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自考英语复习资料自考英语二作文整理(1)LessonfivefirstprinciplesWhatdoulearnaboutlauraWhywereherparentssoproudofherLaurawasaslim,darkhairedgirloffourteen.shewassmartandapupilatGreenValleyAcademy.ChristmasDaywascoming,laurawantedaballerinadressasagiftfromherparentstoattendsomeparties.Butwhenlaurasmothertoldheraboutherfathersunemployment,sheunderstoodthemandsaidshedidntcareaboutpresentsorparties.DuringthetimewhenthefamilyspentChristmasDayatthefarm,lauraseemedtoradiatehappiness.ItwaslaurasobviouspleasurethathadawonderfulChristmasDay.Therefore,laurasparentswereproudofher.LessonsixThebeautyofBritainBritainisasmallbutbeautifulcountry.Oneofitscharmsliesinitsvarietywiththeterritoryof240500squarekilometers,ithasmountains,plainsandlakesasothercountries.Someoneperhapssaysthatthemountainsthereareonlymountainsinminiature.Althoughthosemountainsaresmall,theyallhavetheairofgreatmountains.AnothercharacteristicofBritainisitshappysurprise.Atravelerwillkeptbeingpleasantlyastonishedbythelandscape.Onarollingplain,youmightsuddenlynoticedmountainswithstepslopesahead.Inahighlydevelopedindustrialdistrict,hewouldseeoutofexpectationaroughwilderness.ButthemostimpressingwouldbethehappycompromisebetweenNatureandMan,countryandcity.Thischaracteristicisobviousinsuburbswheretheinhabitantscannotonlyenjoythecivilizationofthecity,butalsoliveacomfortablecountrygentlemenslife.LessonsevensomemeaningsofauthenticloveInauthorsopinion,whatdoeslovemean1.LovemeansIknowthepersonIlove.2.LovemeansthatIcareaboutthewelfareofthepersonIlove.3.LovemeanshavingrespectforthedignityofthepersonIlove.4.LovemeanshavingaresponsibilitytowardthepersonIlove.5.LovemeansgrowthforbothmyselfandthepersonIlove.6.Lovecantolerateimperfection.7.Loveisfreeing.8.Loveisexpansive.9.LovemeanshavingawantforthepersonIlovewithouthavinganeedforthatpersoninordertobecomplete.10.LovemeansidentifyingwiththepersonIlove.11.Loveisselfish.12.Loveinvolvesseeingthepotentialwithinthepersonwelove.自考英语复习资料自考英语二作文整理(2)LessontenOnfriendshipFourdifferentkindsoffriendshipAmericanFewAmericanstayputforalifetime.Americansusethewordfriendtoawiderangefromsomeoneknownonlyafewweeks,mostpeople,oldandyoungrcalledbyfirstname,andfriendsflowinandoutAmericanfamilywithlittleceremony.很少美国人一辈子呆在一个地方的。美国人使用朋友一词时,朋友可适用广泛只结识几个星期的,朋友们进进出出美国家庭很少有礼节。FranceInFrance,asinmanyEuropeancountries,friendsgenerallyareofthesamesex,andfriendshipisseenasbasicallyarelationshipbetweenmen.正如许多欧洲国家一样,在法国,朋友通常都是性别相同之人,友谊被视为是男士间的基本关系。FortheFrench,friendshipisaonetoonerelationshipthatdemandsakeenawarenessoftheotherpersonsintellect,temperamentandparticularinterests.法国人所认为的友情是一种一对一的关系,要求一方能敏锐地察觉另一方的才智、性情以及特别的兴趣爱好。ThespecialrelationshipoffriendshipisbasedonwhattheFrenchvaluemost–onthemind,onhavingthesameofoutlook,onvividawarenessofsomechosenareaoflife.友谊这一特殊关系以法国人最珍视的东西为基础思想、观点的一致以及对生活中某一方面的具体感悟。GermanyInGermany,friendshipismuchmoreclearlyamatteroffeeling,fromdeeplysentimentalattachments,notsomuchtopolishtheirwitsastosharetheirhopesandfearsanddreams.Withinthefamily,theclosestrelationshipoverthelifetimeisbetweenbrothersandsisters.Outsidethefamily,menandwomenfindintheirclosestfriendsofthesamesexthedevotionofsister,theloyaltyofabrother.