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更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........1自考英语语法讲义及练习主讲人胥国红主要内容1.动词时态和语态2.非谓语动词3.虚拟语气4.定语从句和名词性从句1.动词的时态和语态1.1动词的时态和语态一览表时态语态一般现在时一般过去时一般将来时主动被动doaredonedidweredonewilldowillbedone现在进行时过去进行时将来进行时主动被动aredoingarebeingdoneweredoingwerebeingdonewillbedoing现在完成时过去完成时将来完成时主动被动havedonehavebeendonehaddonehadbeendonewillhavedonewillhavebeendone现在完成进行时主动被动havebeendoing1.2动词主要时态的意义及运用1现在完成时,过去完成时和将来完成时英语提示语uptonow,sofar,forthreeyears,since1995,overpasttenyears,bytheendofthisweek,bytheyearof1995汉语提示语已经,早已,了e.g.Wehaventmeteachothersincelastyear.Bytheendofthisweek,wellhavefinishedthetask.2现在完成进行时从过去一直持续到现在,没有间断。汉语提示语一直e.g.Thewaterhasbeenrunningthewholenight.3过去完成时asaid,reported,thought等引导的间接引语中。e.g.Hemissedthetrain.Hesaidhehadmissedthetrain.bhardlywhen,nosoonerthane.g.Nosoonerhadhegotupthanhereceivedthecall.c与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的条件状语从句中e.g.IfIhadtriedharder,Iwouldhavewon.更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........2IwishIhaddonebetterintheexam.历年考题中的动词时态和语态1.Muchofthecarbonintheearth___comefromthingsthatoncelived.2.Inthepasttwodecades,research___expandourknowledgeaboutsleepanddream.3.Someproverbs___beinthelanguagefor1,000years,forexample,Afriendinneedisafriendindeed.4.___standatthegatewasayoungmaningreencoat.5.In1991,aftertheGulfWar,Bushsapprovedratingreached91percent,thehighestlevelrecordedsincepolling___begininthe19302.6.Seeingviolenceontelevisionorreadingaboutitinthenewspaperseveryday___makeustoleratecrimemorethanweshould.7.Sofar,Irving___liveinNewYorkCityfortenyears.8.Thepatient___sendtoanotherhospitalbeforewegotthere.9.Thesecondhalfofthenineteenthcentury___witnessthefirstextendedtranslationintoEnglishofthewritingsofEliphasLevi.10.Alltheworriestheymighthavefeltforhim___driveoffbythesightofhischeerfulface.2.非谓语动词2.1动词主要时态和语态一览表非谓语动词形式意义现在分词一般式Doing主动,正在进行被动式beingdone被动,正在进行完成主动式havingdone主动,已经完成完成被动式havingbeendone被动,已经完成过去分词Done被动,已经完成动词不定式一般式todo主动,将要进行被动式tobedone被动,将要进行完成主动式tohavedone主动,已经完成进行主动式tobedoing主动,正在进行2.2.非谓语动词作状语动词不定式1)目的状语2)结果状语e.g.Icameheretomeetyou.(目的)Hehurriedtotherailstationonlytomissthetrain.(结果)分词1伴随状语2)原因状语3)条件状语4)让步状语5)时间状语e.g.Walkingalongthestreet,hemethisoldfriend.(时间)Beingverytired,myfatherdidntgooutwithus.(原因)Madebyhand,thesilkshirtisveryexpensive.(原因)Seenfromthespace,theearthlookslikeablueball.条件2.3非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构1Havingdonetheirhomework,thechildrenbegantoplay.分词作状语更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........32Afterhavingdonetheirhomework,thechildrenbegantoplay.(连词分词)3Aftertheyhaddonetheirhomework,thechildrenbegantoplay.(状语从句)4Withhomeworkdone,thechildrenbegantoplay.(独立结构)2.4非谓语动词作定语1Ifthereisnochoice,thereisnodecision___make.tobemade2Doyouknowtheman____standinfrontofthehousestanding3Thequestion____discussatthemomentisveryimportant.beingdiscussed4Thebridge____buildinthe1950sisstillingoodcondition.built2.5动名词和动词不定式作主语和表语动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。e.gRisingearlyisgoodforhealth.Toriseearlytomorrowisdifficultforme.Itisdifficultformetoriseearlytomorrow.Mybiggestwishistogoabroad.Seeingisbelieving.