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中英文翻译CAD.doc中英文翻译CAD.doc -- 5 元

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攀枝花学院本科毕业设计(论文)外语文翻译攀枝花学院本科毕业设计(论文)外文译文院(系):机电工程学院专业:机械设计制造及其自动化姓名:学号:指导教师评语:签名:年月日攀枝花学院本科毕业设计(论文)外语文翻译1外语文献翻译原文:3.4.1CADHARDWAREComputersTherearetwomajortypesofhardwareusedinaCADsystem.Computerandinput/output(I/O)devices.IntheearlydaysofCAD.SomecommercialCADsystemsusedproprietarycomputers.Today,nearlyallCADsoftwarerunsonageneral-purposecomputer.DependingonthecomplexityoftheCADpackage,itmayrequireamainframecomputer,aminicomputer,orsimplyamicrocomputer.Ingeneral,themorefunctionalitiesaCADsystemprovides,themorepowerfulthecomputerneeded.Threedimensionalsolidmodelersrequiremuchmorecomputingthandotwo-dimensionaldraftingsystems;thus,theyneedmorepowerfulcomputers.Systemsthatintegrateengineeringanalysisorsimulationpackagesgenerallyaremorecomputation-intensive.ApowerfulcomputernotonlyspeedsuptheresponseofaCADsystem,butalsocansupportmultipleuserswithoutsignificantperformancedegradation.Severalotherparametersandcomponentsconcerningthecomputeralsohavetobeconsidered.CADHARDWARErandom-accessmemory(RAM)capacitypermanentdisk-storagecapacityspecialgraphicsacceleratortapebackupsRAMistheactualphysicalmemory(vs.virtualmemory)ofacomputer.Asmallmemorycapacitymeansslowprocessingduetofrequentswappingbetweenthephysicalmemoryandthevirtualmemoryondisk.BecauseCADisextremelystoragedemanding,diskcapacityisimportant.Smalldiskcapacitylimitsthesystemtothestorageofonlyafewdrawings.CADisgraphics-basedandrequirestremendousdataprocessing.Agraphicsacceleratorcandrasticallyincreasetheperformanceofthesystem.Anothercomponent,theharddisk,istypicallythemajorcostofacomputersystem.Therefore,itisnotcost-justifiabletostorealldrawingsonlineondisk.Magnetictapeisstillthemosteconomicalmediumtouseforoff-linedatastorage.ItisnecessaryforaCADsystemtohaveatapebackupsubsystem.Currently,alllevelsofcomputersareusedinCADsystems.Personalcomputersareusedinlow-cost,2-Ddraftingapplications,andwiththenewpowerofthesecomputers,heyarealsobeingusedforsome3-Dsolidmodelingapplications.EngineeringworkstationshavebeenthemainstayinCAD,andareusuallyasingle-userCADworkstationinanetwork.MinicomputersareusedinmultiuserCADsystems.MainframesareusedforlargemultiuserCADsystemstosupportrealtimesimulationandengineeringanalysis.Sometimes,inalargecorporation,alllevels攀枝花学院本科毕业设计(论文)外语文翻译2ofCADsystemsareimplemented.Allthesesystemsarelinkedtogetherthroughahierarchicalcomputernetwork.3.4.2Input.Output(I/O)DevicesFigure3.7showsthetypicalI/OdevicesusedinaCADsystem.Inputdevicesaregenerallyusedtotransferinformationfromahumanorstoragemediumtoacomputerwhere”CADfunctions”arecarriedout.Akeyboardisthestandardinputdeviceusedtotransmitalphanumericdatatothesystem.Functionkeypadsarealsousedtomakeinputeasier.Joysticks,trackballs,andmoussearealsousedtomanipulateacursor.Theycanbeusedtopositionthegraphiccursor(e.g.crosshair)onamonitorandfeedbackthelocationofanobjectonthemonitortothecomputer.Usingthesedevicesallowsanoperatortoaddressterminallocationstointeractivelyinreachinganaccurateposition.Mouseshavebeenusedextensivelywithwindowsandpull-downmenus.Theyareeasytouseforpointing;However,usingamousetotraceacurveisnotaneasytask.Therearethreebasicapproachestoinputanexistingdrawing;(1)modeltheobjectonadrawing,(2)digitizethedrawing,or(3)scantheobject.Digitizingisusuallymucheasierthanmodeling.AdigitizerisadevicethattranslatestheX-Ylocationsonadrawingthanmodeling.AdigitizerisadevicethattranslatestheX-Ylocationsonadrawingintoadigitalandfeedsthatsignaltoacomputer.GraphicsscannersscanadrawingandconvertittoaCAD-system-readableformat.Somescannershavebuilt-incharacter-recognitionsoftwarethatcanconvertcharactersonpaperintoASCIIcodes.Anotherinputdeviceisasketchpadcalledagraphicstablet.Agraphicstabletisaspecialflatsurfaceonwhichauserdrawswithastylus.Thelocationofthestylusissenttothecomputer.Thetabletisanabsolutecoordinatedevice.Itiseasytoimplementoverlaymenusonthetabletandpulldownmenusonthescreentoimprovetheoperation.Currently.thetabletisthemostpopularinputdeviceusedinCADotherthanthekeyboard.ThestandardoutputdeviceforCADisamonitordisplay.Modernmonitordisplaysareraster-scandisplaymonitors.SimilartoaTVmonitor,anelectrongun(SonyTrinitronusesthreegunsforthreebasiccolors)sendsanelectronicbeamtothefrontofthemonitor.Easydisplaydotiscalledapixel(pictureelement).Forcolordisplays,eachpixelisrepresentedbythreecloselylocateddotswithred,green,andbluecolors.Theelectronicbeamselectsthecolorelementsandtheintensityofeachcolorelement.Theresolutionofthemonitorisdeterminedbythenumberofdifferentcolorsorgrayscalesdisplayableateachpixel,usuallymeasuredinbits,A1-bitdisplaycanturneachpixeleitherONorOFF.Agrayscalehasatleastv2bits.A1-bitdisplaycanturneachpixeleitherONorOFF.Agrayscalehasatleast2bitswhichallowthreelightintensitiesplusanOFF(2*2).Usually,displaysare4bits(16colors),8bits(256colors),16bits(thousandsofcolors),and24bits(millionsofcolors).Theelectronicbeamsweepsthescreenfromthetoptothebottomlinebyline.Becausethedotislitforonlyaveryshortperiodoftime,thesweepmustbedoneveryquicklyinordernottohaveaflickeringimage.Therefreshrateisameasureofhowmanytimesthemonitorisredrawninonesecond.攀枝花学院本科毕业设计(论文)外语文翻译3Thecomputerdoesnotdrawdirectlyonthemonitor.Connectingthecomputertothemonitorisu-suallyaRGB(red,green,blue)cable.Threeseparatesignallinesareconnected.Onthegraphicsboardinthecomputerarecircuitstogeneratetheanalogsignalsrequiredtodrivethemonitor.Thereisalsoaframebufferthatservesasmemorytostoretheimage.Eachpixelonthescreenhasacorrespondingaddressintheframebuffer.Thedataintheframebufferareconvertedintotheappropriateanalogsignalandsenttothemonitorattherefreshrate.Separately,thecomputerwritesdirectlytotheframebuffertheimageitintendstodraw.Thegreaterthedisplaysizeandnumberofcolors,themoreframebufferisneeded.Theframebufferonthegraphicsboardismadeofrandom-accessmemory(RAM).ThecalculatorlendsupporttoestopaintthesoftwareAutoCADtomakeuscanbewiththesketchthattheastonishingspeeddrawtheengineeringsketchormachinesketchandotherwithaccuracytosophisticate.Thecalculatorpaintstopaintthedifferentplace,oneofthemwithhandicraftthepaintingswithoutthediagramdivideastepproceedof,becauseofbutwouldsometimesappearthetraditionalhandicraftthepaintinghourtheproblemoftheimpossibleemergence.Generalcircumstancebottom,usagetheAutoCADproceedspainting,controltheprecisionpaintingandnotthatdifficult,butwantaccuratethenneedthecertaintechniqueoutthediagram.Us-uallypaintoroutsingdiagramtohavenotoneedtochangetomeasuretoAutoCADsystemworthmakethemodificationwithestablish,takeitstheprovinceworthcannormalwork,buthavethespecialrequest,mustmodifytherelatedsystemtochangemeasure;Toosometimestherequestofthediagrampaperwithmakethediagram'swayofdoingtheantinomy,andbetoadoptthetomakethediagrammethodtocan'tattaintherequestofthediagrampaper,willadoptsometechniqueiquestomodifytherelatedsystemtochangetomeasure,andcanmakethecalculatordrawtoattaintherequestofthediagrampaperwithoutput'ssketch.AutoCADlinetypeestablishingofcomparisonAtteachingofprocessinsidewouldusuallyrunintowhatthiskindofcircumstance,whileestablishingdiagramlayer,clearlyestablishedthepointlineationed,andconsequentlyoutputtohoweverinvestigateitsreasonforthesolidlined,andisusuallybecauseofthelinetypedtheestablishingofcomparisonisnotappropriateandcau-sable.Shouldyousoestablishthecomparisonofwhatkindoflinetype?Howtousethelinetypethecomparisoninthepainting?UsageAutoCADpainting,besidescontinuouslinetype(Continuous),theotherlinetypeisallfromthesolidlinesegment,blanksegment,pointseriesforortextthisconstituting.On-linetypedefinitiondocumenttheinsidehavealreadydefinedtheselinetypesthesegment'sstandardlength,andshowonheldtheactoratprintthemachine\paintingoutput,eachlengthandex-portationcomparisonwithlinetypecomparisondirectproportion.Whenshoworprint,thepaintingboundarythatcustomerthatrequest,thishourestablishisoutofaccordancewiththepaintingboundaryoftheprovincedifferencebig,onheldtheactshoworpaintoutput'slinetypewouldmatchtheengineeringgraphicstowillpassthechangeslinetypecomparisonthesystemthemethodthatchangethedeal,enlargeor
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