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ROBOTICSANDCOMPUTERINTEGRATEDMANUFACTURING151999387}401PRODUCTMODULARIZATIONFORLIFECYCLEENGINEERINGPGU,,SSOSALEDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALANDMANUFACTURINGENGINEERING,THEUNIVERSITYOFCALGARY,2500UNIVERSITYDRIVE,CALGARY,ALBERTA,CANADAT2N1N4IMPERIALRUBBER,LTD,EDMONTON,CANADARECEIVED24JANUARY1999;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM15JULY1999;ACCEPTED10AUGUST1999ABSTRACTMODULARPRODUCTSCONSISTOFDETACHABLEMODULES,WHICHCANBEMANUFACTURED,ASSEMBLED,ANDSERVICEDSEPARATELYSOMEOFTHEMODULESMAYBEREUSABLE,RECYCLABLEORREMANUFACTURABLEUPONPRODUCTRETIREMENTTHUS,MODULARDESIGNCANPROVIDEBENETSTOMANYASPECTSOFPRODUCTLIFECYCLETHISPAPERPRESENTSANINTEGRATEDMODULARDESIGNMETHODOLOGYFORLIFECYCLEENGINEERINGTHEMETHODOLOGYCONSISTSOFTHREEPHASESPROBLEMDENITION,INTERACTIONANALYSISANDMODULEFORMATIONTHEMETHODOLOGYIDENTIESTHEFACTORSRELATEDTOTHEDESIGNOBJECTIVES,RELATESTHESEFACTORSTODESIGNCOMPONENTSTHROUGHINTERACTIONANALYSIS,ANDCLUSTERSCOMPONENTSINTOMODULESTWOCASESTUDIESALONGWITHDETAILEDANALYSISAREPROVIDEDTOILLUSTRATETHEMETHODOLOGYANDTHEALGORITHMS1999ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVED1INTRODUCTIONMODULARDESIGNAIMSTODEVELOPPRODUCTARCHITECTURECONSISTINGOFPHYSICALLYDETACHABLEUNITSMODULESTHEREAREMANYADVANTAGESFORMODULARPRODUCTSFOREXAMPLE,BYCAREFULLYMODULARIZINGAPRODUCT,THEDESIGNSFORTHEEARLIERMODELSCANBEUSEDINANEWMODELWITHOUTANYCHANGESMODULARDESIGNCANALSOHELPINCREATINGARANGEOFPRODUCTSWITHMINORVARIANCESADDITIONALANDAUXILIARYMODULESCOULDBEADDEDTOAPRODUCTTOCREATENEWMODELSMODULARDESIGNALSOALLOWSSOMECOMPONENTSTOBEUSEDACROSSPRODUCTVARIANTSANDPRODUCTLINESDUETOSTANDARDIZATIONOFTHEFUNCTIONSANDINTERFACESRECENTSTUDYINDICATEDTHATAFTERPRODUCTSARERETIRED,SOMEOFTHEMODULESMIGHTBEREUSABLE,ORREMANUFACTURABLEINFACT,MODULARDESIGNCANCREATEBENETSFORMANYASPECTSOFAPRODUCTLIFECYCLESUCHASDESIGN,ASSEMBLY,SERVICESANDRECYCLING1,2THUS,THEREISANEEDFORDEVELOPINGASYSTEMATICAPPROACHFORMODULARDESIGNRELATINGTOPRODUCTLIFECYCLEENGINEERINGRESEARCHINLIFECYCLEENGINEERINGANDCONCURRENTENGINEERINGHASSUGGESTEDTHATTHEMOSTIMPORTANTDECISIONSBEMADEATTHEDESIGNSTAGES3}8CORRESPONDINGAUTHOREMAILADDRESSGUENMEUCALGARYCAPGUTHEREFORE,PRODUCTDESIGN,MODELLINGANDINTEGRATIONHAVERECEIVEDSIGNICANTATTENTIONS9,10THEOBJECTIVEOFTHISRESEARCHISTODEVELOPANEWMODULARDESIGNMETHODOLOGYTOADDRESSPRODUCTLIFECYCLECONCERNSATTHEDESIGNSTAGETOACHIEVETHEDENEDLIFECYCLEENGINEERINGOBJECTIVESTHROUGHMODULARDESIGN,THERELATIONSHIPSBETWEENTHEOBJECTIVESANDTHEMODULESSHOULDBEESTABLISHEDASPRODUCTFUNCTIONSAREREALIZEDBYPHYSICALSTRUCTURES,