在德国友谊更明确地表现为感情问题,彼此建立起深厚的感情,其目的并不是为了增加自己的智慧,而是为了分享彼此的愿望、忧虑与梦想。在家庭内部,一生中最亲密的关系存在于兄弟姐妹之间。在家庭以外,人们在同性间最亲密的朋友身上发现如姐妹般的奉献,如兄弟般的忠诚。自考英语复习资料自考英语二作文整理(3)EnglishEnglishfriendships,theirbasisissharedactivity.Inthemidstoftheactivity,whateveritmaybe,peoplefallintostep.英国人之间的友情建立的基础是共同的行为。无论是何种行为,在行为的过程中人们的步调变得一致。AndabreakinanEnglishfriendshipcomesnotnecessarilyasaresultofmisjudgement,whereonefriendseriouslymisjudgeshowtheotherwillthinkorfeelact,sothatsuddenlytheyareoutofstep.此外英国人友谊的中断并不是由于见解不同或情感不和造成的,而是由于判断失误造成的,一个人可能会很严重地对另一个人的思维方式、感受或行为方式做出了错误的判断,于是彼此间突然变得不默契。WhatsthefriendshipThereistherecognitionthatfriendshipsrformed,incontrastwithkinship,throughfreedomofchoice.Afriendissomeonewhochooseandischosen.Relatedtothisisthesenseeachfriendgivestheotherofbeingaspecialindividual,onwhatevergroundsthisrecognitionisbased.Andbetweenfriendsthereisinevitablyakindofequalityofgiveandtake.人们一致认为,与亲属关系不同,友谊建立在自由选择的基础上。朋友既是选择别人又为别人所选择的人。随之而来的是在朋友之间双方都能使对方感到自己是与众不同的,无论这种感觉的依据是什么。此外朋友间不可避免地要有来有往,互让互谅。LessonthirteenHowtogrowold老年人应如何避免变老Psychologicallytherearetwodangerstobeguardedagainstinoldage.Oneoftheseistoogreatanabsorptioninthepast.Oneshouldnotliveinmemories,inregretsforthegoodolddays,orinsadnessaboutfriendwhoaredead.Onesthoughtsmustbedirectedtothefuture,andtothingsaboutwhichthereissomethingtobedone.Thisisnotalwayseasyonesownpastisagraduallyincreasingweight.Itiseasytothinktooneselfthatonesemotionsusedtobemorevividthantheyare,andonesmindmorekeen.Ifthisistrueitshouldbeforgotten,andifitisforgottenitwillprobablynotbetrue.从心理角度来说,老年时期要提防两种危险。一是沉湎于过去。人不应该生活在记忆之中,不要总为一去不复返的好时光而懊丧,不要总为故去的朋友而悲伤。人的思想应该转向未来,应该转向自己还能有所作为的那些事情上去。要做到这一点并非易事自己的过去逐渐成了精神负担。人很容易自思自量,感到自己的感情不如以往强烈,思维不如以往敏锐。如果真是如此,就别去想它,假如你根本不去想它,也许这就不会成真。Theotherthingtobeavoidedisclingingtoyouthinthehopeoffindingstrengthinitsvitality.Whenyourchildrenaregrownuptheywanttolivetheirownlives,andifyoucontinuetobeasinterestedinthemasyouwerewhentheywereyoung,youarelikelytobecomeaburdentothem,unlesstheyareunusuallyinsensible.Idonotmeanthatoneshouldbewithoutinterestinthem,butonesinterestshouldbecontemplativeand,ifpossible,philanthropic,butnottooemotional.另一件要避免的事,就是依恋子女,希望从他们身上的活力中获取生命的力量。孩子们长大之后,想过自己的生活,如果你还是像他们小时候那样关注他们,你很可能会成为他们的负担,除非他们十分麻木而感觉不到这一点。我不是说不应该关注他们,而是说对他们的关注应该是含蓄的,如果有可能还应是宽厚的,但感情上不要过于依赖他们。自考英语复习资料自考英语二作文整理(4)Dontfeartodeath,thebestwaytoovercomeitistomakeyourinterestsgraduallywiderandmoreimpersonal,untilbitbybitthewallsoftheegorecede,andyourlifebecomesincreasinglypartoftheuniversallife.不要害怕死亡,克服怕死心理的最好办法就是使你的兴趣更加广博,更加超脱具体的个人,直至包围自我的围墙一点点地消失,直至你的生命逐渐溶入整个宇宙之中,成为其一部分。变老阶段的暗喻Anindividualhumanexistenceshouldbelikeariversmallatfirst,narrowlycontainedwithinitsbanks,andrushingpassionatelypastrocksandoverwaterfalls.Graduallytherivergrowswider,thebanksrecede,thewatersflowmorequietly,andintheend,withoutanyvisiblebreak,theybecomepartofthesea,andpainlesslylosetheirindividualbeing.Themanwho,inoldage,canseehislifeinthisway,willnotsufferfromthefearofdeath,sincethethingbecaresforwillcontinue一个人的生命历程应该是像江河一样开始是细小的,让两岸紧紧抱住,然后奔腾直泻,流过山岩,飞越瀑布,然后河面渐渐变宽,堤岸慢慢后退,水流趋缓,最后不留一丝痕迹地溶入大海,毫无痛苦的失去了自身的存在。