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英文翻译原文一BORINGANDBORINGMACHINESASCARRIEDOUTONALATHE,BORINGPRODUCESCIRCULARINTERNALPROFILESINHOLLOWWORKPIECESORONAHOLEMADEBYDRILLINGORANOTHERPROCESS,BORINGISDONEWITHCUTTINGTOOLSTHATARESIMILARTOTHOSEUSEDINTURNINGBECAUSETHEBORINGBARHASTOREACHTHEFULLLENGTHOFTHEBORE,TOOLDEFLECTIONAND,THEREFORE,MAINTAINANCEOFDIMENSIONALACCURACYCANBEASIGNIFICANTPROBLEMTHEBORINGBARMUSTBESUFFICIENTLYSTIFFTHATIS,MADEOFAMATERIALWITHHIGHELASTICMODULUS,SUCHASTUNGSTENCARBIDE–TOMINIMIZEDEFLECTIONANDAVOIDVIBRATIONANDCHATTERBORINGBARSHAVEBEENDESIGNEDWITHCAPABILITIESFORDAMPINGVIBRATIONALTHOUGHBORINGOPERATIONSONRELATIVELYSMALLWORKPIECESCANBECARRIEDOUTONALATHE,BORINGMILLSAREUSEDFORLARGEWORKPIECESTHESEMACHINESAREEITHERVERTICALORHORIZONTAL,ANDARECAPABLEOFPERFORMINGOPERATIONSSUCHASTURNING,FACING,GROOVING,ANDCHAMFERINGAVERTICALBORINGMACHINEISSIMILARTOALATHEBUTHASAVERTICALAXISOFWORKPIECEROTATIONTHECUTTINGTOOLUSUALLYASINGLEPOINTMADEOFM2ANDM3HIGHSPEEDSTEELANDC7ANDC8CARBIDEISMOUNTEDONTHETOOLHEAD,WHICHISCAPABLEOFVERTICALMOVEMENTFORBORINGANDTURNINGANDRADIALMOVEMENTFORFACING,GUIDEDBYTHECROSSRAILTHEHEADCANBESWIVELEDTOPRODUCECONICALTAPEREDSURFACESINHORIZONTALBORINGMACHINE,THEWORKPIECEISMOUNTEDONATABLETHATCANMOVEHORIZONTALLYINBOTHTHEAXIALANDRADIALDIRECTIONSTHECUTTINGTOOLISMOUNTEDONASPINDLETHATROTATESINTHEHEADSTOCK,WHICHISCAPABLEOFBOTHVERTICALANDLONGITUDINALMOVEMENTSDRILLS,REAMER,TAPS,ANDMILLINGCUTTERSCANALSOBEMOUNTEDONTHEMACHINESPINDLEBORINGMACHINEAREAVAILABLEWITHAVARIETYOFFEATURESALTHOUGHWORKPIECEDIAMETERSAREGENERALLY1M4M3FT12FT,WORKPIECEASLARGEAS20M60FTCANBEMACHINEDINSOMEVERTICALBORINGMACHINESMACHINECAPACITIESRANGEUPTO150KW200HPTHESEMACHINESAREALSOAVAILABLEWITHCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLS,WHICHALLOWALLMOVEMENTSTOBEPROGRAMMEDWITHSUCHCONTROLS,LITTLEOPERARORINVOLVEMENTISREQUIREDANDCONSISTENCYANDPRODUCTIVITYAREIMPROVEDCUTTINGSPEEDSANDFEEDSFORBORINGARESIMILARTOTHOSEFORTURNINGFORCAPABILITIESOFBORINGOPERATIONSJIGBORERSAREVERTICALBORINGMACHINESWITHHIGH–PRECISIONBEARINGSALTHOUGHTHEYAREAVAILABLEINVARIOUSSIZESANDUSEDINTOOLROOMSFORMAKINGJIGSANDFIXTURES,THEYARENOWBEINGREPLACEDBYMOREVERSATILENUMERICALCONTROLMACHINESDESIGNCONSIDERATIONSFORBORINGGUIDELINESFOREFFICIENTANDECONOMICALBORINGOPERATIONSARESIMILARTOTHOSEFORTURNINGADDITIONALLY,THEFOLLOWINGFACTORSSHOULDBECONSIDEREDAWHENEVERPOSSIBLE,THROUGHHOLESRATHERTHANBLINDHOLESSHOULDBESPECIFIEDTHETERMBLINDHOLEREFERSTOAHOLETHATDOESNOTGOTHOUGHTHETHICKNESSOFTHEWORKPIECEBTHEGREATERTHELENGTH–TO–BOREDIAMETERRATIO,THEMOREDIFFICULTITISTOHOLDDIMENSIONSBECAUSEOFTHEDEFLECTIONSOFTHEBORINGBARDUETOCUTTINGFORCESCINTERRUPTEDINTERNALSURFACESSHOULDBEAVOIDED(2)FUNDAMENTALSOFMACHINETOOLSINMANYCASESPRODUCTSFORMTHEPRIMARYFORMINGPROCESSESMUSTUNDERGOFURTHERREFINEMENTSINSIZEANDSURFACEFINISHTOMEETTHEIRDESIGNSPECIFICATIONSTOMEETSUCHPRECISETOLERANCESTHEREMOVALOFSMALLAMOUNTSOFMATERIALISNEEDEDUSUALLYMACHINETOOLSAREUSEDFORSUCHOPERATIONINTHEUNITEDSTATESMATERIALREMOVALISABIGBUSINESSINEXCESSOFPERYEAR,INCLUDINGMATERIAL,LABOR,OVERHEAD,ANDMACHINETOOLSHIPMENTS,ISSPENTSINCE60PERCENTOFTHEMECHANICALANDINDUSTRIALENGINEERINGANDTECHNOLOGYGRADUATESHAVESOMETHINGCONNECTIONWITHTHEMACHININGINDUSTRYEITHERTHROUGHSALE,DESIGN,OROPERATIONOFMACHINESHOPS,ORWORKINGINRELATEDINDUSTRY,ITISWISEFORANENGINEERINGSTUDENTTODEVOTESOMETIMEINHISCURRICULUMTOSTUDYINGMATERIALREMOVALANDMACHINETOOLSAMACHINETOOLPROVIDESTHEMEANSFORCUTTINGTOOLSTOSHAPEAWORKPIECETOREQUIREDDIMENSIONS;THEMACHINESUPPORTSTHETOOLANDTHEWORKPIECEINACONTROLLEDRELATIONSHIPTHROUGHTHEFUNCTIONINGOFITSBASICMEMBERS,WHICHAREASFOLLOWABED,STRUCTUREORFRAMETHISISTHEMAINMEMBERWHICHPROVIDESABASISFOR,ANDACONNECTIONBETWEEN,THESPINDLESANDSLIDES;THEDISTORTIONANDVIBRATIONUNDERLOADMUSTBEKEPTTOAMINIMUMBSLIDESANDSIDEWAYSTHETRANSLATIONOFAMACHINEELEMENTEGTHESLIDEISNORMALLYACHIEVEDBYSTRAIGHTLINEMOTIONUNDERTHECONSTRAINTOFACCURATEGUIDINGSURFACESTHESLIDEWAYCSPINDLESANDBEARINGSANGULARDISPLACEMENTSTAKEPLACEABOUTANAXISOFROTATION;THEPOSITIONOFTHISAXISMUSTBECONSTANTWITHINEXTREMELYFINELIMITSINMACHINETOOLS,ANDISENSUREDBYTHEPROVISIONOFPRECISIONSPINDLESANDBEARINGSDPOWERUNITTHEELECTRICMOTORISTHEUNIVERSALLYADOPTEDPOWERUNITFORMACHINETOOLSBYSUITABLYPOSITIONINGINDIVIDUALMOTORS,BELTANDGEARTRANSMISSIONSAREREDUCEDTOAMINIMUMETRANSMISSIONLINKAGELINKAGEISTHEGENERALTERMUSEDTODENOTETHEMECHANICAL,HYDRAULIC,PNEUMATICORELECTRICMECHANISMSWHICHCONNECTANGULARANDLINEARDISPLACEMENTSINDEFINEDRELATIONSHIPTHEREARETWOBROADDIVISIONSOFMACHININGOPERATIONSAROUGHING,FORWHICHTHEMETALREMOVALRATE,ANDCONSEQUENTLYTHECUTTINGFORCE,ISHIGH,BUTTHEREQUIREDDIMENSIONALACCURACYRELATIVELYLOWBFINISHING,FORWHICHTHEMETALREMOVALRATE,ANDCONSEQUENTLYTHECUTTINGFORCE,ISLOW,BUTTHEREQUIREDDIMENSIONALACCURACYANDSURFACEFINISHRELATIVELYHIGHITFOLLOWSTHATSTATICLOADSANDDYNAMICLOADS,SUCHASRESULTFORMANUNBALANCEDGRINDINGWHEEL,AREMORESIGNIFICANTINFINISHINGOPERATIONSTHANINROUGHINGOPERATIONS,THEDEGREEOFPRECISIONACHIEVEDINANYMACHININGPROCESSWILLUSUALLYBEINFLUENCEDBYTHEMAGNITUDEOFTHEDEFLECTIONS,WHICHOCCURASARESULTOFTHEFORCEACTINGMACHINETOOLFRAMESAREGENERALLYMADEINCASTIRON,ALTHOUGHSOMEMAYBESTEELCASTINGORMILDSTEELFABRICATIONSCASTIRONISCHO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