Damage and dimensional precision on milling carbon fiber-reinforced plastics using design experiments.pdfDamage and dimensional precision on milling carbon fiber-reinforced plastics using design experiments.pdf

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JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1602005160–167DAMAGEANDDIMENSIONALPRECISIONONMILLINGCARBONFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICSUSINGDESIGNEXPERIMENTSJPAULODAVIM∗,PEDROREISDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,UNIVERSITYOFAVEIRO,CAMPUSSANTIAGO,3810193AVEIRO,PORTUGALRECEIVED24JUNE2002;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM10MAY2004;ACCEPTED8JUNE2004ABSTRACTMILLINGCOMPOSITEMATERIALSISARATHERCOMPLEXTASKOWINGTOITSHETEROGENEITYANDTHENUMBEROFPROBLEMS,SUCHASSURFACEDELAMINATION,THATAPPEARDURINGTHEMACHININGPROCESS,ASSOCIATEDWITHTHECHARACTERISTICSOFTHEMATERIALANDTHECUTTINGPARAMETERSWITHTHEPURPOSEOFUNDERSTANDINGANDREDUCINGTHESEPROBLEMS,THISPAPERPRESENTSASTUDYTHATEVALUATESTHECUTTINGPARAMETERSCUTTINGVELOCITYANDFEEDRATEUNDERTHESURFACEROUGHNESS,ANDDAMAGEINMILLINGLAMINATEPLATESOFCARBONFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICSCFRPSAPLANOFEXPERIMENTS,BASEDONTHETAGUCHI’SMETHOD,WASESTABLISHEDCONSIDERINGMILLINGWITHPREFIXEDCUTTINGPARAMETERSINANAUTOCLAVECFRPCOMPOSITEMATERIALANANALYSISOFVARIANCEANOVAWASPERFORMEDTOINVESTIGATETHECUTTINGCHARACTERISTICSOFCFRPCOMPOSITEMATERIALUSINGCEMENTEDCARBIDEK10ENDMILLSTHEOBJECTIVEWASTOESTABLISHAMODELUSINGMULTIPLEREGRESSIONANALYSISBETWEENCUTTINGVELOCITYANDFEEDRATEWITHTHESURFACEROUGHNESSANDDAMAGEINACFRPCOMPOSITEMATERIAL2004ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSMILLING;CARBONFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICSCFRPS;DIMENSIONALPRECISION;TAGUCHI’SMETHOD;ORTHOGONALARRAYS;ANALYSISOFVARIANCEANOVA1INTRODUCTION11MILLINGFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICSFRPSMILLINGISTHEMACHININGOPERATIONMOSTFREQUENTLYUSEDINMANUFACTURINGPARTSOFFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICS,BECAUSECOMPONENTSMADEOFCOMPOSITEMATERIALSARECOMMONLYPRODUCEDBYNETSHAPETHATOFTENREQUIRETHEREMOVALOFEXCESSMATERIALTOCONTROLTOLERANCES,ANDMILLINGISUSEDASACORRECTIVEOPERATIONTOPRODUCEAWELLDEFINEDANDHIGHQUALITYSURFACES1THEMACHINABILITYOFFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICSISSTRONGLYINFLUENCEDBYTHETYPEOFFIBEREMBEDDEDINTHECOMPOSITEANDBYITSPROPERTIESMECHANICALANDTHERMALPROPERTIESHAVEANEXTREMELYIMPORTANCEONMACHININGFRPTHEFIBERUSEDINTHECOMPOSITESHASAGREATERINFLUENCEINTHESELECTIONOFCUTTINGTOOLSCUTTINGEDGEMATERIALANDGEOMETRYANDMACHININGPARAMETERSITISFUNDAMENTALTOENSURETHATTHETOOLSELECTEDISSUITABLEFORTHEMATERIALTHEKNOWLEDGEOFCUTTINGMECHANISMSISINDISPENSABLEINVIEWOFCUTTINGMECHANICSANDMACHINABILITYASSESSMENTINMILLING1,2∗CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL351234370830;FAX351234370953EMAILADDRESSPDAVIMMECUAPTJPDAVIMCOMPOSITEMATERIALSSUCHASCARBONFIBERREINFORCEDPLASTICSCFRPSMADEBYUSINGCARBONFIBERSFORREINFORCINGPLASTICRESINMATRICES,SUCHASEPOXY,ARECHARACTERISEDBYHAVINGEXCELLENTPROPERTIESASLIGHTWEIGHT,HIGHSTRENGTHANDHIGHSTIFFNESSTHESEPROPERTIESMAKETHEMESPECIALLYATTRACTIVEFORAEROSPACEAPPLICATIONS2SURFACEROUGHNESSISAPARAMETERTHATHASAGREATERINFLUENCEONDIMENSIONALPRECISION,PERFORMANCEOFMECHANICALPIECESANDONPRODUCTIONCOSTSFORTHESEREASONS,RESEARCHDEVELOPMENTSHAVEBEENCARRIEDOUTWITHTHEPURPOSEOFOPTIMISINGTHECUTTINGCONDITIONSTOREACHASPECIFICSURFACEROUGHNESS3,4FORACHIEVINGTHEDESIREDQUALITYOFTHEMACHINEDSURFACE,ITISNECESSARYTOUNDERSTANDTHEMECHANISMSOFMATERIALREMOVAL,THEKINETICSOFMACHININGPROCESSESAFFECTINGTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHECUTTINGTOOLS5THEWORKSOFANUMBEROFAUTHORS6–12,WHENREPORTINGONMILLINGOFFRP,HAVESHOWNTHATTHETYPEANDORIENTATIONOFTHEFIBER,CUTTINGPARAMETERSANDTOOLGEOMETRYHAVEANESSENTIALPAPERONTHEMACHINABILITYEVERSTINEANDROGERS6PRESENTEDTHEFIRSTTHEORETICALWORKONTHEMACHININGOFFRPSIN1971,SINCETHENTHERESEARCHMADEINTHISAREAHASBEENBASEDONEXPERIMENTALINVESTIGATIONSKOPLEVETAL7,KANEEDA8ANDPUWANDHOCHENG9CONCLUDEDTHATTHEPRINCIPALCUTTINGMECHANISMSCORRELATESTRONGLYTOFIBERARRANGEMENTANDTOOLGEOMETRY09240136/–SEEFRONTMATTER2004ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JJMATPROTEC200406003JPDAVIM,PREIS/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1602005160–167161SANTHANAKRISHMANETAL10ANDRAMULUETAL11CARRIEDOUTASTUDYONMACHININGOFPOLYMERICCOMPOSITESANDCONCLUDEDTHATANINCREASINGOFTHECUTTINGSPEEDLEADSTOABETTERSURFACEFINISHHOCHENGETAL12STUDIEDTHEEFFECTOFTHEFIBERORIENTATIONONTHECUTQUALITY,CUTTINGFORCESANDTOOLWEARONTHEMACHINABILITYINSUMMARY,ITCANBENOTICEDTHATTHEWORKSCARRIEDOUTONTHEMACHINABILITYOFFRP,AREBASICALLYRELATEDONTHEWEAROFCUTTINGTOOLSANDTHEQUALITYONTHESURFACES,ASAFUNCTIONOFTHECUTTINGCONDITIONS,THEDISTRIBUTIONOFSTAPLEFIBERSINTHEPOLYMERICMATRIXANDTHEANGLEOFINCLINATIONOFSTAPLEFIBERSTHECURRENTPAPERINVESTIGATESTHEINFLUENCEOFCUTTINGPARAMETERSCUTTINGVELOCITYANDFEEDRATEONTHESURFACEROUGHNESSRA,DELAMINATIONFACTORFD,ANDINTERNATIONALDIMENSIONALPRECISIONIT,ONCFRPCOMPOSITEMATERIALUSINGCEMENTEDCARBIDEENDMILLS,WITHTHEPURPOSETOESTABLISHAEMPIRICALRELATIONSHIPBETWEENCUTTINGPARAMETERSVANDFANDSURFACEROUGHNESSRAANDDELAMINATIONFACTORFD12AUTOCLAVEPROCESSTHEAUTOCLAVEPROCESSISWIDELYUSEDTOPRODUCEHIGHPERFORMANCELAMINATESUSUALLYWITHFIBERSREINFORCEDEPOXYSYSTEMSCOMPOSITEMATERIALSMANUFACTUREDBYAUTOCLAVEAREPARTICULARLYIMPORTANTFORAEROSPACEAPPLICATIONSTHISPROCESSUSESAPRESSURISEDVESSELTOAPPLYPRESSUREANDHEATTOBOTHPARTSTHATHAVEBEENSEALEDINAVACUUMBAGNEXTITCANBESEENTHESEVERALSTAGESOFTHISPROCESSONTHEFIRSTSTAGE,THEPREPREGCARBONFIBER–EPOXYMATERIALISCAREFULLYLAIDOUTONATABLETOENSURETHATFIBERORIENTATIONMEETSTHEDESIGNREQUIREMENT,WHERETHEPREPREGMATERIALCONSISTSOFUNIDIRECT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