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,KNKKCHAPTER1LANDANDPEOPLE一、本章知识点1重点①DIFFERENTNAMESFORBRITAINANDITSPARTS2难点、考点①BRITAIN’SOFFICIALNAME②BRITISHCOMMONWEALTH三、课本内容(一)DIFFERENTNAMESFORBRITAINANDITSPARTSSTRICTLYSPEAKING,THEBRITISHISLES,GREATBRITAINANDENGLANDAREALLGEOGRAPHICALNAMES1THEBRITISHISLESAREMADEUPOFTWOLARGEISLANDSANDHUNDREDSOFSMALLISLANDS(SEEMAPOFUK)THETWOLARGEISLANDSAREGREATBRITAINANDIRELANDGREATBRITAINISTHELARGEROFTHESETWOISLANDS2★THEOFFICIALNAMEOFTHEUNITEDKINGDOMISTHEUNITEDKINGDOMOFGREATBRITAINANDNORTHERNIRELANDBUTITISTOOMUCHOFAMOUTHFULTOSAYSUCHALONGNAMEFORACOUNTRY,SOPEOPLEJUSTSAYBRITAIN,THEUNITEDKINGDOMORSIMPLYUK(UK)CAPITALLONDONTHEREPUBLICOFIRELAND爱尔兰共和国HASBEENANINDEPENDENTREPUBLICSINCE1949ANDITSCAPITALISDUBLIN3THEREARETHREEPOLITICALDIVISIONSONTHEISLANDOFGREATBRITAINENGLAND,SCOTLAND,ANDWALESENGLANDISTHELARGEST,MOSTPOPULOUSANDRICHEST,SOPEOPLETENDTOUSE“ENGLAND”AND“ENGLISH”WHENTHEYMEAN“BRITAIN”AND“BRITISH”4THEBRITISHEMPIRE大英帝国ONEFOURTHOFTHEWORLD’SPEOPLEANDONEFOURTHOFTHEWORLD’SLANDAREA5THEBRITISHEMPIREGRADUALLYDISAPPEAREDANDITWASREPLACEDBYTHEBRITISHCOMMONWEALTHORTHECOMMONWEALTHOFNATIONSIN1931★THECOMMONWEALTHISAFREEASSOCIATIONOFINDEPENDENTCOUNTRIESTHATWEREONCECOLONIESOFBRITAINMEMBERNATIONSAREJOINEDTOGETHERECONOMICALLYANDHAVECERTAINTRADINGARRANGEMENTSTHECOMMONWEALTHHASNOSPECIALPOWERSTHEDECISIONTOBECOMEAMEMBEROFTHECOMMONWEALTHISLEFTTOEACHNATION如果出简答,则只需要第一句话(二)OTHERSGEOGRAPHICALFEATURES1THEUNITEDKINGDOMISSEPARATEDFROMTHERESTOFEUROPEBYTHEENGLISHCHANNELINTHESOUTHANDTHENORTHSEAINTHEEASTTHEENGLISHCHANNELLIESBETWEENBRITAINANDFRANCE(P4)TAIWANSTRAIT台湾海峡2“CHUNNEL”CHANNELTUNNEL,OPENEDTOTRAFFICIN1994(P5)SMOGSMOKEFOGMORTELMOTORHOTELKIDULTKIDADULT3THEHIGHESTMOUNTAININBRITAINBENNEVIS,1,343MINSCOTLAND(P6)THELONGESTRIVERTHESEVERNRIVER(338KM)THESECONDLARGESTANDMOSTIMPORTANTRIVERTHETHAMESRIVER(336KM)(P7)490OFTHEPOPULATIONISURBANANDONLY10ISRURAL(P11)5THEENGLISHAREANGLOSAXONS盎格鲁撒克逊人,BUTTHESCOTS,WELSHANDIRISHARECELTS凯尔特人(P12)四、总结①BRITAIN’SOFFICIALNAME②BRITISHCOMMONWEALTHCHAPTER2THEORIGINSOFANATION(5000BC–AD1066)一、本章知识点1重点①ARRIVALANDSETTLEMENTOFTHECELTS②BASISOFMODERNENGLISHRACETHEANGLOSAXONS③THEVIKINGANDDANISHINVASIONS④KINGALFREDANDHISCONTRIBUTIONS⑤THENORMANCONQUESTANDITSCONSEQUENCES2难点、考点①THEANGLOSAXONSHEPTARCHY七王国;FOUNDATIONOFTHEENGLISHSTATE②KINGALFRED③NORMANCONQUEST三、课本内容(一)ARRIVALANDSETTLEMENTOFTHECELTS(P17)1BEGANTOARRIVEABOUT700BC2ORIGINALLYHAVECOMEFROMEASTERNANDCENTRALEUROPE,NOWFRANCE,BELGIUMANDSOUTHERNGERMANY3THREEMAINWAVES1STGAELS盖尔人,ABOUT600BC;2NDBRYTHONS布列吞人,400BC,(BRITAIN);3RDBELGAE比利其人,150BC,(BELGIUM)GAELIC盖尔语4THECELTICTRIBESAREANCESTORSOFHIGHLANDSCOTS,THEIRISHANDTHEWELSH,ANDTHEIRLANGUAGESARETHEBASISOFBOTHWELSHANDGAELIC5RELIGIONDRUIDISMTHECELTS’RELIGIONWASDRUIDISMTHEDRUIDSWORSHIPPEDANDPERFORMEDTHEIRRITESINWOODSBYTHELIGHTOFTHEMOON6ROMANBRITAIN(55BC–AD410)P18BRITISHRECORDEDHISTORYBEGINSWITHTHEROMANINVASIONFORNEARLY400YEARSBRITAINWASUNDERTHEROMANOCCUPATIONTHEROMANCAPITALWASLONDON(LONDINIUM)(二)BASISOFMODERNENGLISHRACETHEANGLOSAXONS(P2023)1MID5THCENTURY,THREETEUTONICTRIBESJUTES朱特人(FROMSOUTHERNDENMARK),SAXONS,ANDANGLES(BOTHFROMNORTHERNGERMANY);ANGLESWERETOGIVETHEIRNAMETOTHEENGLISHPEOPLE2★HEPTARCHY七王国SEVENPRINCIPALKINGDOMSSETUPBYTHEANGLOSAXONSKENT,ESSEX,SUSSEX,WESSEX,EASTANGLIA,MARCIAANDNORTHUMBRIA(英国版的战国七雄)MONARCHY君主制THEANGLOSAXONTRIBES部落WERECONSTANTLYATWARWITHONEANOTHER,EACHTRYINGTOGETTHEUPPERHAND,SOTHATTHEKINGDOMSWEREOFTENBROKENUPANDOFTENPIECEDTOGETHERAGAIN3IN829,EGBERT伯特BECAMEANOVERLORDOFALLTHEENGLISH4TEUTONIC日耳曼人的RELIGIONTIUWAR,WODENHEAVEN,THORSTORMS,FREYAPEACE5STAUGUSTINE奥古斯丁THEFIRSTARCHBISHOPOFCANTERBURY坎特伯雷大教主6★ANGLOSAXONSLAIDTHEFOUNDATIONSOFTHEENGLISHSTATEDIVIDETHECOUNTRYINTOSHIRES(郡),LATERCOUNTIES;THENARROWSTRIP,THREEFIELDFARMINGSYSTEM(三田轮作);MANORIAL庄园SYSTEM;WITAN(议会)(COUNCILORMEETINGOFTHEWISEMEN,贤人会议),THEBASISOFTHEPRIVYCOUNCIL枢密院WHICHSTILLEXISTSTODAY(三)THEVIKINGANDDANISHINVASIONS(P2324)1FROMTHEENDOF8THCENTURY,NORWEGIANVIKINGSANDDANESFROMDENMARK挪威海盗和丹麦人2THEDANESGAINEDTHE“DANELAW”(丹麦法区),THENORTHANDEASTOFENGLAND3THEWITANCHOSECANUTE,THEDANISHLEADER,ASKINGIN1016CANUTEMADEENGLANDPARTOFASCANDINAVIANEMPIRE(四)KINGALFREDANDHISCONTRIBUTIONS1KINGOFWESSEX(871899)(抗击北欧海盗入侵的国家英雄)2★HISCONTRIBUTIONS“THEFATHEROFTHEBRITISHNAVY”;REORGANIZEDTHEFYRD英国民兵(THESAXONARMY);TRANSLATEDINTOENGLISHBEDE’SECCLESIASTICALHISTORYOFTHEENGLISHPEOPLE;ESTABLISHEDSCHOOLSANDFORMULATEDALEGALSYSTEM3“ALFREDTHEGREAT”(五)THENORMANCONQUESTANDITSCONSEQUENCES(P2425)1KINGEDWARD,KNOWNAS“THECONFESSOR”,WASFARMORENORMANTHANSAXON心向着诺曼第人法国,而不是撒克逊人英国24MENLAIDCLAIMTOTHEENGLISHTHRONETHEKINGOFNORWAY,THEDUKEOFNORMANDY,TOSTIGANDHAROLD(TWOBROTHERSOFEDWARD’SQUEEN);4人对英国有继承权,挪威国王,诺曼底公爵和爱德华国王王后的两个兄弟3OCT14,1066,HASTINGS,ANGLOSAXONENGLANDPERISHEDWITHHAROLD’SDEATH因为HAROLD的死亡,英国被诺曼人打败4WILLIAMWASCROWNEDKINGOFENGLANDONCHRISTMASDAY5WILLIAMTHECONQUERORTHEBESTKNOWNEVENTINENGLISHHISTORY;THEFEUDALSYSTEMWASCOMPLETELYESTABLISHED法国诺曼第人征服后,威廉成为英国国王,成为英语历史最著明的事件,并且完本建立了封建制度四、总结历史上定居和入侵英国的不同民族CELTS,(ROMANS)ANGLOSAXONS,VIKING/DALES,ANDNORMANSCHAPTER3THESHAPINGOFTHENATION10661381本章知识点1重点1ENGLAND’SFEUDALISMUNDERTHERULEOFWILLIAMTHEC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