhabitantswouldoccasionallyseepartofourearthinfullsunlight,andtherestlightedonlybymoonlighttheymightcallthistheoldearthinthenewearthsarms.04A.ImprovingYourMemoryPsychologicalresearchhasfocusedonanumberofbasicprinciplesthathelpmemorymeaningfulness,organization,association,andvisualization.Itisusefultoknowhowtheseprincipleswork.Meaningfulnessaffectsmemoryatalllevels.Informationthatdoesnotmakeanysensetoyouisdifficulttoremember.Thereareseveralwaysinwhichwecanmakematerialmoremeaningful.Manypeople,forinstance,learnarhymetohelpthemremember.Doyouknowthe大学英语自学教程(上)电子版8rhymeThirtydayshasSeptember,April,June,andNovemberIthelpsmanypeoplerememberwhichmonthsoftheyearhave30days.Organizationalsomakesadifferenceinourabilitytoremember.HowusefulwouldalibrarybeifthebookswerekeptinrandomorderMaterialthatisorganizedisbetterrememberedthanjumbledinformation.Oneexampleoforganizationischunking.Chunkingconsistsofgroupingseparatebitsofinformation.Forexample,thenumber4671363ismoreeasilyrememberedifitischunkedas467,13,63.Categorizingisanothermeansoforganization.Supposeyouareaskedtorememberthefollowinglistofwordsman,bench,dog,desk,woman,horse,child,cat,chair.Manypeoplewillgroupthewordsintosimilarcategoriesandrememberthemasfollowsman,woman,childcat,dog,horsebench,chair,desk.Needlesstosay,thesecondlistcanberememberedmoreeasilythanthefirstone.Associationreferstotakingthematerialwewanttorememberandrelatingittosomethingwerememberaccurately.Inmemorizinganumber,youmighttrytoassociateitwithfamiliarnumbersorevents.Forexample,theheightofMountFujiinJapan12,389feetmightberememberedusingthefollowingassociations12isthenumberofmonthsintheyear,and389isthenumberofdaysinayear365addedtothenumberofmonthstwice24.Thelastprincipleisvisualization.Researchhasshownstrikingimprovementsinmanytypesofmemorytaskswhenpeopleareaskedtovisualizetheitemstoberemembered.Inonestudy,subjectsinonegroupwereaskedtolearnsomewordsusingimagery,whilethesecondgroupusedrepetitiontolearnthewords.Thoseusingimageryremembered80to90percentofthewords,comparedwith30to40percentofthewordsforthosewhomemorizedbyrepetition.Thusforminganintegratedimagewithalltheinformationplacedinasinglementalpicturecanhelpustopreserveamemory.04B.ShorttermMemoryTherearetwokindsofmemoryshoretermandlongterm.Informationinlongtermmemorycanberecalledatalatertimewhenitisneeded.Theinformationmaybekeptfordaysorweeks.Sometimesinformationinthelongtermmemoryishardtoremember.Studentstakingexamoftenhavethisexperience.Incontrast,informationinshoretermmemoryiskeptforonly大学英语自学教程(上)电子版9afewseconds,usuallybyrepeatingtheinformationoverandover.Forexample,youlookupanumberinthetelephonebook,andbeforeyoudial,yourepeatthenumberoverandover.Ifsomeoneinterruptsyou,youwillprobablyforgetthenumber.Inlaboratorystudies,subjectsareunabletorememberthreelettersaftereighteensecondsiftheyarenotallowedtorepeattheletterstothemselves.Psychologistsstudymemoryandlearningwithbothanimalandhumansubjects.Thetwoexperimentshereshowhowshorttermmemoryhasbeenstudied.Dr.Hunterstudiedshorttermmemoryinrats.Heusedaspecialapparatuswhichhadacagefortheratandthreedoors,Therewasalightineachdoor.Firsttheratwasplacedintheclosedcage.Next,oneofthelightswasturnedonandthenoff.Therewasfoodfortheratonlyatthisdoor.Afterthelightwasturnedoff,therathadtowaitashorttimebeforeitwasreleasedfromitscage.Then,ifitwenttothecorrectdoor,itwasrewardedwiththefoodthatwasthere.Hunterdidthisexperimentmanytimes.Healwaysturnedonthelightsinarandomorder.Therathadtowaitdifferentintervalsbeforeitwasreleasefromthecage.Hunterfoundthatiftherathadtowaitmorethantenseconds,itcouldnotrememberthecorrectdoor.Huntersresultsshowthatratshaveashorttermmemoryofabouttenseconds.Later,Dr.HenningstudiedhowstudentswhoarelearningEnglishasasecondlanguageremembervocabulary.Thesubjectsinhisexperimentwere75studentsattheUniversityofCaliforniainLosAngeles.TheyrepresentedalllevelsofabilityinEnglishbeginning,intermediate,advanced,andnativespeakingstudents.Tobegin,thesubjectslistenedtoarecordingofanativespeakerreadingaparagraphinEnglish.Followingtherecording,thesubjectstooka15questiontesttoseewhichwordstheyremembered.Eachquestionhadfourchoices.Thesubjectshadtocirclethewordtheyhadheardintherecording.Someofthequestionshadfourchoicesthatsoundalike.Forexample,weather,whether,wither,andwetterarefourwordsthatsoundalike.Someofthequestionshadfourchoicesthathavethesamemeaning.Method,way,manner,andsystemwouldbefourwordswiththesamemeaning.Someofthemhadfourunrelatedchoices.Forinstance,weather,method,love,andresultcouldbeusedasfourunrelatedwords.Finallythesubjectstookalanguageproficiencytest.HenningfoundthatstudentswithalowerproficiencyinEnglishmademoreoftheirmistakesonwordsthatsoundalikestudentswithahigherproficiencymademoreoftheirmistakesonwordsthathavethesamemeaning.Henningsresultssuggestthatbeginning
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