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中英文翻译建筑.doc中英文翻译建筑.doc

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编号:201311171034195453    类型:共享资源    大小:79.00KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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毕业设计(论文)外文资料翻译系部:机械工程系专业:机械工程及自动化姓名:学号:外文出处:TheOctober17,1989LomaPrietaEarthquake附件:1.外文资料翻译译文;2.外文原文。指导教师评语:签名:注:请将该封面与附件装订成册。CommercialStructuresTheLomaPrietaEarthquakeanditssubsequentaftershocksresultedinwidespreaddamagetoavarietyofcommercialstructures.Alargegeographicalareawasaffected,asistypicalforanearthquakeofthismagnitude.Theaffectedareaencompasseseightcounties,fromMontereyandSanBenitointhesouthtoSanFrancisco,Alameda,andContraCostainthenorth.Intotal,buildingstructuresexperienceddamageoveranareaofapproximately3,000squaremiles.Althoughdamagewaswidespread,itwasalsoquitesporadic.Aswouldbeexpected,areasclosesttotheepicenterincludingHollister,LosGatos,SantaCruz,andWatsonvilleexperiencedthemostconcentrateddamage.Fartheraway,heavydamagewasgenerallylimitedtobuildingsofverypoorconstructionfoundedonsoftsoilsthatfailedoramplifiedtheearthquakegroundmotions.Thisissimilartotheeffectsnotedinthe1985MexicoCityEarthquake.Earthquakeeffectsalsotendedtobehighlydirectional.Mostdamageoccurredwithinanarrowbandthatextendsnorthwesttosoutheast,approximatelyparallelingtheSanAndreasFault.ThusmanycommunitiesalongthemarginsofSanFranciscoBayescapedseriousdamage.UnreinforcedMasonryBuildingsAshasbeenobservedinpastCaliforniaearthquakes,themostconcentratedandseveredamagetobuildingstructuresoccurredinunreinforcedmasonry(URM)bearing-wallbuildings.URMbuildings,constructedofwood-frameroofandfloorsystemssupportedbythickunreinforcedbrickwalls,werecommonlyconstructedthroughoutCaliforniauntilthe1930s,whentheadoptionofbuildingcodeswithseismic-resistiveprovisionspreventedtheirfurtherdevelopment.Asaresult,URMbuildingsaretypicallyfoundinthecentralbusinessdistrictsofolderCaliforniacitiesFailuresofURMbuildingsresultfrominadequateanchorageofthemasonrywallstoroofandfloordiaphragms,aswellasthelimitedstrengthandductilityofthebasicbuildingmaterialsandpoorconstructionworkmanship.Deteriorationofthesand-limemortarandwoodframingduetoweatherexposurefrequentlycontributestopoorperformance.Californiahasrecentlyenactedlegislation(SB547)requiringcitiestoidentifyURMbuildingsanddevelopplanstoreducetherisktheypresent.DamagetoURMbuildingsintheLomaPrietaEarthquakerangedfromdramaticcollapsesneartheepicentertofallenparapetsinMartinez,morethan70milesaway.Life-threateningcollapsesalsooccurredinHollister,LosGatos,Oakland,andtheSanFranciscofinancialdistrict.Theroofsandfloorsinmanybuildingswithcollapsedwallsseeminglydefiedgravitybycontinuingtostandafterlosingtheirload-bearingsupport.Generally,buildingswiththrough-wallanchoragetofloorandroofframingperformedbetterthanbuildingswithoutthisfeature.MostURMbuildingsintheregionsurvivedtheearthquakewithoutcollapseorobvioussubstantialdamage.However,fieldinvestigationsshowthatmanyofthesestructureshaveexperiencedextensivecrackingofthemasonryandarethereforeweakened.Ifnotrepaired,someofthesebuildingsarelikelytocollapseinfutureearthquakes.URMbuildingswithmorethanthreeorfourstoriesweregenerallyconstructedwithsteelframestocarrythegravityloads.Masonrywallsinthesebuildingswereprimarilyprovidedforbuildingclosureandpartitionsandtoaddlateralshear-resistancetothestructure.Thesesteel-frameinfillmasonrybuildingshavegenerallyperformedbetterinpastCaliforniaearthquakesthanthesmallerbearing-wallbuildings.Nonetheless,thesebuildingswereincludedinCalifornialegislationaddressingtheunreinforcedmasonryhazard.IntheLomaPrietaEarthquake,manysteel-framebuildingswithinfillmasonrywallsperformedquitepoorly,althoughnocollapsesoccurred.SeveralmajorstructuresofthistypeinSanFranciscoandOaklandexperiencedextensivedamageincludingpartiallossoftheexteriormasonrywalls,shatteringofinteriorclaytilepartitions,andcrackingandspallingofterra-cottaveneers.ConcreteBuildingsManyolderreinforcedconcretestructureshaveverylimitedseismicresistance.Thesebuildingstendtobequiteheavy,resultinginlargeseismicforces.Inaddition,concreteitselfisquitebrittleandrequiresextensiveamountsofreinforcingsteeltoperformproperlyinearthquakes.Mostconcretestructuresdesignedpriortothemid-1970sdonothaveadequatereinforcingsteeltoensuregoodperformance.Termednon-ductileconcretestructuresbyengineers,thesestructureshavecollapsedinpastearthquakes.TheCypressViaductstructurethatdramaticallycollapsedwasanon-ductileconcretestructure.Fortunately,therearerelativelyfewnon-ductileconcretebuildingsintheregionandnobuildingsofthistypecollapsed.Manymid-riseconcretestructuresdidexperienceextensivedamage,however.Damagetypicallyconsistedoflargediagonalcrackingofshearwalls,occasionallyaccompaniedbyspallingoflargepiecesofconcretefromthebuildingAfifteen-storyconcreteshear-wallstructureindowntownOaklandwasextensivelydamaged.Thelightweightconcreteshearwallsatthefirststoryliterallyshattered,exposingthereinforcingsteeltoview.Thepresenceofaredundantsteelframewithinthebuildingmayhavepreventedthecollapseofthisstructure.Asix-storyconcreteshear-wallbuildinginSanFranciscoalsoexperiencedsubstantialdamage.Thisbuildinghadrecentlybeenseismicallystrengthenedwiththeadditionofsteelbracesonthebuildingperimeter.Duetopoordesignandconstructionworkmanship,theattachmentofthebracestothebuildingwasinadequateandmostoftheboltsfailed.Buildingdeflectionsfollowingfailureofthebracingcausedaninteriorcolumntopunchthroughafloorslab.Extensivedamagetoshearwallsabovedooropeningsalsooccurred.
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