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Singlechip1ThedefinitionofasinglechipSinglechipisanintegratedonasinglechipacompletecomputersystem.Eventhoughmostofhisfeaturesinasmallchip,butithasaneedtocompletethemajorityofcomputercomponentsCPU,memory,internalandexternalbussystem,mostwillhavetheCore.Atthesametime,suchasintegratedcommunicationinterfaces,timers,realtimeclockandotherperipheralequipment.Andnowthemostpowerfulsinglechipmicrocomputersystemcanevenvoice,image,networking,inputandoutputcomplexsystemintegrationonasinglechip.AlsoknownassinglechipMCUMicrocontroller,becauseitwasfirstusedinthefieldofindustrialcontrol.OnlybythesinglechipCPUchipdevelopedfromthededicatedprocessor.ThedesignconceptisthefirstbyalargenumberofperipheralsandCPUinasinglechip,thecomputersystemsothatsmaller,moreeasilyintegratedintothecomplexanddemandingonthevolumecontroldevices.INTELtheZ80isoneofthefirstdesigninaccordancewiththeideaoftheprocessor,Fromthenon,theMCUandthedevelopmentofadedicatedprocessorpartedways.Earlysinglechip8bitorallofthefour.OneofthemostsuccessfulisINTELs8031,becausetheperformanceofasimpleandreliableaccesstoalotofgoodpraise.Sincethenin8031todevelopasinglechipmicrocomputersystemMCS51series.Basedonsinglechipmicrocomputersystemofthesystemisstillwidelyuseduntilnow.Asthefieldofindustrialcontrolrequirementsincreaseinthebeginningofa16bitsinglechip,butnotidealbecausethepricehasnotbeenverywidelyused.Afterthe90swiththebigconsumerelectronicsproductdevelopment,singlechiptechnologyisahugeimprovement.INTELi960SerieswithsubsequentARMinparticular,abroadrangeofapplications,quicklyreplacedby32bitsinglechip16bitsinglechiphighendstatus,andenterthemainstreammarket.Traditional8bitsinglechipperformancehasbeentherapidincreaseinprocessingpowercomparedtothe80storaiseafewhundredtimes.Atpresent,thehighend32bitsinglechipfrequencyover300MHz,theperformanceofthemid90scloseontheheelsofaspecialprocessor,whiletheordinarypriceofthemodeldroppedtooneU.S.dollars,themosthighendmodels,only10U.S.dollars.Contemporarysinglechipmicrocomputersystemisnolongeronlythebaremetalenvironmentinthedevelopmentanduseofalargenumberofdedicatedembeddedoperatingsystemiswidelyusedinthefullrangeofsinglechipmicrocomputer.InPDAsandcellphonesasthecoreprocessingofhighendsinglechiporevenadedicateddirectaccesstoWindowsandLinuxoperatingsystems.Morethanadedicatedsinglechipprocessorsuitableforembeddedsystems,soitwasuptotheapplication.Infactthenumberofsinglechipistheworldslargestcomputer.Modernhumanlifeusedinalmosteverypieceofelectronicandmechanicalproductswillhaveasinglechipintegration.Phone,telephone,calculator,homeappliances,electronictoys,handheldcomputersandcomputeraccessoriessuchasamouseintheDepartmentareequippedwith12singlechip.Andpersonalcomputersalsohavealargenumberofsinglechipmicrocomputerintheworkplace.Vehiclesequippedwithmorethan40Departmentofthegeneralsinglechip,complexindustrialcontrolsystemsandevensinglechipmayhavehundredsofworkatthesametimeSCMisnotonlyfarexceedsthenumberofPCandotherintegratedcomputing,evenmorethanthenumberofhumanbeings.2singlechipintroducedSinglechip,alsoknownassinglechipmicrocontroller,itisnotthecompletionofalogicfunctionofthechip,butacomputersystemintegratedintoachip.Speakingingeneraltermsasinglechiphasbecomeacomputer.Itssmallsize,lightweight,cheap,forthelearning,applicationanddevelopmentoffacilitiesprovided.Atthesametime,learningtousetheprincipleofsinglechipcomputertounderstandandstructurethebestchoice.Singlechipandcomputeruseisalsosimilartothemodule,suchasCPU,memory,parallelbus,aswellastheroleandthesameharddiskmemory,isitdifferentfromtheperformanceofthesecomponentsarerelativelyweakinourhomecomputeralot,butthepriceislow,thereisgenerallynomorethan10yuan......canuseittomakesomecontrolforaclassofelectricalworkisnotverycomplexissufficient.Weareusingautomaticdrumwashingmachines,smokehood,VCDandsooninsidethehomeappliancescanseeitsshadow......Itismainlyaspartofthecorecomponentsofthecontrol.Itisanonlinerealtimecontrolcomputer,controllineisatthescene,weneedtohaveastrongerantiinterferenceability,lowcost,andthisisofflinecomputersuchashomePCThemaindifference.Bysinglechipprocess,andcanbeamended.Throughdifferentprocedurestoachievedifferentfunctions,inparticularthespecialuniquefeatures,thisistheneedtochargeotherdevicescandoagreateffort,someofitisalsodifficulttomakegreateffortstodoso.AfunctionisnotverycomplicatediftheUnitedStatesthedevelopmentofthe50sseriesof74or60duringtheCD4000seriestogetthesepurehardware,thecircuitmustbeabigPCBboardHowever,iftheUnitedStatesifthesuccessful70sseriesofsinglechipmarket,theresultwillbedifferentSimplybecausetheadoptionofsinglechippreparationprocessyoucanachievehighintelligence,highefficiencyandhighreliabilityBecauseofthecostofsinglechipissensitive,sothedominantsoftwareorthelowestlevelassemblylanguage,whichisinadditiontothelowestlevelformorethanbinarymachinecodeofthelanguage,sincesuchalowlevelsowhyshouldweuseManyoftheseniorslanguagehasreachedalevelofvisualprogrammingWhyisitnotinuseThereasonissimple,thatis,singlechipcomputerasthereisnohomeofCPU,alsonotashardasthemassstoragedevice.Avisualizationofsmallhighlevellanguageprogram,evenifthereisonlyonebuttonwhichwillreachthesizeofdozensofKForthehomePCsharddriveisnothing,butintermsofthesinglechipmicrocomputerisunacceptable.Singlechipintheutilizationofhardwareresourceshavetodoveryhigh,sothecompilationoftheoriginalwhilestillinheavyuse.Thesametoken,ifthecomputergiantsoperatingsystemandapplicationsrunuptogetthehomePC,homePCcannotaffordtosustainthesame.Itcanbesaidthatthetwentiethcenturyacrossthethreepowerofthetimes,thatis,theelectricalera,theelectronicageandhasnowenteredthecomputerage.However,suchacomputer,usuallyreferstoapersonalcomputer,orPC.Itconsistsofthehost,keyboards,displaysandothercomponents.Thereisalsoatypeofcomputer,nothowmostpeoplearefamiliarwith.Thiscomputerissmarttogiveavarietyofmechanicalsinglechipalsoknownasmicrocontroller.Asthenamesuggests,thesecomputersystemsuseonlytheminimumofanintegratedcircuittomakeasimplecalculationandcontrol.Becauseofitssmallsize,areusuallychargedwithpossessionofmachineinthebellyin.Itinthedevice,likethehumanmindplaysarole,itiswrong,theentiredevicewasparalyzed.Now,thissinglechiphasaverywidefieldofuse,suchassmartmeters,realtimeindustrialcontrol,communicationsequipment,navigationsystems,andhouseholdappliances.Onceavarietyofproductswiththeuseofthesinglechip,willbeabletoplaysothattheeffectivenessofproductupgrading,productnamesoftenadjectivebeforethewordintelligent,suchaswashingmachinesandsointelligent.Atpresent,sometechnicalpersonneloffactoriesorotheramateurelectronicsdevelopersfromengagingincertainproducts,notthecircuitistoocomplex,thatisfunctionalandeasytobetoosimpleimitation.Thereasonmaybetheproductnotonthecardsortheuseofsinglechipprogrammablelogicdeviceontheother.3singlechiphistorySinglechip70wasborninthelate20thcentury,experiencedaSCM,MCU,SoCthreestages.Singlechipmicrocomputer1.SCMthatSingleChipMicrocomputerstage,ismainlyasingleformtofindthebestofthebestembeddedsystemsarchitecture.Innovationmodeltobesuccessful,laytheSCMwiththegeneralpurposecomputers,acompletelydifferentpathofdevelopment.Inembeddedsystemstocreateanindependentdevelopmentpath,IntelCorporationcredit.Thatis,2.MCUmicrocontrollerMicroControllerUnitstage,themaindirectionoftechnologydevelopmentexpandingtomeettheembeddedapplications,thetargetsystemrequirementsforthevariousperipheralcircuitsandinterfacecircuits,tohighlightthetargetofintelligentcontrol.Itcoversallareasrelatedwiththeobjectsystem,therefore,thedevelopmentofMCUinevitablyfallontheheavyelectrical,electronicsmanufacturers.Fromthispointofview,IntelsdevelopmentgraduallyMCUhasitsobjectivefactors.MCUinthedevelopment,themostfamousmanufacturerswhenthenumberofPhilipsCorporation.Philipsinembeddedapplicationsforitsenormousadvantages,theMCS51fromtherapiddevelopmentofsinglechipmicrocomputertothemicrocontroller.Therefore,whenwelookbackatthepathofdevelopmentofembeddedsystems,IntelandPhilipsdonotforgetthehistoricalmerits.3.Singlechipisanindependentembeddedsystemsdevelopment,totheMCUanimportantfactorinthedevelopmentstage,isseekingapplicationstomaximizetheonchipsolutionTherefore,thedevelopmentofdedicatedsinglechipSoCformedanaturaltrend.Withthemicroelectronicstechnology,ICdesign,EDAtoolsdevelopment,basedonthesinglechipSoCdesignapplicationsystemswillhavegreaterdevelopment.Therefore,theunderstandingofsinglechipmicrocomputerfromasingle,monolithicsinglechipmicrocontrollerextendstoapplications.4singlechipapplicationsAtpresent,singlechipmicrocomputertoinfiltrateallareasofourlives,whichisverydifficulttofindtheareaofalmostnotracesofsinglechipmicrocomputer.Missilenavigationequipment,aircraftcontrolonavarietyofinstruments,computernetworkcommunicationsanddatatransmission,industrialautomation,realtimeprocesscontrolanddataprocessing,arewidelyusedinavarietyofsmartICcard,limousineciviliansecuritysystems,videorecorders,cameras,thecontrolofautomaticwashingmachines,aswellasprogramcontrolledtoys,electronicpet,etc.,whichareinseparablefromthesinglechipmicrocomputer.Nottomentionthefieldofrobotautomation,intelligentinstrumentation,medicalequipmenthasbeen.Therefore,thesinglechiplearning,developmentandapplicationtoalargenumberofcomputerapplicationsandintelligentcontrolofscientists,engineers.inglechipwidelyusedininstrumentsandmeters,householdappliances,medicalequipment,aerospace,specializedequipmentandtheintelligentmanagementinareassuchasprocesscontrol,generallycanbedividedintothefollowingareas1.InthesmartapplicationofinstrumentationSinglechipwithsmallsize,lowpowerconsumption,control,andexpansionflexibility,miniaturizationandeaseofuse,widelyusedininstrumentation,thecombinationofdifferenttypesofsensors,canberealized,suchasvoltage,power,frequency,humidity,temperature,flow,speed,thickness,angle,length,hardness,element,measurementofphysicalpressure.SCMmakesuseofdigitalinstrumentation,intelligence,miniaturizationandfunctionalthantheuseofelectronicordigitalcircuitryevenstronger.Forexample,precisionmeasurementequipmentpowermeter,oscilloscope,andanalyzer.2.IntheindustrialcontrolMCUcanconstituteavarietyofcontrolsystems,dataacquisitionsystem.Suchasfactoryassemblylineofintelligentmanagement,intelligentcontrolofthelift,allkindsofalarmsystems,andcomputernetworksconstituteasecondarycontrolsystem.3.IntheapplicationofhouseholdappliancesItcanbesaidthatalmostallhomeappliancesareusingthesinglechipcontrol,electricricefromfavorable,washingmachines,refrigerators,airconditioners,colorTVandotheraudiovideoequipment,andthentotheelectronicweighingequipment,allkinds,everywhere.4.OncomputernetworksandcommunicationapplicationsinthefieldofGenerallywiththemodernsinglechipcommunicationinterface,canbeeasily
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