作宾语接动名词作宾语的动词admit,acknowledge,avoid,appreciate,consider,delay,enjoy,escape,excuse,forgive,finish,include,involve,mind,putoff,postpone,suggest,feellike,lookforwardto,beusedto,beaccustomedto,etc.接动词不定式作宾语的动词want,tend,intend,pretend,hope,plan,expect,besupposedto,seem,belikelyto,usedto,bewillingto,desire,force,prefer,start,begin接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词5forget,remember,regret6stop,continue7need/want8allowdoing/allowsbtodo1HowcanIforgetmeetingyouforthefirsttimeSorry,Iforgottolockthedoor.2Icantstoplaughing.Canyoustoptogivemeahand3Thegrassneedscutting.Thegrassneedstobecut.4Wedontallowsmokinghere.Youarenotallowedtosmokehere.历年考题中的非谓语动词1.Amancannotbereallyhappyifwhatheenjoys___doisignoredbysocietyasofnovalueorimportance.2.Anyone___wanttounderstandtheindustryofthefuturewillhavetoknowaboutrobotics.3.Itisawellknownfactthatapersonwillmoveinacirclewhenhecannotusehiseyes___controlhisdirection.4.Asresearchtechniquesbecomemoreadvanced,thenumberofanimals___useinexperimentsmaydecrease.5.Itseemsreasonabletoassumethat,otherthings___beequal,theywouldprefersingletosharedrooms.更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........46.Thispoem,if___translatewordforwordintoChinese,willmakenosense.7.Theymayhavetheirpassports_____remove,makingleavingorescapingactuallyimpossible.8.Herbody,withhandsandfeet____bind,wasdiscoveredbyatravelerearlyinthemorning.9.Icouldnthelpbut___feelthisisaverystrangelife.10.Letusconsidertheearthasaplanet____revolveroundthesun.Key1.doing动名词做enjoy的宾语2.wanting现在分词作定语3.tocontrol动词不定式作目的状语4.used过去分词作定语5.being现在分词用在独立结构中6.translated连词加过去分词作状语7.removed过去分词作宾补8.bound过去分词用在独立结构中9.feelcouldnthelpbut后接动词原形10.revolving现在分词作定语3.虚拟语气第一大类非真实条件下的虚拟语气时间从句主句与现在事实相反did/wereshould/could/woulddo与过去事实相反haddoneshould/could/wouldhavedone与将来事实相反weretodoshoulddoshould/could/woulddoe.g.IfIwereyou,Iwouldbehappytodoit.Ifwehadgotthenews,wecouldhavepreparedearlier.Ifthejobweretosucceed,youshouldworkharder.第二大类从句中用过去时或过去完成时的虚拟语气1wouldrather从句2wish从句3ifonly从句4asif/asthough从句5Itstime从句e.g.Iwouldratheryoudidnttellmethestorynow.Iwouldratheryouhadtoldmethestoryyesterday.第三大类从句中用should加动词原形的虚拟语气,其中should可省略。1suggest,propose,advise,move动议,ask,order,require,request,desire,insist,prefer等动词后接的宾语从句2suggestion,proposal,advice,motion,order,requirement,request,desire,preference等名词后的同位语从句3important,necessary,essential,imperative,desirable,advisable,preferable等形容词用在itis更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........5that句型中4lest,incase,forfearthat等引导的从句中。e.g.Itissuggestedthatthemeetingshouldbeputoff.Itismysuggestionthatthemeetingshouldbeputoff.Itisnecessarythatthemeetingshouldbeputoff.Hecametotheofficeearlierlestheshouldmisstheimportantmeeting.历年考题中的虚拟语气1.Ifithadntbeenforyourhelp,we___beinrealtrouble.Hewouldhavegivenyoumorehelp,ifhe___notbesobusy.3.Itishightimethatwe___takefirmmeasurestoprotectourenvironment.4.Itwasimperativethatstudents___finishtheirpapersbeforeJuly1st.5.Theydemandedthattherighttovote___givetoeveryadultperson.Iwouldratherhe____buythehousenextyear.Themanagertoldustobefriendlytothevisitorsasifwe___meetthembefore.9.Shouldshecometomorrow,I___takehertothemuseum.AcanBwillCwouldDmust10.Ifwe___everythingreadybynow,weshouldbehavingaterribletimetomorrow.AhadntgotBdidntgetCwouldnthavegotDwouldntgetKey1.wouldhavebeen与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的主句2.hadnotbeen与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的从句3.tookItishightime过去式的虚拟形式4.shouldfinish/finishItwasimperativethat动词原形的虚拟形式5.begivendemand所接宾语从句用动词原形的虚拟形式6.shouldhavereceived与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的主句,表示本应该收到而实际上没有。