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南通职业大学(论文)外文翻译外文翻译原文INJECTIONMOLDINGMANYDIFFERENTPROCESSESAREUSEDTOTRANSFORMPLASTICGRANULES,POWDERS,ANDLIQUIDSINTOPRODUCTTHEPLASTICMATERIALISINMOLDABLEFORM,ANDISADAPTABLETOVARIOUSFORMINGMETHODSINMOSTCASESTHERMOSETTINGMATERIALSREQUIREOTHERMETHODSOFFORMINGTHISISRECOGNIZEDBYTHEFACTTHATTHERMOPLASTICSAREUSUALLYHEATEDTOASOFTSTATEANDTHENRESHAPEDBEFORECOOLINGTHEROMOSETS,ONTHEOTHERHANDHAVENOTYETBEENPOLYMERIZEDBEFOREPROCESSING,ANDTHECHEMICALREACTIONTAKESPLACEDURINGTHEPROCESS,USUALLYTHROUGHHEAT,ACATALYST,ORPRESSUREITISIMPORTANTTOREMEMBERTHISCONCEPTWHILESTUDYINGTHEPLASTICSMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESANDPOLYMERSUSEDINJECTIONMOLDINGISBYFARTHEMOSTWIDELYUSEDPROCESSOFFORMINGTHERMOPLASTICMATERIALSITISALSOONEOFTHEOLDESTCURRENTLYINJECTIONMOLDINGACCOUNTSFOR30OFALLPLASTICSRESINCONSUMPTIONSINCERAWMATERIALCANBECONVERTEDBYASINGLEPROCEDURE,INJECTIONMOLDINGISSUITABLEFORMASSPRODUCTIONOFPLASTICSARTICLESANDAUTOMATEDONESTEPPRODUCTIONOFCOMPLEXGEOMETRIESINMOSTCASES,FINISHINGISNOTNECESSARYTYPICALPRODUCTSINCLUDETOYS,AUTOMOTIVEPARTS,HOUSEHOLDARTICLES,ANDCONSUMERELECTRONICSGOODSSINCEINJECTIONMOLDINGHASANUMBEROFINTERDEPENDENTVARIABLES,ITISAPROCESSOFCONSIDERABLECOMPLEXITYTHESUCCESSOFTHEINJECTIONMOLDINGOPERATIONISDEPENDENTNOTONLYINTHEPROPERSETUPOFTHEMACHINEHYDRAULICS,BARRELTEMPERATUREVARIATIONS,ANDCHANGESINMATERIALVISCOSITYINCREASINGSHOTTOSHOTREPEATABILITYOFMACHINEVARIABLESHELPSPRODUCEPARTSWITHTIGHTERTOLERANCE,LOWERSTHELEVELOFREJECTS,ANDINCREASESPRODUCTQUALITYIE,APPEARANCEANDSERVICEABILITYTHEPRINCIPALOBJECTIVEOFANYMOLDINGOPERATIONISTHEMANUFACTUREOFPRODUCTSTOASPECIFICQUALITYLEVEL,INTHESHORTESTTIME,ANDUSINGREPEATABLEANDFULLYAUTOMATIC南通职业大学(论文)外文翻译CYCLEMOLDERSSTRIVETOREDUCEORELIMINATEREJECTEDPARTSINMOLDINGPRODUCTIONFORINJECTIONMOLDINGOFHIGHPRECISIONOPTICALPARTS,ORPARTSWITHAHIGHADDEDVALUESUCHASAPPLIANCECASES,THEPAYOFFOFREDUCEDREJECTSISHIGHATYPICALINJECTIONMOLDINGCYCLEORSEQUENCECONSISTSOFFIVEPHASES;1INJECTIONORMOLDFILLING2PACKINGORCOMPRESSION3HOLDING4COOLING5PARTEJECTIONPLASTICGRANULESAREFEDINTOTHEHOPPERANDTHROUGHANINTHEINJECTIONCYLINDERWHERETHEYARECARRIEDFORWARDBYTHEROTATINGSCREWTHEROTATIONOFTHESCREWFORCESTHEGRANULESUNDERHIGHPRESSUREAGAINSTTHEHEATEDWALLSOFTHECYLINDERCAUSINGTHEMTOMELTASTHEPRESSUREBUILDINGUP,THEROTATINGSCREWISFORCEDBACKWARDUNTILENOUGHPLASTICHASACCUMULATEDTOMAKETHESHOTTHEINJECTIONRAMORSCREWFORCESMOLTENPLASTICFROMTHEBARREL,THROUGHTHENOZZLE,SPRUEANDRUNNERSYSTEM,ANDFINALLYINTOTHEMOLDCAVITIESDURINGINJECTION,THEMOLDCAVITYISFILLEDVOLUMETRICALLYWHENTHEPLASTICCONTACTSTHECOLDMOLDSURFACES,ITSOLIDIFIESFREEZESRAPIDLYTOPRODUCETHESKINLAYERSINCETHECOREREMAINSINTHEMOLTENSTATE,PLASTICFOLLOWSTHROUGHTHECORETOCOMPLETEMOLDFILLINGTYPICALLY,THECAVITYISFILLEDTO9598DURINGINJECTIONTHENTHEMOLDINGPROCESSISSWITCHEDOVERTOTHEPACKINGPHASEEVENASTHECAVITYISFILLED,THEMOLTENPLASTICBEGINSTOCOOLSINCETHECOOLINGPLASTICCONTRACTSORSHRINKS,ITGIVESRISETODEFECTSSUCHASSINKMARKS,VOIDS,ANDDIMENSIONALINSTABILITIESTOCOMPENSATEFORSHRINKAGE,ADDITIONPLASTICISFORCEDINTOTHECAVITYONCETHECAVITYISPACKED,PRESSUREAPPLIEDTOTHEMELTPREVENTSMOLTENPLASTICINSIDETHECAVITYFROMBACKFLOWINGOUTTHROUGHTHEGATETHEPRESSUREMUSTBEAPPLIEDUNTILTHEGATESOLIDIFIESTHEPROCESSCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOSTEPSPACKINGANDHOLDINGORMAYBEENCOMPASSEDINONESTEPHOLDINGORSECONDSTAGEDURINGPACKING,MELTFORCEDINTOTHECAVITYBYTHEPACKINGPRESSURECOMPENSATESFORSHRINKAGEWITHHOLDING,THEPRESSUREMERELYPREVENTSBACKFLOWOFTHEPOLYMERMALT南通职业大学(论文)外文翻译AFTERTHEHOLDINGSTAGEISCOMPLETED,THECOOLINGPHASESTARTSDURING,THEPARTISHELDINTHEMOLDFORSPECIFIEDPERIODTHEDURATIONOFTHECOOLINGPHASEDEPENDSPRIMARILYONTHEMATERIALPROPERTIESANDTHEPARTTHICKNESSTYPICALLY,THEPARTTEMPERATUREMUSTCOOLBELOWTHEMATERIAL’SEJECTIONTEMPERATUREWHILECOOLINGTHEPART,THEMACHINEPLASTICATESMELTFORTHENEXTCYCLETHEPOLYMERISSUBJECTEDTOSHEARINGACTIONASWELLASTHECONDITIONOFTHEENERGYFROMTHEHEATERBANDSONCETHESHORTISMADE,PLASTICATIONCEASESTHISSHOULDOCCURIMMEDIATELYBEFORETHEENDOFTHECOOLINGPHASETHENTHEMOLDOPENSANDTHEPARTISEJECTEDWHENPOLYMERSAREFABRICATEDINTOUSEFULARTICLESTHEYAREREFERREDTOASPLASTICS,RUBBERS,ANDFIBERSSOMEPOLYMERS,FOREXAMPLE,COTTONANDWOOL,OCCURNATURALLY,BUTTHEGREATMAJORITYOFCOMMERCIALPRODUCTSARESYNTHETICINORIGINALISTOFTHENAMESOFTHEBETTERKNOWNMATERIALSWOULDINCLUDEBAKELITE,DACRON,NYLON,CELANESE,ORLON,ANDSTYRONPREVIOUSTO1930THEUSEOFSYNTHETICPOLYMERSWASNOTWIDESPREADHOWEVER,THEYSHOULDNOTBECLASSIFIEDASNEWMATERIALSFORMANYOFTHEMWEREKNOWNINTHELATTERHALFOFTHENINETEENTHCENTURYTHEFAILURETODEVELOPTHEMDURINGTHISPERIODWASDUE,INPART,TOALACKOFUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEIRPROPERTIES,INPARTICULAR,THEPROBLEMOFTHESTRUCTUREOFPOLYMERSWASTHESUBJECTOFMUCHFRUITLESSCONTROVERSYTWOEVENTSOFTHETWENTIETHCENTURYCATAPULTEDPOLYMERSINTOAPOSITIONOFWORLDWIDEIMPORTANCETHEFIRSTOFTHESEWASTHESUCCESSFULCOMMERCIALPRODUCTIONOFTHEPLASTICNOWKNOWNASBAKELITEITSINDUSTRIALUSEFULNESSWASDEMONSTRATEDIN1912ANDINTHENEXTSUCCEEDINGYEARSTODAYBAKELITEISHIGHONTHELISTOFIMPORTANTSYNTHETICPRODUCTSBEFORE1912MATERIALSMADEFROMCELLULOSEWEREAVAILABLE,BUTTHEIRMANUFACTURENEVERPROVIDEDTHEINCENTIVEFORNEWWORKINTHEPOLYMERFIELDSUCHASOCCURREDAFTERTHEADVENTOFBAKELITETHESECONDEVENTWASCONCERNEDWITHFUNDAMENTALSTUDIESOFTHENATUREPOLYMERSBYSTAUDINGERINEUROPEANDBYCAROHERS,WHOWORKEDWITHTHEDUPONTCOMPANYINDELAWAREAGREATERPARTOFTHESTUDIESWEREMADEDURINGTHE1920’SSTAUDINGER’SWORKWASPRIMARILYFUNDAMENTALCAROTHER’SACHIEVEMENTSLEDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFOURPRESENTHUGEPLASTICSINDUSTRYBYCAUSINGANAWAKENINGOFINTERESTINPOLYMERCHEMISTRY,ANINTERESTWHICHISSTILLSTRONGLYAPPARENTTODAY南通职业大学(论文)外文翻译THENATUREOFTHERMODYNAMICSTHERMODYNAMICSISONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTAREASOFENGINEERINGSCIENCEUSEDTOEXPLAINHOWMOSTTHINGSWORK,WHYSOMETHINGSDONOTTHEWAYTHATTHEYWEREINTENDED,ANDWHYOTHERSTHINGSJUSTCANNOTPOSSIBLYWORKATALLITISAKEYPARTOFTHESCIENCEENGINEERSUSETODESIGNAUTOMOTIVEENGINES,HEATPUMPS,ROCKETMOTORS,POWERSTATIONS,GASTURBINES,AIRCONDITIONERS,SUPERCONDUCTINGTRANSMISSIONLINES,SOLARHEATINGSYSTEMS,ETCTHERMODYNAMICSCENTERSABOUTTHENOTIONSOFENERGY,THEIDEATHATENERGYISCONSERVEDISTHEFIRSTLOWOFTHERMODYNAMICSITISSTARTINGPOINTFORTHESCIENCEOFTHERMODYNAMICSISENTROPY;ENTROPYPROVIDESAMEANSFORDETERMININGIFAPROCESSISPOSSIBLETHISIDEAISTHEBASISFORTHESECONDLOWOFTHERMODYNAMICSITALSOPROVIDESTHEBASISFORANENGINEERINGANALYSISINWHICHONECALCULATESTHEMAXIMUMAMOUNTOFUSEFULTHATCANBEOBTAINEDFROMAGIVENENERGYSOURCE,ORTHEMINIMUMAMOUNTOFPOWERINPUTREQUIREDTODOACERTAINTASKACLEARUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEIDEASOFENTROPYISESSENTIALFORONEWHONEEDSTOUSETHERMODYNAMICSINENGINEERINGANALYSISSCIENTISTSAREINTERESTEDINUSINGTHERMODYNAMICSTOPREDICTANDRELATETHEPROPERTIESOFMATTER;ENGINEERSAREINTERESTEDINUSINGTHISDATA,TOGETHERWITHTHEBASICIDEASOFENERGYCONSERVATIONANDENTROPYPRODUCTION,TOANALYZETHEBEHAVIOROFCOMPLEXTECHNOLOGICALSYSTEMSTHEREISANEXAMPLEOFTHESORTOFSYSTEMOFINTERESTTOENGINEERS,ALARGECENTRALPOWERSTATIONSINTHISPARTICULARPLANTTHEENERGYSOURCEISPETROLEUMINONEOFSEVERALFORMS,ORSOMETIMESNATURALGAS,ANDTHEPLANTISTOCONVERTASMUCHOFTHISENERGYASPOSSIBLETOELECTRICENERGYANDTOSENDTHISENERGYDOWNTHETRANSMISSIONLINESIMPLYEXPRESSED,THEPLANTDOESTHISBYBOILINGWATERANDUSINGTHESTEAMTOTURNATURBINEWHICHTURNSANELECTRICGENERATORTHESIMPLESTSUCHPOWERPLANTSAREABLETOCONVERTONLYABOUT25PERCENTOFTHEFUELENERGYTOELECTRICENERGYBUTTHISPARTICULARPLANTCONVERTSAPPROXIMATELY40PERCENT;
编号:201311171048315547    类型:共享资源    大小:48.00KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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