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南昌航空大学科技学院(论文)1附录AFifthMotionandVibrationConference,MOVIC2000,Sydney,Australia,4.8.December2000©byUniversityofTechnology,SydneySPEEDADAPTEDTRAJECTORIESINTHECASEOFINSUFFICIENTYDRAULICRESSUREFORTHEFOURLEGGEDLARGESCALEWALKINGVEHICLEALDURODanielGermann,JÄorgMÄullerandManfredHillerGerhardMercatorUniversitÄat{GHDuisburgFachgebietMechatronik,Lotharstraße1,47057Duisburg,GermanyEmailfgermann,mueller,hillergmechatronik.uniduisburg.deABSTRACTWhenoperatingwalkingmachines,onlyacoordinatedmovementofallcylindersand/ormotorscanleadtosafe,stablewalking.ThelargehydraulicallydrivenwalkingmachineALDURO,whichisinvestigatedinthispaper,hasnoexternalpowersupply,andthereforethesizeoftheonboardhydraulicpowerpackanditsdieselengineislimitedbyitsweight.Whenmovingseveralcylinderswithhighspeed,thehydraulicsupplycanbecomeinsufficientandtheresultingtrajectoriesoffeetandplatformcanbecomeunpredictable.WhentheALDUROisnearitsstabilitylimitsuchbehaviourcanleadtoinstabilityandtopplingofthesystem.Theproposedsolutionunderdiscussionhereistoobservethepositionerrorsandtimederivativesforthecylindersandbasedonthisreducethespeedwhennecessary.1.INTRODUCTIONThesysteminvestigatedinthispaperistheAnthropomorphicallyLeggedandWheeledDuisburgRobotALDURO.Itconsistsofaplatformof2.0mby2.2mwithacabinfortheoperatorandfourlegs,each1.8mlong.Theestimatedweightis1200kg.ItcanbeusedasaquadrupedwalkingmachineFig.2,andbyreplacingthetwohindfeetwithwheels,itcanalsobeusedasacombinedleggedandwheeledvehicleFig.1.Thelattercombinestheadvantagesofawalkingmachinehighmobilitywiththestabilityandspeedofwheeledvehicles2.Whenoperatinginsteepanddangerousterrain,safetyplaysanimportantrole.Itmustbeguaranteedthatthecylindersfollowthecalculatedtrajectoriesexactlysinceawrongmovementmightcausetherobotto南昌航空大学科技学院(论文)2becomeinstable.ALDUROslegsarehydraulicallydriven,withanopenhydraulicsystem.Normally,whenplanninghydraulicsystems,lowweighthasnohighpriority1.ForthewalkingmachineALDUROtheratiopowerperweightwasoptimized.Fig.1CombinedLeggedFig.2WalkingMachineandWheeledVehicleWhileactuatingseveralcylinderssimultaneouslyormovingveryfast,thevolumeflowofthehydraulicsupplybecomesinsufficientandtheresultingmovementsuncontrollable.Theproposedsolutionunderdiscussionhereisadecreaseinspeedofallcalculatedtrajectories.Thisisadmissibleaslongastherobotisstaticallystableatanymoment.Byobservingthepositionerrorsofthecylindersandtheirtimederivatives,adecisionistakenonwhethertodecreaseorincreasethespeedalongthetrajectories.Toensurethatallmovementsareinfluencedsimultaneously,themodeltime,uponwhichallcalculationsdepend,issloweddown.Thuswecanguaranteethatlegsandplatformcananddofollowtheprescribedtrajectories.ThisstrategyisbeingtestedonavirtualmodeloftheALDUROandisbeingtestedonavirtualmodeloftheALDUROandateststandinthelaboratory,consistingofasingleleginscale11,givingverygoodresults.Fig.3Experimentalsetup2.EXPERIMENTALSETUP南昌航空大学科技学院(论文)3ThelegoftheALDUROisanthropomorphic,i.e.itisbasedonthegeometryandfunctionofthehumanleg.Thehipjointisasphericalballjointwiththreedegreesoffreedomd.o.f.andthekneearevolutejointwithoned.o.f.ThesejointsareactuatedwithhydrauliccylindersFig.4,whereasthetwoadditionald.o.f.ofthefootarepassive.Tomakesolutionoftheexplicitinversekinematicspossiblewelockoneofthehipcylinders.Theexplicitsolutionofthedirectandinversekinematicsisshownindetailin4.Toexaminethedynamicbehaviouroftheleg,andtotestdifferentcontrolschemes,anexperimentalsetupforafullysizedlegwasdevelopedandbuiltseeFig.3.ItincludesallthehydrauliccomponentsthatwillbeusedonthefirstprototypeALDUROandisdrivenbyastationaryhydraulicpowerpackinthelaboratory.Theexperimentalsetupisequippedwithanopenhydraulicsystemwitha15kWelectricalmotorandanaxialpistonpumpproducingavolumeflowof40l/minat200bar.Thisissmallerthanwhatwillbeusedontherealsystem,whichwillbepowerdbya27kWdieselengine.Fortestswithaninsufficienthydraulicflow,asecondsetoffourhydrauliccylindersasusedtomoveonelegismountedonthefloornexttotheteststand.Anopticalfieldbusforthetransferofthesensorandactuatordatabetweentheteststandandthecontrolcomputerwithrealtimeoperatingsystemisalsoinstalled.Thehydrauliccylindersincludepositionandpressuresensorsthatareusedascontrollerinputs.Thusdynamictestscanbecarriedouttoexaminethecooperationbetweenthemechanicalandhydrauliccomponentsandtheelectroniccontrolsystem.Thehipplateoftheexperimentalsetupismountedonapairoflinearbearings,andthusismobileinverticaldirection.Whencombinedwiththefoot,asshowninFig.3,orthepassivewheelusedonthehindlegofthecombinedleggedandwheeledsystem,thisallowsloadingtestsonthelegwhileperformingwalkingmotions.Mechanicalstopsbelowthehipplateallowthefoottobeliftedintheswingphaseofthewalkingmotion.Thefirstunloadedtestshaveshownthemobilityoftheanthropomorphiclegmechanismtobeverygood,andtheopticalfieldbussystemhasalsoproventobereliable.南昌航空大学科技学院(论文)43.SPEEDADAPTATION3.1InsufficientHydraulicFlowAsalreadymentioned,theweightandsizeoftheonboardpowerpackislimitedandhastobekeptlow.Whenmovingseveralcylinderssimultaneouslyorwithahighspeedthehydraulicsupplycanbecomeinsufficientandthepressurewillcollapse.Inthiscasetheresultingmovementdependsmainlyonthesizesoftheproportionalvalvesandexternalloadsonthecylinders.Thetrajectoriesofthefeetandplatformbecomeerratic.WhenALDUROisnearlimitofitsstabilitysuchbehaviorscanleadtoinstabilityandtopplingofthesystem.Asthesafetyissueisaveryimportantonepeoplecouldbeharmedthispressurecollapsehastobeprevented.Toinvestigatethisbehavior,acircularmovementradius0.2m,velocity0.5m/softhefootinthehorizontalplane1mbelowthehipwaschosenasareference.Thistrajectoryhastheadvantagethatitactuatesallthreeunlockedcylinders.Withatypicalverticalsteppingmovementofthefootthesidewayscylinderno.2inFig.4isnearlystationary.TheinversekinematicsforthemappingofthefootcoordinateintothecoordinatespaceforthethreecylindershasbeendevelopedintheCprogrammingenvironmentMaaaaBILE3.
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