7.boughtwouldrather后接宾语从句,从句用过去式表示虚拟语气。8.hadmetasif所引导的从句用过去完成式表示虚拟语气。9.C与将来事实相反的虚拟语气的主句。10.A从句与现在事实相反,但本身已经是现在完成时(从bynow可以看出),所以变为过去完成时。4.定语从句和名词性从句4.1定语从句限制性和非限制性定语从句引导定语从句1)关系代词在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语)which,that,who,whom,whose2)关系副词(在定语从句中作状语)when,where,why,how名词性从句主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句引导名词性从句1)主从连词(不在从句中作任何成分)that,whether,if2)连接代词(在从句中作主语、宾语、表语)what,which,who,whom,whose,whatever,whoever3)连接副词(在从句中作状语)when,where,why,how更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........64.2定语从句和同位语从句的区别定语从句对名词进行修饰限制,而同位语从句阐述的是名词的具体内容。从语法上看,that,which在定语从句中做主语或宾语,而同位语的引导词that不在从句中担任任何成分。e.g.1Thestorythathetoldmemaynotbetrue.定语从句2Thestorythathehasmadeafortunemaynotbetrue.同位语从句4.3什么时候用介词+which的形式如果定语从句缺主语或宾语,用that/which形式。如果定语从句缺状语,用介词which形式。e.g.1TheplacewhichIvisitedlastweekisverybeautiful.2TheplaceinwhichIusedtoliveisverybeautiful.4.4which和as引导非限制性定语从句which和as都能引导非限制性定语从句,修饰整个一句话。As有正如的意思,而which没有。1Heiseasytogetangry,whichiswellknown.他很容易生气,这一点大家都知道。2Heiseasytogetangry,aseverybodyknows.正如大家都知道的那样,他很容易生气。历年考题中的定语从句和名词性从句1.Studieshaveshown___teenagersoftensufferfromdepression.AthatBwhichCinwhichDinthat2.Itisawellknownfact___apersonwillmoveinacirclewhenhecannotusehiseyestocontrolhisdirection.AthatBifCwhenDwhether3.Ontheotherhandconcernisalsogrowingaboutthepossibilityofaneweconomicorder____resourcerichnationsoftheThirdWorldwouldcombinetosethighcommodityprices.AwhichBwhatCthatDinthat4.Itisnotyetknown____computerswillonedayhavevisionasgoodashumanvision.AwhetherBifCthatDhow5.Suchattitudesamounttoabelief___leisurecanandshouldbeputtogooduse.AwhichBifCwhetherDthat1.Thereasonformakingadecisionis___aproblemexists,goalsarewrong,orsomethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthem.AwhyBbecauseCwhereDthat7.___developedwasamusicreadilytakingonvariousformsandcapableofanalmostlimitlessrangeofexpression.AWhatBWhetherCThatDWhich8.Veryfewpeopleunderstoodthiscontract,___wasveryobscure.AthelanguageBthelanguageofwhichCallitsaidDwhichithadsaid9.Oftenmusicwasplayedoutofdoors,___natureprovidedtheenvironment.AwhichBthatCinwhichDwhere10.Manyofusvisitedtheindustrialexhibition,____,toourdisappointment,wesawveryfewhightechproducts.AwhereBwhichCasDthatKey1.Athat引导宾语从句更多优质自考资料尽在百度贴吧自考乐园俱乐部(http//tieba.baidu.com/club/5346389)欢迎❤加入...欢迎❤交流...止不住的惊喜等着你.........72.Athat引导同位语从句3.Cthat引导同位语从句4.Ait为形式主语,whether引导真正的主语从句5.Dthat引导同位语从句6.Dthat引导表语从句7.Awhat引导主语从句,并在主语从句中做主语8.Bthelanguageofwhich引导非限定性定语从句,并在定语从句中做主语9.Dwhere引导非限定性定语从句,并在定语从句中作地点状语10.Awhere引导非限定性定语从句,并在定语从句中作地点状语结束语掌握语法题的要诀在于1)牢记上述表格2)分清楚题目属于哪种具体情况3)熟练套用正确形式4)最后再检查一下是否应作必要的改动如是否被动,三人称动词后加s,动词的不规则变化等。在理解上述表格的适用条件后,再通过大量作题来巩固,及时纠正出现的错误,我们一定能攻克语法难题,在语法部分得到一个理想的分数
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