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1ManufactureofOverhangingSharpCornerbyMeansof6AxisControlMachiningwiththeApplicationofUltrasonicVibrationsfelicianoH.JAPITANA,koichiMORISHIGE,shugoYASUDAandyoshimiTAKEUCHIThestudyproposesanewmachinemethodtocreatancreateanoverhangingsharpcorner.Sharpcornersonoverhangingsurfacesaredifficulttomachineinconventionalwayorevenin3to5aixsEDMespeciallyifthesurfaceshavedifferentangles.Thisisduetothelimitationofthefeeddirectionandthestructureoftheelectrodewhereinitmustbesymmetricalwiththetargetshape.Inpresentresearch,wetrytomachinethesharpcornerwithoverhangingsurfacesusingthenewmachiningmethod.The6axiscontrolmachiningisappliedtosetanonrotationaltoolatanarbitrarypositionwitharbitrarypositionwitharbitraryattitudeagainsttheworkpiece.Duringcutting,theultrasonicvibrationisappliedonthecuttingedgeofthetool,whilethetooltravelsalongthefeeddirection.Asthecuttingisperformed,the6axisX,Y,Z,A,Bmovesimultaneously,dependingonthetoolattitudeatacertaincuttingpoint.Formtheexperimentalresults,itisshownthatthe6axiscontrolultrasonicvibrationcuttingiscapableofproducingasharpoverhangingsurface.KeyWords6axisControlledCutting,CAD/CAMSystem,BoreByteTool,OverhangingSharpCorner,UltrasonicVibrationCuttingTool1.introductionTheflexibilityofproductsmaybeextendedgreatlyiftherestrictioninmanufacturingprocesscanbeminimizedoreliminated.IfrotationaltoolssuchasballendmillsorsquareendmillsareusedintheproductionofamouldwithanoverhangingsharpcornerOHSC,itseemsdifficulttoclearlyobtainthetargetshapewithsharpedgelines.Thisisduetotheresultofprocessingwiththerotationaltools,Whicharesymmetricalwiththerotation.Thearclikeradiusremainsareproducedonadjoiningsurfaces,asshowninFig.1Conventionally,mostofoverhangingorinclinedsurfacecanbemachinedbysettingtheworkpieceatacertainangleinthevise,swivellingtheuniversalvise,orbysettingthetoolheadtoacertainangleandfeedingthecuttingtoolhead,asshowninFig.2a.Inthisprocess,theoverhangingsurfacesandthesharpedgesatthebottomareproduced.However,ifthetargetisanOHSCconsistingoftwooverhangingsidesurfaces,andtheinclinationangleofsurfaceisnotuniform,theprocessingofthetargetshapeisdifficulttoachievesincethecuttingdirectionintheprocessisfixedandlimitedonlytolinearcutting.Thus,itneedsalotofjigsandfixturestoholdaworkpiece,toposition2correctlywithrespecttoamachinetoolandtosupportitduringmachining.Fig.16axiscontrolmachiningusingrotationaltool3Fig.2methodofproducingsharpcornerwithoverhangingsurfacesTheotherpossiblemethodtoproducesuchashapeismultiaxisElectricDischargeMachiningEDM,asshowninFig.2b.However,evenusingthismethod,itisdifficultorimpossibletoproduceanOHSCwithdifferentangle.Itneeds6degreesoffreedomtofullyexecutethemachiningoftherequiredshape.Inthepreviousresearches,ultrasonicvibrationUSVwasappliedinturningofductilematerialandmillingofglassfiberreinforcedplastic.ThecuttingforcewithUSVisconsiderablyreduced.However,intheformerprocess,theworkpieceisrotatedormovestotowardsthecuttingtool,andinthelatter,machiningislimitedonlyto2or3axiscontrolone.Intheotherfieldofresearch,multiaxiscontrolmachinetoolisusedtocompleteamachininginonesetup,whichleadstotheproductionofworkpiecewithhighaccuracyandqualityandtothereductioninmachiningtime.Inthisstudy,6axiscontrolcuttingusinganonrotationalcuttingtoolwiththeapplicationofultrasonicvibrationUSVisused,asshowninFig.2c.ItisappliedtoscrutinizethevalidityofthemethodinthefabricationofOHSC,TheCaxisrotatesthenonrotationaltoolsimultaneouslytogetherwithX,Y,Z,AorBaxisduringmachining.ThemovementoftheaxesisbasedonthetoolattitudeandthecuttingpointgeneratedbyadevelopedCAMsoftware.TheCAMprogramgeneratesacollisionfreetoolpathtoassurethesafetyoftheprocess.The6axiscontrolmachinetoolprovideseasilythemachiningcapabilityofOHSC,since6degreesoffreedommakethemachiningexecutefullytherequiredproductshape.Also,withtheapplicationofUSV,aborebytetoolisutilizded,consideringitssizeandstiffnessduringmachiningoperationsincethecuttingforceisgreatlyreduced.2.ExperimentalprocedureTheexperimentsteupisshowninFig.3,whereintheworkpieceismountedonthetableofthe6axiscontrolmachiningcenter.TheborebytetoolismountedintheUSVtoolusinganadaptor.TheUSVtoolisturn4mountedonthemainspindleofthe6axiscontrolmachiningcenter.MultiaxiscontrolmachinetoolandborebytetoolThe6axiscontrolmachiningcenterusedinthestudyisshowninFig.4.ThemachiningcenterprovidesmultiaxisCNCmachinetools.The6axiscontrolmachinetoolhas3rotationalaxesA,BandC.ItisconstructedbyaddingtherotationalfunctionConthemainspindleofa6axiscontrolmachiningcenterwhichhas2rotationalaxes,namelyA,whichisarotarytiltingtableandB,whichistherotaryindextable.TheminimumunitfortranslationmovementX,YandZis1m,andthatofrotationaloneA,BandCis0.36arcsecond.InthecaseofcuttingofOHSC,Aaxisisusedfordeterminationofsidesurfaceandtheinclinationangleofsharpcorner,Baxisforworkpiecerotation,Caxisfordeterminationofcuttingtooldirection,XandYaxisforthedeterminationoffeeddirectionoffeeddirectionwhilethedepthofcutisdeterminedbyZaxis.Fig6showsthenonrotationalcuttingtoolborebytetoolusedinthestudy.Itismadeoftungstencarbideusuallyusedherein6axiscontrolcutting.Thetotallengthanddiameterofthetoolare70mmand6mmrespectively.
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