THERELATIONSHIPSBETWEENFUNCTIONSANDPHYSICALSOLUTIONSSHOULDALSOBEDETERMINEDESSENTIALLY,MODULARDESIGNDECOMPOSESAPRODUCTORGROUPSCOMPONENTSINTOSEPARATEMODULESSPECIALCAREMUSTBETAKENTOENSURETHATSEPARATIONORMERGEROFCOMPONENTSDOESNOTAECTTHEINTENDEDFUNCTIONSOFTHEPRODUCTTHISREQUIRESTHECONSIDERATIONOFFUNCTIONALANDPHYSICALINTERACTIONSAMONGCOMPONENTSFUNCTIONALINTERACTIONSAREUSUALLYEXPRESSEDINTHEFORMOFTHEEXCHANGEOFMATERIAL,ENERGYAND/ORSIGNALTHEYCANBEEXTRACTEDFROMTHEFUNCTIONALSTRUCTUREOFTHEPRODUCTWHENMODULESTHATEXCHANGETHEFUNCTIONOPERANDSARESEPARATED,SPECIALPROVISIONSARENEEDEDFORINTERFACING;OTHERWISETHEEXPECTEDFUNCTIONSMAYBEAECTEDPHYSICALINTERACTIONSREFERTOSPATIALANDGEOMETRICALRELATIONSHIPSTHEYINCLUDEATTACHMENTPHYSICALCONTACTS,XATIONSANDSTOPS,JOINTS,FASTENERS,COUPLINGS,WELDSANDTHELIKE,POSITIONINGRELATIVEDISTANCEORANGLEBETWEEN07365845/99/SEEFRONTMATTER1999ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPIIS0736584599000496COMPONENTS,ALIGNMENTINCLUDINGCOAXIAL,COLLINEAR,PARALLEL,PERPENDICULARANDUSHALIGNMENTS,MOTIONCAMCONTROLLEDOBJECTS,TRAJECTORYOFJOINTSANDENDEECTORS,ETCANDCONTAINMENTEGCOMPONENTSCONTAINEDWITHINTHESAMEHOUSINGTHESEPHYSICALANDSTRUCTURALCONSTRAINTSMUSTBECONSIDEREDWHENCOMPONENTSAREGROUPEDINTOMODULESFORPRODUCTASSEMBLY,PRODUCTARCHITECTURESHOULDBEDESIGNEDTOENSUREECIENTASSEMBLYPROCESSANDQUALITYDIERENTMODULARIZATIONOFAPRODUCTWILLDIRECTLYAECTASSEMBLYPROCEDURES,ASSEMBLYECIENCYANDCOSTS,ESPECIALLYLARGESTRUCTUREASSEMBLY11MODULARIZATIONWILLALLOWMODULESPRODUCED,ASSEMBLEDANDTESTEDINCONVENIENTLOCATIONSWITHEQUIPMENT,TOOLSANDEXPERTISEFORPRODUCTREUSEANDRECYCLING,DIERENTCOMPONENTSOFAPRODUCTMAYHAVEDIERENTLIFEDURATIONWHENAPRODUCTRETIRES,THEREMAYBESOMEUSABLECOMPONENTS,ANDSOMECOMPONENTSMAYBERECOVEREDBYREMANUFACTURINGMODULARDESIGNCANGROUPTHESECOMPONENTSINTOEASILYDETACHABLEMODULESSUCHTHATTHEYCANBEEASILYREUSEDORREMANUFACTUREDFORRECYCLING,MATERIALCOMPATIBILITYSHOULDBECONSIDEREDASDIERENTMATERIALSWHICHMAYREQUIREDIERENTRECYCLINGORDISPOSALMETHODSAMODULARPRODUCTCANFACILITATETHESEPARATIONANDSORTINGOFDIERENTMATERIALSFORPROPERRECYCLINGORDISPOSALPROCESSESASACONCEPT,MODULARDESIGNHASBEENEXPLOREDBYMANYRESEARCHERS11}13VARIOUSDESIGNMETHODSHAVEBEENPROPOSEDTHEMETHODSOFUSINGFUNCTIONALSTRUCTURESFORMODULARIZATIONCOMPOSEDMODULESBYGROUPINGTHEFUNCTIONRELATEDELEMENTSTOGETHER13}15EPPINGERANDPIMMLER16USEDPHYSICALRELATIONSFORMODULEDESIGNERIXON17PROPOSEDTOUSEQUALITYFUNCTIONDEPLOYMENTQFDTOMODULARIZEAPRODUCTHILLSTROM12APPLIEDDESIGNAXIOMSTOEVALUATETHEINTERFACESAMONGMODULESMISTREEETAL18DEMONSTRATEDWITHANEXAMPLETHATTHEREISARELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHEINDEPENDENCEAMONGMODULESANDREDUCINGINTERACTIONSBETWEENTHEMKUSIAKANDHUANG19PROPOSEDANAPPROACHFORMODULARIZINGAPRODUCTBYCONSIDERINGTHECOSTSANDPERFORMANCEOFAPRODUCTTOMODULARIZEAPRODUCT,CLUSTERINGALGORITHMSAREOFTENUSEDEPPINGERANDPIMMLER16USEDAHEURISTICSWAPPINGALGORITHMTOCLUSTERCOMPONENTSINTOMODULESNEWCOMBETAL20USEDTHECLUSTERINGALGORITHMDEVELOPEDBYKUSIAKANDCHOW21TOIDENTIFYMODULESINAPRODUCTKUSIAKANDCOWORKERSHAVEDEVELOPEDSEVERALCLUSTERINGALGORITHMS,WHICHCANBEUSEDFORCOMPONENTCLUSTERING22}24THISPAPERISORGANIZEDASFOLLOWSTHEFOLLOWINGSECTIONINTRODUCESTHELIFECYCLEENGINEERINGOBJECTIVESOFMODULARDESIGNTHEPROPOSEDMETHODOLOGYISTHENPROVIDEDTODEMONSTRATETHEMETHODOLOGYANDTHEALGORITHMS,TWOCASESTUDIESAREGIVENINTHEFOLLOWINGSECTIONTHENALSECTIONISTHEDISCUSSIONSANDTHECONCLUSIONS2PRODUCTLIFECYCLEOBJECTIVESOFMODULARDESIGNAPRODUCTLIFECYCLEEMBRACESANUMBEROFISSUESINCLUDINGDESIGN,MANUFACTURING,ASSEMBLY,TESTING,SHIPPING,DISTRIBUTION,OPERATIONUSE,SERVICES,REUSE,REMANUFACTURING,RECYCLINGANDDISPOSALIDEALLY,AMODULARDESIGNCANACHIEVEALLTHESELIFECYCLEOBJECTIVESSIMULTANEOUSLYINREALITY,DIERENTOBJECTIVESMAYREQUIREDIERENTMODULESTOBEFORMEDCONSEQUENTLY,CONICTSMAYOCCURACOMPROMISEISOFTENREQUIREDFORMAKINGDESIGNDECISIONSTHEFOLLOWINGISALISTOFTHEMODULARDESIGNOBJECTIVESRELATINGTOPRODUCTLIFECYCLEBENETS1DIVIDINGDESIGNTASKFORPARALLELDEVELOPMENTDESIGNOFCOMPLEXPRODUCTSMAYREQUIREDESIGNTEAMSCONSISTINGOFEXPERTSFROMDIERENTDISCIPLINESSEQUENTIALDEVELOPMENTOFSUCHPRODUCTSMAYTAKEALONGTIMEBYBREAKINGDOWNTHEOVERALLDESIGNANDDEVELOPMENTTASKINTOSIMPLERSUBTASKSANDPROPERLYDENINGTHEINTERFACESBETWEENTHESUBTASKS,DESIGNTEAMSCANCARRYOUTTHESUBTASKSINPARALLELTOREDUCEPRODUCTDESIGNANDDEVELOPMENTTIME2PRODUCTIONANDASSEMBLYIMPROVEMENTMODULESAREESSENTIALLYINDEPENDENTENTITIESFORAPRODUCTWITHDENEDINTERFACESWITHOTHERMODULESANDCOMPONENTSMODULESCANBEMANUFACTUREDSEPARATELYINDIERENTLOCATIONSTOFACILITATEPRODUCTIONPROCESSESANDEXPERTISE,ANDTOOPTIMIZEEQUIPMENTUTILIZATIONPRODUCTARCHITECTUREAECTSASSEMBLYECIENCYOFTHEPRODUCTDIERENTSCENARIOSOFMODULARITYMAYRESULTINDIERENTASSEMBLYPROCEDURESWITHDIERENTASSEMBLYTIMESANDCOSTSINCOMPARISONWITHINTEGRALARCHITECTURESOFPRODUCTS,ESPECIALLYFORLARGE,COMPLEXPRODUCTS,MODULARARCHITECTUREALLOWSSEPARATEMODULESTOBEASSEMBLEDINTHEMOSTCONVENIENTLOCATIONSANDTHENPUTTOGETHERTOREDUCETHETOTALASSEMBLYTIMEANDCOSTS3STANDARDIZATIONVARIOUSMODELSOFPRODUCTSEGAFAMILYOFPRODUCTSMAYHAVESOMEIDENTICALFUNCTIONSINTHEIRFUNCTIONALSTRUCTURESTHESEFUNCTIONSCANBEREALIZEDBYSIMILAROREVENIDENTICALPHYSICALSTRUCTURESMODULESTHESECOMMONMODULESCANBESTANDARDIZEDANDPRODUCEDINLARGERBATCHSIZESTOIMPROVEPRODUCTIONECIENCYANDQUALITYANDREDUCECOSTSITALSOENHANCESTHESTANDARDIZATIONOFACOMPANY4SERVICESPRODUCTSUSUALLYREQUIREBOTHPREVENTIVEMAINTENANCEANDRECOVERYREPAIRSDIERENTCOMPONENTSOFAPRODUCTHAVEDIERENTMAINTENANCEFREQUENCIESANDREPAIRREQUIREMENTSBYGROUPINGCOMPONENTSINTOEASILYDISASSEMBLEMODULES,FAULTANALYSISANDMAINTENANCEOFTHEPRODUCTSAREMOREEASILYFACILITATEDWHENAFAILUREOCCURS,THEFAULTYMODULECANBETEMPORARILYREPLACED,THEFAULTYPARTSWITHINTHEMODULEAREREPAIRED,ANDTHENTHEMODULEISRETURNEDTOSERVICETHEMAINCONSIDERATIONSREQUIREDFORSERVICEABILITYAREFREQUENCYOFFAILURE,SERVICEREQUIREMENTS,MEANTIMEOFREPAIRS,FREQUENCYOFPREVENTIVESERVICES,ACCESSIBILITYOFCOMPONENTS,COSTOF388PGU,SSOSALE/ROBOTICSANDCOMPUTERINTEGRATEDMANUFACTURING151999387}401REPLACEMENTS,ANDREPAIRCOMPLEXITYINTERMSOFTHESPECIALSKILLSORTOOLSREQUIRED5UPGRADINGEVERYPRODUCTHASALIFECYCLEANDEVENTUALLYRETIRESMANYREASONSCONTRIBUTETOTHERETIREMENTOFAPRODUCTSUCHASCUSTOMERDEMANDFORNEWMODELSANDWEAROFTHEPRODUCTTODAYSHIGHLYCOMPETITIVEMARKETANDHIGHCONSUMEREXPECTATIONSDEMANDMANUFACTURERSTOINTRODUCENEWMODELSINASHORTPERIODOFTIMEALSO,THERAPIDLYCHANGINGTECHNOLOGYQUICKLYMAKESPRODUCTSOBSOLETE,ALTHOUGHTHEYAREUSABLEEGCOMPUTERSTHETIMEANDEORTREQUIREDTOINTRODUCEANEWPRODUCTMODELAREUSUALLYSUBSTANTIALONEWAYTOFACILITATERAPIDINTRODUCTIONOFNEWMODELSISTHROUGHREUSEOFTHEEXISTINGDESIGNANDPRODUCTIONPROCESSESOFTHEOLDMODELSWITHASLITTLECHANGESASPOSSIBLEINORDERTOREDUCETHETIMEANDEORTFORNEWMODELDEVELOPMENT6RECONXGURATIONWHENFUNCTIONSOFTWOPRODUCTSARESOSIMILAR,ONECANBECONVERTEDTOTHEOTHERBYSMALLMODICATIONSOFTENTHEUSERSDONOTNEEDORCANNOTAORDCOST,SPACE,ETCASPECIALPRODUCTFORAPARTICULARFUNCTIONTHECONGURABLEPRODUCTSCANACCOMMODATETHENEEDSBYCHANGINGTHEARRANGEMENTOFAFEWMODULESORADDINGONEORMOREMODULES,THEREQUIREDFUNCTIONSMAYBEREALIZEDBYTHEEXISTINGPRODUCTANEXAMPLEOFTHISTYPEOFMODULARITYISRECONGURABLEMACHINETOOLSBYADDINGANAUXILIARYATTACHMENT,AVERTICALMILLINGMACHINECANBEUSEDFORHORIZONTALMILLINGOPERATIONS7RECYCLING,REUSEANDDISPOSALDIERENTCOMPONENTSOFAPRODUCTMAYHAVEDIERENTLIFEDURATIONWHENAPRODUCTRETIRES,THEREMAYBESOMEUSABLECOMPONENTSMODULARDESIGNCANGROUPTHESECOMPONENTSINTOEASILYDETACHABLEMODULESSUCHTHATTHEYCANBEEASILYREUSEDFORRECYCLING,MATERIALCOMPATIBILITYSHOULDBECONSIDEREDASDIERENTMATERIALSMAYREQUIREDIERENTRECYCLINGORDISPOSALMETHODSAMODULARPRODUCTCANFACILITATETHESEPARATIONANDSORTINGOFDIERENTMATERIALSFORPROPERRECYCLINGORDISPOSALPROCESSES8PRODUCTVARIETYANDCUSTOMIZATIONCUSTOMERSUSUALLYHAVEINDIVIDUALTASTESANDPREFERENCESITISDICULTTODESIGNANDMANUFACTUREASINGLEMODELOFPRODUCTSTHATCANSATISFYALLCUSTOMERSOFTENAPRODUCTENTERST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