垂幕之年这样看待人生的人,是不会因接近死亡而恐惧和烦恼的,因为他喜爱的事业会继续下去。作者一生三个牵挂1.Thelongingforlove.Hehassoughtlove,first,becauseitbringsecstasy,next,becauseitrelievesloneliness.Finally,becauseintheunionoflove.Hehasseen,inamysticminiature,theprefiguringvisionoftheheaventhatsaintsandpoetshaveimagined.对爱的渴望。他寻求过爱情,首先是因为它使人心醉神迷,其次因为它能使人摆脱孤独。最后,从融洽的爱中他看到了一种奇妙的微观形式,向他预示了圣人和诗人所想象的天堂2.Thesearchforknowledge.Withequalpassionhehassoughtknowledge.对知识的渴求。他以同样的热情寻求知识。3.Unbearablepityforsufferingofmankind.Loveandknowledge,sofarastheywerepossible,ledupwardtowardtheheavens.Butalwayspitybroughthimbacktoearth.Helongsforalleviatetheevil,buthecannot,andhetoosuffer.对人类苦难的深深同情。爱情和知识在其可能性的范围内把他带到了天堂。但怜悯心总是又把他带回人间。他渴望减少邪恶,但我无能为力,因而他也感到痛苦。自考英语复习资料自考英语二作文整理(5)LessonfifteenEdisonInventorofInventionWhatwasthemostimportantcontributionofEdisontopeopleItisimpossibletomeasuretheimportanceofEdisonbyaddingupthespecificinventionswithwhichhisnameisassociated.Farreachingasmanyofthemhavebeenintheireffectuponmoderncivilization,thetotaleffectofEdisonscareersurpassesthesumofalofthem.Hedidnotmerelymaketheincandescentlampandthephonographandinnumerableotherdevicespracticableforgeneraluseitwasgiventohimtodemonstratethepowerofappliedsciencesoconcretely,tounderstandably,soconvincinglythathealteredthementalityofmankind.BecauseofEdison,morethanofanyotherman,scientificresearchhasanestablishedplaceinoursocietybecauseofthedemonstrationshemade,themoneyoftaxpayersandstockholdershasbecomeavailableforstudiesthenature.Thelighthousekeeper,83yearsold,livedaloneonarockisland,tookcareofthelighthouseandthegreatlamp,whichspokemajestic,silentmessagesoflighttotheshipsatsea.Hewasahugeoldmanwithagrizzledbeardthatcamedownoverhischest.(1)Hewashospitable.Hewelcomedthestranger,Rudolf,warmly,offeredhimblackbreadandboiledpotatoes,etc.andtalkedwithhimearnestly.(2)Thelighthousekeeperlovedhisworkandwasdevotedtohisduty.Whenthestormwascoming,hewasbusypreparingforthestorm,attendingtothegreatlampinthetower,thatdominatedthewholeregion.(3)Hewasequable,deliberate.Evenwhenthestormhammeredlikeabatteringramonthewallsofthelighthouse,hesatthere,gentleandreflective,asiftherewasnothinghappened.Generally,thelighthousekeeperwasadeliberate,equabletoiler.Helovedlifewithoutexcessivedemands.自考英语复习资料自考英语二作文整理(6)lessonesixWhatarethethreegeographicalcharacteristicsofBritainThebeautyofBritainisashardtodefineasitiseasytoenjoy.(1)Thefirstcharacteristicisthatitisvariedwithinasmallrange,Itseemsthatnaturehascarefullyadjustedthingsmountains,plants,rivers,lakes,tothescaleoftheislanditself.thereisastonishingvarietyalmosteverywhere,everythingisinminiature.somemountains,forexample,althoughnotveryhigh,havealltheairofgreatmountains.(2)Secondly,surprisegoeswithvariety.thecountryisfullofhappysurprises.onecanalwaysbepleasantlyastonishedwhiletraveling.(3)Thethirdcharacteristicofthelandscapeisitsexquisitemoderation.ithasbeenbornofacompromisebetweenwildnessandtameness,betweennatureandman.thereiscompromiseinthesurburb,wheretheinhabitantsfeelthattheyhaveonefootinthecityandoneinthecountry.thereisalsoharmonyinthecountrywherethecottagesfitsnuglyintothelandscape.
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